CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP UPDATE: CLIMATE AND DEVELOPMENT ADDITIONAL PERSPECTIVE JULY 2013

July 31, 2013 at 3:40 pm | Posted in Africa, Books, CFG, Development, Earth, Ecology, Economics, Financial, Globalization, Science & Technology, Third World, World-system | Leave a comment

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A Remark on Climate Change and Third World Development

Let’s suppose that scientific evidence clearly shows at some point that carbon emissions into the atmosphere have to be severely curtailed. The developed economies are now “locked into” into various physical, infrastructural and economic patterns, which are “CO2 emission intensive”, centralized power grids, automobileization, chemical and energy intensive agriculture, fossil fuel generation of electricity. For example, the gains in CO2 emission reduction that could be realized from the use of biofuels is limited by the fact that the production of the crops to be used for biomass energy is itself energy intensive and thus creates greenhouse gas emissions. In the underdeveloped countries, on the other hand, there are large sectors of agriculture, both subsistence and commercial, which have not, as yet, modernized. The use of crops from such sectors affords a much greater reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. For example, according to the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies at Princeton University, the percentage of total electricity generated by utility companies that could have been produced from sugar cane alone using advanced gas turbines is 14.9% in Asia, 19.2% in Africa, 45.1% in Latin America and 200% in Oceania.

To take another example, the lack of centralized power grids in many areas of the Third World has the potential of rendering profitable many forms of energy that would not be as profitable in a developed economy, photo-voltaics, wind, geothermal and others. According to J. C. Hourcade (1981, see footnote below), in many parts of the developing world, the new forms of renewable energy, specifically biogas, photovoltaics, solar, ponds, and geothermy, would already be competitive, for such uses as:

– cooking, especially in rural areas;

– agricultural irrigation;

– hot water heating in temperate and cold regions;

– pumping water;

– agricultural machinery and commercial vehicles.

He maintains that, “on the whole modern sources of renewable energy have a market potential covering 40% of final demand” and, therefore, “new renewable energy energies no longer appear as the energy of the distant future, but as the more appropriate to solve the present crisis in rural areas.”

In fact, from the point of view of climate change, the less developed a country is, the more advantages it has in terms of environmentally sustainable development. For example, given the exigencies of climate change, and the law of comparative advantage, Central America and Africa should specialize in energy-intensive heavy industry. This is because Central America has geothermal power and Africa has local hydropower (see Samir Amin, Accumulation on a World Scale, 1974).

Footnote:

Jean-Charles HOURCADE:

 Hourcade, J.C., 1981, Prospect of Third World countries energy demand: a comparative analysis of CIRED’s and IIASA’s results, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.

 HOURCADE, (J.C.), 1981, “Energy development styles and capital requirements in Third World countries”, Development, Journal of the Society for International Development, n° 2.

CFG Comment on this footnote:

World Climate Bank

A “world climate bank” would allow industrialized countries to purchase emission rights from less-developed nations. The revenues would enable poor countries to finance environmentally friendly economic development.

Industrialized countries could buy “emission rights” from less-developed countries if they want to continue emitting higher levels of CO2.

A “world climate bank” would allow industrialized nations to buy emissions quotas from countries with lower levels of CO2 output. Estimates show that the global trade in emissions quotas could generate annual revenues of between €30 billion and €90 billion ($45 billion and $129 billion). That money could then be used to help the world’s poorest countries to finance environmentally friendly economic development.

Methane hydrate

METHANE HYDRATE

Methane traps heat up to 20 times more effectively than carbon dioxide, though it remains in the atmosphere for a shorter time.  Scientists warn a leak of methane could be catastrophic to the environment.

Methane hydrate is already a threat, regardless of whether energy companies begin drilling for it. A paper published earlier this month in the journal Nature said a release of a 50-gigatonne reservoir of methane under the East Siberian Sea could accelerate climate change and cost the global economy up to $60 trillion. And that could happen solely due to warming temperatures in the Arctic.

Fracking

Hydraulic fracturing is the fracturing of rock by a pressurized liquid. Some hydraulic fractures form naturally—certain veins or dikes are examples. Induced hydraulic fracturing or hydrofracturing, commonly known as fracking, is a technique in which typically water is mixed with sand and chemicals, and the mixture is injected at high pressure into a wellbore to create small fractures (typically less than 1mm), along which fluids such as gas, petroleum and brine water may migrate to the well.

Some analysts have portrayed fracking as a technology (a la “cold fusion”) that can generate environmentally sustainable growth in the developed countries independent of Third World growth.

We disagree for three reasons.

Fracking can contaminate drinking water with toxic chemicals. (2) The methane released by fracking, has a far more potent greenhouse effect than CO2. (3) Even if fracking makes the West energy independent, Western growth ultimately needs markets in the developing countries.

Comment:

Fracking thus represents a “misplaced autarky” dream. The world economy is a certain kind of  “traffic jam” which needs a new global growth pathway to exit the gridlock. This means global systemic change. Obama in 2009 made his Cairo Speech, attended the G20 Pittsburgh Economic Conference and the Copenhagen  Climate Conference in December. He was groping towards such inclusive global systemic change in these three places but failed to deliver.

More Background:

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CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

CFG LAWRENCE FEINER YOUTUBE INTERVIEW

LOW-CARBON ECONOMIC GROWTH

GLOBALIZATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT

CARBON CAPTURE REPORT

CLIMATE CHANGE

OLD GLOBAL LOCOMOTIVE VERSUS NEW: CURRENT TRAFFIC JAM

INDIA AFRICA BUSINESS

Joint Statement on the Japan and India LNG joint study on pricing in the Asia Pacific Market in Tokyo

Global crude oil price of Indian Basket increases to US$ 111.59/bbl on 03.09.2013

National Conference on Environment Friendly Insulating Liquids- EFIL 2013, November 28- 29, 2013 || New Delhi. INDIA

TAR SANDS OIL SPILLS

Effects of Diluted Bitumen on Crude Oil Transmission Pipelines

BIOFUEL POLICY AND PALM OIL 2013

GAS TO POWER FORUM

NEWEST DIESEL ENGINES CLIMATE

CO-GENERATION STRATEGIES AND GHG

CHINA ENERGY ANALYSES

CLIMATE AND ENERGY ECONOMICS

CHINA ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT

GLOBAL BIOLOGY

FRACKING SHALE GAS U.K.

CLIMATE RISK ANALYSIS

CLIMATE MITIGATION POLICIES

CLIMATE AND DEVELOPMENT KNOWLEDGE

CLIMATE CHANGE GLOBAL WARMING

CLIMATE FINANCE

CLIMATE ECONOMICS

CARBON BALANCE AND MANAGEMENT

CARBON MECHANISMS

CARBON-DIOXIDE EMISSIONS: U.S. ENERGY-RELATED

CLIMATE AND SHIPPING

CLIMATE MODELS

ISLAMIC FINANCE AND LOW-CARBON DEVELOPMENT:

ISLAMIC FINANCE FOR AFRICA

Islamic finance nears its big breakthrough in Africa

Islamic banking has grown rapidly around the world but the industry remains in its infancy in Africa; however that might be set to change, presenting the African banking market with a huge opportunity for growth, according to Wasim Saifi, Global Head of Islamic Banking, Consumer Banking, Standard Chartered Saadiq.

Dubai to launch global Islamic economy summit

The Dubai Chamber of Commerce and Industry will launch the first Global Islamic Economy Summit in Dubai in November. The conference is aimed at bringing together leading thinkers and policy makers from around the world.

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WORLD ISLAMIC BANKING CONFERENCE

ISLAMIC FINANCE “SUKUK”

FINANCIAL TIMES OCT 16: AFRICA SUKUK FINANCE

ISLAMIC BANKING CONFERENCE

ISLAMIC TAKAFUL: GLOBAL GROWTH POTENTIAL

CFG COMMENT: Islamic Finance is roughly speaking a kind of Muslim venture capital for Third World development based on profit-sharing. Low-carbon development is integrable.

Muhammad bin Ibrahim: Role of the Islamic financial system in supporting green technology

by lawrence feiner, richard melson

CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP

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GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

May 19, 2012 at 3:19 pm | Posted in Globalization, History, Research, Science & Technology | Leave a comment

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Global Biogeochemical Cycles – Alert 19 May 2012‏

AGU E-Alert (alerts@agu.org)

Sat 5/19/12

Global Biogeochemical Cycles

New articles published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles
are available online.  http://www.agu.org/journals/gb/published.shtml

PAPERS IN PRESS: access accepted manuscripts within days of acceptance.
Visit http://www.agu.org/pubs/journals/pip.shtml (subscription required)

Top downloads: http://www.agu.org/topdownloads/topdownloads.shtml

Journal subscriptions: http://www.agu.org/membership/subscriptions.shtml
 
Global Biogeochemical Cycles – Published Past 7 Days

Lenton, Andrew; Metzl, Nicolas; Takahashi, Taro; Kuchinke, Mareva; Matear, Richard J.; Roy, Tilla; Sutherland, Stewart C.; Sweeney, Colm; Tilbrook, Bronte
The observed evolution of oceanic pCO[2] and its drivers over the last two decades
Global Biogeochem. Cycles, Vol. 26, No. 2, GB2021
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011GB004095
19 May 2012

Shelley, R. U.; Sedwick, P. N.; Bibby, T. S.; Cabedo-Sanz, P.; Church, T. M.; Johnson, R. J.; Macey, A. I.; Marsay, C. M.; Sholkovitz, E. R.; Ussher, S. J.; Worsfold, P. J.; Lohan, M. C.
Controls on dissolved cobalt in surface waters of the Sargasso Sea: Comparisons with iron and aluminum
Global Biogeochem. Cycles, Vol. 26, No. 2, GB2020
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011GB004155
19 May 2012

Cusack, Daniela F.; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Hockaday, William C.; Vitousek, Peter M.
Mineralogical controls on soil black carbon preservation
Global Biogeochem. Cycles, Vol. 26, No. 2, GB2019
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011GB004109
19 May 2012

Dutta, Koushik; Bhushan, Ravi
Radiocarbon in the Northern Indian Ocean two decades after GEOSECS
Global Biogeochem. Cycles, Vol. 26, No. 2, GB2018
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010GB004027
18 May 2012

Luna, G. M.; Bianchelli, S.; Decembrini, F.; De Domenico, E.; Danovaro, R.; Dell’Anno, A.
The dark portion of the Mediterranean Sea is a bioreactor of organic matter cycling
Global Biogeochem. Cycles, Vol. 26, No. 2, GB2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011GB004168
17 May 2012

Teodoru, Cristian R.; Bastien, Julie; Bonneville, Marie-Claude; del Giorgio, Paul A.; Demarty, Maud; Garneau, Michelle; Hélie, Jean-Francois; Pelletier, Luc; Prairie, Yves T.; Roulet, Nigel T.; Strachan, Ian B.; Tremblay, Alain
The net carbon footprint of a newly created boreal hydroelectric reservoir
Global Biogeochem. Cycles, Vol. 26, No. 2, GB2016
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011GB004187
17 May 2012

Global Biogeochemical Cycles – Alert 19 May 2012‏

AGU E-Alert (alerts@agu.org)

Sat 5/19/12
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CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: ORIENTING YOURSELF VIA THE BOOK “THE REAGAN REVOLUTION AND THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES”

March 29, 2012 at 3:03 pm | Posted in Books, CFG, Development, Economics, Financial, Globalization, History, Palestine, Research, Science & Technology, Third World, USA, World-system | Leave a comment

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the reagan revolution and the developing countries (1980-1990) a seminal decade for predicting the world economic future

Blog readers want to know:

1.         what’s really happening?

2.         where am I in all this?

 Read:

The Reagan Revolution and the Developing Countries

Cambridge Forecast Group Book

This is a book about the Reagan revolution and the developing countries.  It shows why the years (1980-1990) were critical in determining the global economic future. The first chapter is how to think about the future. The second chapter is about growth economic and human capital. The third chapter is about development economic the forth chapter is about the world economy from Charlemagne to the present. The fifth chapter is about the Reagan revolution.

Our book is unique because no other book in our opinion has accurately described just how important the developing world was in Reagan administration policy in our 1979 Japanese book ”world economy/big prediction” the book upon which this book was based, we predicted that in the early 21th century the developing countries would be growing rapidly even as the developed countries stagnated.

About the Authors:

Lawrence Feiner is currently retired. he has a B.S. in math from The Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Phd in math from M.I.T.. He has previously co-authored numerous Japanese books that were favorably reviewed. He was a principal of the Cambridge Forecast Group specializing in economic forecasting.

Richard Melson is currently retired after working for an investment advisory firm. He got a masters degree in Asian regional economics from Harvard. He has previously co-authored numerous Japanese books that were favorably reviewed. He was a principal of the Cambridge Forecast Group specializing in economic forecasting.

Again:

This is a book about the Reagan revolution and the developing countries. It shows why the years (1980-1990) were critical in determining the global economic future. The first chapter is how to think about the future. The second chapter is about growth economic and human capital. The third chapter is about development economic the fourth chapter is about the world economy from Charlemagne to the present. The fifth chapter is about the Reagan revolution.

Our book is unique because no other book in our opinion has accurately described just how important the developing world was in Reagan administration policy in our 1979 Japanese book ”world economy/big prediction” the book upon which this book was based, we predicted that in the early 21th century the developing countries would be growing rapidly even as the developed countries stagnated.

Click on:

“THE REAGAN REVOLUTION AND THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES”: NEW CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP BOOK

November 29, 2011 at 7:24 pm | Posted in BooksDevelopmentEconomicsFinancialGlobalizationHistoryResearchThird WorldUSAWorld-system 

https://cambridgeforecast.wordpress.com/2011/11/

CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: “WORLD ECONOMY BIG PREDICTION” BOOK

Click On:

https://cambridgeforecast.wordpress.com/2008/02/07/cambridge-forecast-group-book-world-economy/

Cambridge Forecast Group: “World Economy Big Prediction” Book

February 7, 2008 at 4:24 am | Posted in BooksFinancialGlobalizationHistoryResearchScience & Technology,Third World

https://cambridgeforecast.wordpress.com/2008/02/07/cambridge-forecast-group-book-world-economy/

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“HOW ECONOMICS SHAPES SCIENCE”: PAULA STEPHAN BOOK

October 29, 2011 at 9:11 pm | Posted in Books, Economics, Financial, History, Philosophy, Research, Science & Technology | Leave a comment

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How Economics Shapes Science 

Paula Stephan (Author)

Review

This is a marvelous book—lucid, cogent, and lively, full of fascinating anecdotes and news about what university science costs, who pays for it, and who benefits. Paula Stephan saw science as an economic enterprise long before other economists did, and she’s written what will be the definitive book for years to come.
–Richard Freeman, Herbert Ascherman Chair in Economics, Harvard University

Paula Stephan is the undisputed authority on the economics of science and her book is a delight. Laced with dozens of revealing anecdotes about everything from transgenic mice to the competition for high h-indexes and the Nobel Prize, How Economics Shapes Science reveals the economic logic behind the workings of modern science and makes a compelling case for using incentives to rationalize our use of scarce resources.
–Charles Clotfelter, Z. Smith Reynolds Professor of Public Policy and Professor of Economics and Law, Duke University

How do economic considerations shape what scientists do? How do scientific developments affect economic progress? In a world facing challenges like global warming and threats of economic stagnation, these are critical questions. Paula Stephan’s treatment is masterful—and readable outside the ranks of economists, too.
–Richard R. Nelson, George Blumenthal Professor Emeritus of International and Public Affairs, Business, and Law, Columbia University

Scientific research and professional training are now inextricably linked. At the same time the perceived costs and benefits of science have skyrocketed, with governments and universities setting economic incentives in the race for productivity and prestige. Stephan’s groundbreaking economic analysis shows the complex results of these policies.
–Mara Prentiss, Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics, Harvard University

This fascinating book makes senior scientists like me keenly aware of the travails that await our students and post-docs as they pursue the many years of scientific training that lead to a very uncertain career. As Paula Stephan shows, from the point of view of income and stability, our students might be better off getting MBAs. All senior scientists should read this book. It gives a sobering dose of reality to our love of science.
–Kathleen Giacomini, Professor of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco

Paula Stephan is one of the world’s leading scholars of the economics of science. Her comprehensive analysis—as readable as it is timely—is a must read for anyone worrying about the future of science policy or the economics of universities.
–Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Irving M. Ives Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations and Economics, Cornell University

We in Europe often invoke the US science system as the frontier for us, but most of us don’t know in detail how it actually operates. With its wealth of facts and stories, and its rich multidisciplinary perspective, Paula Stephan’s book can teach us. It will help scientists understand their environment and help policy makers see what levers they have (or do not have) to direct science. No one other than Paula Stephan could write with such insight and depth.
–Reinhilde Veugelers, Professor of Managerial Economics, Strategy and Innovation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

About the Author

Paula Stephan is Professor of Economics at Georgia State University and Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. She has served on the Board on Higher Education and Workforce at the NRC, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences Council, and the Social, Behavioral, and Economics Advisory Committee at the NSF.

Product Details:

  • Hardcover: 384 pages
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • January 9, 2012
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0674049713
  • ISBN-13: 978-0674049710

Book Description

Publication Date: January 9, 2012

The beauty of science may be pure and eternal, but the practice of science costs money. And scientists, being human, respond to incentives and costs, in money and glory. Choosing a research topic, deciding what papers to write and where to publish them, sticking with a familiar area or going into something new—the payoff may be tenure or a job at a highly ranked university or a prestigious award or a bump in salary. The risk may be not getting any of that.

At a time when science is seen as an engine of economic growth, Paula Stephan brings a keen understanding of the ongoing cost-benefit calculations made by individuals and institutions as they compete for resources and reputation. She shows how universities offload risks by increasing the percentage of non-tenure-track faculty, requiring tenured faculty to pay salaries from outside grants, and staffing labs with foreign workers on temporary visas. With funding tight, investigators pursue safe projects rather than less fundable ones with uncertain but potentially path-breaking outcomes. Career prospects in science are increasingly dismal for the young because of ever-lengthening apprenticeships, scarcity of permanent academic positions, and the difficulty of getting funded.

Vivid, thorough, and bold, How Economics Shapes Science highlights the growing gap between the haves and have-nots—especially the vast imbalance between the biomedical sciences and physics/engineering—and offers a persuasive vision of a more productive, more creative research system that would lead and benefit the world.

 How Economics Shapes Science

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“THE REFRIGERATOR AND THE UNIVERSE”: GOLDSTEIN BOOK

October 21, 2011 at 11:13 pm | Posted in Books, Philosophy, Science & Technology | Leave a comment

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The Refrigerator and the Universe:

Understanding the Laws of Energy

Martin Goldstein (Author)

Inge F. Goldstein (Author)

Readers at all levels, from high school to professional scientists, will find something intriguing in this book…It provides a very readable and informative account of a difficult topic. (Science Books and Films )

The strengths of [this book] are its scope and coverage and much excellent writing…It contains a rich mix of interesting ideas covering important historical events and applications of the laws of energy and entropy. (Harvey S. Leff American Journal of Physics )

The writing is clear, uncluttered, insightful, and makes use of many excellent analogies to explain and clarify difficult but important concepts. (Choice )

Product Description

C. P. Snow once remarked that not knowing the second law of thermodynamics is like never having read Shakespeare. Yet, while many people grasp the first law of energy, “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed,” few recognize the second, “Entropy can only increase.” What is entropy anyway, and why must it increase? Whether we want to know how a device as simple as a refrigerator works or understand the fate of the universe, we must start with the concepts of energy and entropy. In The Refrigerator and the Universe, Martin and Inge Goldstein explain the laws of thermodynamics for science buffs and neophytes alike. They begin with a lively presentation of the historical development of thermodynamics. The authors then show how the laws follow from the atomic theory of matter and give examples of their applicability to such diverse phenomena as the radiation of light from hot bodies, the formation of diamonds from graphite, how the blood carries oxygen, and the history of the earth. The laws of energy, the Goldsteins conclude, have something to say about everything, even if they do not tell us everything about anything.

In The Refrigerator and the Universe, Martin and Inge Goldstein explain the laws of thermodynamics for science buffs and neophytes alike. They begin with a lively presentation of the historical development of thermodynamics. The authors then show how the laws follow from the atomic theory of matter and give examples of their applicability to such diverse phenomena as the radiation of light from hot bodies, the formation of diamonds from graphite, how the blood carries oxygen, and the history of the earth. The laws of energy, the Goldsteins conclude, have something to say about everything, even if they do not tell us everything about anything.

Product Details:

  • Hardcover: 433 pages
  • Publisher: Harvard University Press
  • First Edition September 1993
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0674753240
  • ISBN-13: 978-0674753242

The book presents the three laws of thermodynamics: the first law (conservation of energy)in chapters 1-4, the second law (dispersal of energy) in chapters 5-9, and the third law (low temperature behavior) in chapter 14. Other chapters apply thermodynamics to light, chemistry, biology, geology, and cosmology. The authors present thermodynamics using both classical and statistical mechanical arguments. References are listed for further study of topics.

Although the book is intended for a general audience, the book will be interesting even to a reader who already has some familiarity with thermodynamics because the book probably treats at least a few applications with which he is unfamiliar. The book also makes a number of refreshing admissions about the limits of thermodynamics; for example, thermodynamics can’t be strictly applied to living organisms (p. 297), and in general relativity, energy need not be conserved (p. 370).

The book requires a knowledge of simple algebra and logarithms; however, a tutorial on these subjects is presented in an appendix.

The Refrigerator and the Universe:

Understanding the Laws of Energy

Martin Goldstein (Author)

Inge F. Goldstein (Author)

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DEVELOPMENT ISSUES: GLOBAL

June 22, 2011 at 2:23 pm | Posted in Development, Economics, Financial, Globalization, History, Research, Science & Technology | Leave a comment

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SOCIAL INVESTMENTS DESERVE PRIORITY IN ECONOMIC

RECOVERY SCHEMES – UN REPORT

UNNews (UNNews@un.org)

New York, Jun 22 2011

A new United Nations reporthttp://social.un.org/index/ReportontheWorldSocialSituation/2011.aspx“finds that many governments did not pay enough attention to the social implications of the recent global financial crisis and urges that social investments be given priority in recovery programmes.

http://social.un.org/index/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=v0LQqd2FT3k%3d&tabid=1561 “The Report on the World Social Situation 2011: The Global Social Crisis, published today by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), explores the ongoing adverse social consequences of the 2008-2009 financial and economic crisis – the worst since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

One consequence of the crisis is that unemployment rose sharply to 205 million people in 2009 from 178 million in 2007. The loss of jobs means not only a loss of incomes but also an increase in vulnerability, especially in developing countries without comprehensive social protection, notes the report.

It adds that various estimates suggest that between 47 million and 84 million more people fell into, or were trapped in, extreme poverty because of the global crisis, which occurred immediately after food and fuel prices had risen sharply. As a result, the number of people living in hunger in the world rose to over a billion in 2009, the highest on record.

The report states that the global economic downturn has had wide-ranging negative social outcomes for individuals, families, communities and societies, and its impact on social progress in areas such as education and health will only become fully evident over time.

“However, initial estimates show that the effects have been sharp, widespread and deep. Given the fragility of the economic recovery and uneven progress in major economies, social conditions are only expected to recover slowly.

“The increased levels of poverty, hunger and unemployment due to the global crisis will continue to affect billions of people in many developed and developing countries for years to come,” the report says.

It is essential, it adds, that governments take into account the likely social implications of their economic policies. Further, economic policies considered in isolation from their social outcomes can have dire consequences for poverty, employment, nutrition, health and education, which, in turn, adversely affect long-term sustainable development.

“There is renewed realization that social policy considerations, especially productive employment, must be given greater importance within economic policy,” said Jomo Kwame Sundaram, Assistant Secretary-General for Economic Development. “The disconnect between economic policies and their social consequences can create a vicious cycle of slow growth and poor social progress.”

The economic crisis is a reminder, he said, that it is essential for people to be healthy, educated, adequately housed and well fed to be more productive and better able to contribute to society.
Jun 22 2011

UN News Centre at http://www.un.org/news

UN OFFICIAL CAUTIONS AGAINST REDUCING ASSISTANCE TO SMALLHOLDER FARMERS

New York, Jun 21 2011

The head of the United Nations agency tasked with combatting rural poverty today cautioned developed countries against cutting assistance to smallholder farmers in poorer nations, saying most food producers across the world were small-scale growers.

“When people cannot afford to eat because they cannot make a decent living, they become desperate, which led to riots during the 2008 food crisis,” “http://www.ifad.org/media/press/2011/39.htm” said Kanayo Nwanze, the President of the UN International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD), speaking ahead of the two-day Group of 20 (G20) agriculture ministers’ meeting, which opens in Paris tomorrow.

“The current food price increase has pushed an estimated 44 million people into poverty, creating once again a volatile mix. During the last price increase, when smallholders were assisted in accessing markets for finance, seeds and fertilizers, they were able to benefit from higher prices and both poor producers and consumers were better off,” added Mr. Nwanze, who will address the meeting.

France holds the presidency of the G20, which is made up of the world’s largest economies.

The G20 agriculture ministers are tasked with developing an action plan to address price volatility in food and agricultural markets and its impact on the poor. Studies have shown that the gross domestic product (GDP) growth generated by agriculture is more than twice as effective in reducing poverty as expansion in other sectors.

Mr. Nwanze is expected to tell the ministers that the G20 has a comparative advantage in promoting the sharing of experiences of countries that have made significant progress in boosting agricultural production, and which have created an enabling environment for investment in agriculture, including Brazil and China.

In addition, the G20 can strengthen policy coherence and coordination, which is essential in dealing with sensitive issues in trade, biofuels and responsible investment in agriculture, he said.

“I take this message to the ministers on behalf of the smallholder farmers around the world: the development of rural areas is central to overcoming hunger and poverty, mitigating climate change, achieving energy security and protecting the environment, and it is the smallholder farmer that holds the key. But we must seriously start investing in their potential to support them to deliver.”
Jun 21 2011

UN News Centre at http://www.un.org/news

UN OFFICIAL STRESSES NEED FOR UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO ENERGY TO BOOST DEVELOPMENT

New York, Jun 21 2011

The lack of access to affordable and reliable energy is a major hindrance to human, social, and economic development, a senior United Nations official told delegates attending an “http://www.unis.unvienna.org/unis/pressrels/2011/unisous089.html” international forum that got under way in Austria today to discuss ways of ensuring universal access to energy.

“Without access to modern forms of energy it is highly unlikely that any of the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals will be achieved,” said Kandeh K. Yumkella, the Director General of the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).

Participants in the three-day Vienna Energy Forum – organized by UNIDO, the Austrian Government and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) – highlighted the wide inequality in energy access between rich and poor societies, pointing out that the poorer three quarters of the world’s population use only 10 per cent of global energy.

An estimated 1.5 billion people still do not have access to electricity, and around 3 billion people rely on traditional biomass and coal as their primary source of energy.

Demand for energy in developing countries is expected to grow dramatically, and the increases in population and improvements in living standards are adding to the scale of the challenges, according to delegates at the forum.

Mr. Yumkella noted that China, Peru and Viet Nam have significantly improved their citizens’ access to energy in recent decades, but across sub-Saharan Africa, and in parts of Asia, people still live without basic energy services.

Last year, the UN Secretary-General’s Advisory Group on Energy and Climate Change (AGECC), which is chaired by Mr. Yumkella, called for the adoption of a target to achieve universal access to modern energy services, and for a 40 per cent reduction in energy intensity by 2030.

The forum coincides with the pre-launch of the Global Energy Assessment (GEA), the most comprehensive analysis of the global energy system ever undertaken.

The GEA estimates that the global investments required to achieve the goal of universal access to energy are about $40 billion annually, a small fraction of the total energy infrastructure investment required by 2030.

Jun 21 2011

UN News Centre at http://www.un.org/news 

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GLOBAL CONDITIONS: GRAIN STORAGE AND CLIMATE

June 13, 2011 at 9:51 pm | Posted in Africa, Earth, Ecology, Economics, Financial, Globalization, History, Research, Science & Technology, Third World | Leave a comment

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NEW TOOLS NEEDED TO COPE WITH CLIMATE CHANGE MIGRATIONS, UN AGENCY SAYS

New York, Jun 6 2011

UNNews UNNews@un.org

Mon, 6 Jun 2011

NEW TOOLS NEEDED TO COPE WITH CLIMATE CHANGE MIGRATIONS,UN AGENCY SAYS

Climate change will result in increased migrations and displacements of people, the head of the United Nations refugee agency said today, and the world needs to develop new methods to deal with it.

Antonio Guterres, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR),http://www.unhcr.org/4decc5276.html told a conference on climate change and displacement in Norway that it has become increasingly clear that natural disasters and climate change cannot be regarded or addressed in isolation from the other global mega-trends that are conditioning the future of our planet and its people.

Population growth, urbanization, water, food, and energy insecurity will increasingly interact with each other and create the potential for competition and conflict over scarce natural resources, he said. As a result we are also likely to see growing numbers of people being displaced from one community, country and continent to another.

Mr. Guterres called on the countries which bear primary responsibility for climate change to establish a massive programme of support to the most seriously affected countries, thereby reinforcing the resilience of their citizens and their ability to adapt to the process of climate change.

I strongly believe that a viable approach would be to at least develop a global guiding framework for situations of cross-border displacement resulting from climate change and natural disasters, he said. UNHCR stands ready to support states in the development of such a framework, which could take the form of temporary or interim protection arrangements.

We could assist in the identification of scenarios in which such arrangements would be activated. And we could help to develop procedures and standards of treatment for affected populations, he said.

He also urged countries to switch from the usual emergency-mode response to natural disasters.

The billions of dollars spent on relief in recent decades have evidently not led to the sustainable strengthening of national and local capacities, he said.

Mr. Guterres spoke in Oslo at the Nansen Conference on Climate Change and Displacement in the 21st Century, organized by Norway’s environment and foreign affairs ministries to mark the 150th anniversary of the birth of Fridtjof Nansen, the first High Commissioner for Refugees under the League of Nations.

Jun 6 2011

UN News Centre at http://www.un.org/news

NEW TOOLS NEEDED TO COPE WITH CLIMATE CHANGE MIGRATIONS, UN AGENCY SAYS

http://www.unhcr.org/4decc5276.html

New York, Jun 6 2011

UNNews UNNews@un.org

Mon, 6 Jun 2011

SPENDING MORE ON FORESTS COULD REAP ENORMOUS BENEFITS — UN REPORT

New York, Jun 5 2011

 SPENDING MORE ON FORESTS COULD REAP ENORMOUS BENEFITS — UN REPORT

Sun, 5 Jun 2011

Investing a relatively small amount each year in the forestry sector could halve deforestation, create millions of new jobs and help tackle the devastating effects of climate change, according to a United Nations report released today to mark World Environment Day.

The report, “Forests in a Green Economy: A Synthesis,” finds that an additional $40 billion spent each year in the forestry sector — or just 0.034 per cent of global gross domestic product (GDP) — could result in substantial environmental improvements.

The rate of deforestation could be halved by 2030, the number of trees planted could rise by 140 per cent by 2050 and as many as 30 million new jobs could be created by that same year.

Achim Steiner, Executive Director of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), which issued the report, said forestry is one of the key sectors capable of helping the world transition to a ‘green economy’ model that is resource-efficient and low in its use of carbon.

“There are already many encouraging signals; the annual net forest loss since 1990 has fallen from around eight million to around five million hectares and in some regions such as Asia, the Caribbean and Europe forest area has actually increased over those 20 years,” he said.

The area covered by freshly planted forests has also grown from 3.6 million hectares in 1990 to just below five million hectares last year.

Jan McAlpine, the Director of the Secretariat of the UN Forum on Forests, said the capacity of poorer countries to switch to green economies and protect their stocks of forests needs to be strengthened.

“Encouraging a transition to green economies will require a broad range of financial, regulatory, institutional and technological measures,” she said.

Forests and the benefits they provide represent the theme of this year’s World Environment Day, which is marked every year on 5 June. This year is also
the UN-declared International Year of the Forests.

Celebrations are being held across the globe, including in India, which is this year’s designated host.

On Friday Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon described forests as central to economic development, poverty reduction and food security.
“By reducing deforestation and forest degradation we can make significant progress in addressing the combined threats of climate change, biodiversity loss and land degradation,” he said in a message to a forestry conservation meeting held in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.

Jun 5 2011

UN News Centre at http://www.un.org/news

SPENDING MORE ON FORESTS COULD REAP ENORMOUS BENEFITS — UN REPORT

New York, Jun 5 2011

 SPENDING MORE ON FORESTS COULD REAP ENORMOUS BENEFITS — UN REPORT

Sun, 5 Jun 2011

UN CALLS FOR GRAIN STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE AFRICA’S POST-HARVEST LOSSES

New York, May 31 2011

UN CALLS FOR GRAIN STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE AFRICA’S POST-HARVEST LOSSES

Large amounts of food in sub-Saharan Africa goes to waste as a result of inappropriate storage, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a report unveiled today, which calls for investing in post-harvest technologies to reduce to the losses and boost the continent’s food security.

The joint FAO-World Bank report, entitled Missing Food: The Case of Postharvest Grain Losses in Sub-Saharan Africa, estimates the value of grain losses in sub-Saharan Africa at around $4 billion a year.

This lost food could meet the minimum annual food requirements of at least 48 million people, http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/79444/icode/ said Maria Helena Semedo, the FAO Assistant Director-General. If we agree that sustainable agricultural systems need to be developed to feed 9 billion people by 2050, addressing waste across the entire food chain must be a critical pillar of future national food strategies, she said.

According to estimates provided by the African Postharvest Losses Information System, physical grain losses prior to processing can range from 10 to 20 per cent of African annual production, which is worth $27 billion.

Losses occur when grain decays or is infested by pests, fungi or microbes, and physical losses, but the waste can also be economic, resulting from low prices and lack of access to markets for poor quality or contaminated grain.

According to the report, food losses contribute to high food prices by removing part of the food supply from the market. They also have a negative environmental impact as land, water and resources such as fertilizer and energy are used to produce, process, handle and transport food that no one consumes.

Reducing food losses is increasingly recognized as part of an integrated approach to realizing agriculture’s full potential, along with making effective use of today’s crops, improving productivity on existing farmland, and sustainably bringing additional acreage into production, said Jamal Saghir, the Director of the Sustainable Development Department of the World Bank’s Africa Region.

A variety of practices and technologies are available for reducing post-harvest losses, including crop protectants and storage containers such as hermetically sealed bags and metallic silos, the report notes.

Those technologies have proved successful in Asia, but more research is needed to identify methods adapted to local environments in Africa. To succeed, interventions must be sensitive to local conditions and practices.

The report recommends that governments create enabling conditions for farmers by reducing market transaction costs through investing in infrastructure such as roads, electricity and water, and strengthening agricultural research and extension services.

May 31 2011

UN News Centre at http://www.un.org/news

UN CALLS FOR GRAIN STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE AFRICA’S POST-HARVEST LOSSES

http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/79444/icode/

New York, May 31 2011

NEW TOOLS NEEDED TO COPE WITH CLIMATE CHANGE MIGRATIONS, UN AGENCY SAYS

New York, Jun 6 2011

UNNews UNNews@un.org

Mon, 6 Jun 2011

NEW TOOLS NEEDED TO COPE WITH CLIMATE CHANGE MIGRATIONS,UN AGENCY SAYS

Climate change will result in increased migrations and displacements of people, the head of the United Nations refugee agency said today, and the world needs to develop new methods to deal with it.

Antonio Guterres, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR),http://www.unhcr.org/4decc5276.html told a conference on climate change and displacement in Norway that it has become increasingly clear that natural disasters and climate change cannot be regarded or addressed in isolation from the other global mega-trends that are conditioning the future of our planet and its people.

Population growth, urbanization, water, food, and energy insecurity will increasingly interact with each other and create the potential for competition and conflict over scarce natural resources, he said. As a result we are also likely to see growing numbers of people being displaced from one community, country and continent to another.

Mr. Guterres called on the countries which bear primary responsibility for climate change to establish a massive programme of support to the most seriously affected countries, thereby reinforcing the resilience of their citizens and their ability to adapt to the process of climate change.

I strongly believe that a viable approach would be to at least develop a global guiding framework for situations of cross-border displacement resulting from climate change and natural disasters, he said. UNHCR stands ready to support states in the development of such a framework, which could take the form of temporary or interim protection arrangements.

We could assist in the identification of scenarios in which such arrangements would be activated. And we could help to develop procedures and standards of treatment for affected populations, he said.

He also urged countries to switch from the usual emergency-mode response to natural disasters.

The billions of dollars spent on relief in recent decades have evidently not led to the sustainable strengthening of national and local capacities, he said.

Mr. Guterres spoke in Oslo at the Nansen Conference on Climate Change and Displacement in the 21st Century, organized by Norway’s environment and foreign affairs ministries to mark the 150th anniversary of the birth of Fridtjof Nansen, the first High Commissioner for Refugees under the League of Nations.

Jun 6 2011

UN News Centre at http://www.un.org/news

NEW TOOLS NEEDED TO COPE WITH CLIMATE CHANGE MIGRATIONS, UN AGENCY SAYS

http://www.unhcr.org/4decc5276.html

New York, Jun 6 2011

UNNews UNNews@un.org

Mon, 6 Jun 2011

SPENDING MORE ON FORESTS COULD REAP ENORMOUS BENEFITS — UN REPORT

New York, Jun 5 2011

SPENDING MORE ON FORESTS COULD REAP ENORMOUS BENEFITS — UN REPORT

Sun, 5 Jun 2011

Investing a relatively small amount each year in the forestry sector could halve deforestation, create millions of new jobs and help tackle the devastating effects of climate change, according to a United Nations report released today to mark World Environment Day.

The report, “Forests in a Green Economy: A Synthesis,” finds that an additional $40 billion spent each year in the forestry sector — or just 0.034 per cent of global gross domestic product (GDP) — could result in substantial environmental improvements.

The rate of deforestation could be halved by 2030, the number of trees planted could rise by 140 per cent by 2050 and as many as 30 million new jobs could be created by that same year.

Achim Steiner, Executive Director of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), which issued the report, said forestry is one of the key sectors capable of helping the world transition to a ‘green economy’ model that is resource-efficient and low in its use of carbon.

“There are already many encouraging signals; the annual net forest loss since 1990 has fallen from around eight million to around five million hectares and in some regions such as Asia, the Caribbean and Europe forest area has actually increased over those 20 years,” he said.

The area covered by freshly planted forests has also grown from 3.6 million hectares in 1990 to just below five million hectares last year.

Jan McAlpine, the Director of the Secretariat of the UN Forum on Forests, said the capacity of poorer countries to switch to green economies and protect their stocks of forests needs to be strengthened.

“Encouraging a transition to green economies will require a broad range of financial, regulatory, institutional and technological measures,” she said.

Forests and the benefits they provide represent the theme of this year’s World Environment Day, which is marked every year on 5 June. This year is also
the UN-declared International Year of the Forests.

Celebrations are being held across the globe, including in India, which is this year’s designated host.

On Friday Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon described forests as central to economic development, poverty reduction and food security.
“By reducing deforestation and forest degradation we can make significant progress in addressing the combined threats of climate change, biodiversity loss and land degradation,” he said in a message to a forestry conservation meeting held in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.

Jun 5 2011

UN News Centre at http://www.un.org/news

SPENDING MORE ON FORESTS COULD REAP ENORMOUS BENEFITS — UN REPORT

New York, Jun 5 2011

SPENDING MORE ON FORESTS COULD REAP ENORMOUS BENEFITS — UN REPORT

Sun, 5 Jun 2011

UN CALLS FOR GRAIN STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE AFRICA’S POST-HARVEST LOSSES

New York, May 31 2011

UN CALLS FOR GRAIN STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE AFRICA’S POST-HARVEST LOSSES

Large amounts of food in sub-Saharan Africa goes to waste as a result of inappropriate storage, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a report unveiled today, which calls for investing in post-harvest technologies to reduce to the losses and boost the continent’s food security.

The joint FAO-World Bank report, entitled Missing Food: The Case of Postharvest Grain Losses in Sub-Saharan Africa, estimates the value of grain losses in sub-Saharan Africa at around $4 billion a year.

This lost food could meet the minimum annual food requirements of at least 48 million people, http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/79444/icode/ said Maria Helena Semedo, the FAO Assistant Director-General. If we agree that sustainable agricultural systems need to be developed to feed 9 billion people by 2050, addressing waste across the entire food chain must be a critical pillar of future national food strategies, she said.

According to estimates provided by the African Postharvest Losses Information System, physical grain losses prior to processing can range from 10 to 20 per cent of African annual production, which is worth $27 billion.

Losses occur when grain decays or is infested by pests, fungi or microbes, and physical losses, but the waste can also be economic, resulting from low prices and lack of access to markets for poor quality or contaminated grain.

According to the report, food losses contribute to high food prices by removing part of the food supply from the market. They also have a negative environmental impact as land, water and resources such as fertilizer and energy are used to produce, process, handle and transport food that no one consumes.

Reducing food losses is increasingly recognized as part of an integrated approach to realizing agriculture’s full potential, along with making effective use of today’s crops, improving productivity on existing farmland, and sustainably bringing additional acreage into production, said Jamal Saghir, the Director of the Sustainable Development Department of the World Bank’s Africa Region.

A variety of practices and technologies are available for reducing post-harvest losses, including crop protectants and storage containers such as hermetically sealed bags and metallic silos, the report notes.

Those technologies have proved successful in Asia, but more research is needed to identify methods adapted to local environments in Africa. To succeed, interventions must be sensitive to local conditions and practices.

The report recommends that governments create enabling conditions for farmers by reducing market transaction costs through investing in infrastructure such as roads, electricity and water, and strengthening agricultural research and extension services.

May 31 2011

UN News Centre at http://www.un.org/news

UN CALLS FOR GRAIN STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE AFRICA’S POST-HARVEST LOSSES

http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/79444/icode/

New York, May 31 2011

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LITHIUM ECONOMY AND ELECTRIC CARS: “BOTTLED LIGHTNING” BOOK BY SETH FLETCHER

June 9, 2011 at 2:38 pm | Posted in Books, History, Oil & Gas, Research, Science & Technology, USA | Leave a comment

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Bottled Lightning: Superbatteries, Electric Cars, and the New Lithium Economy

Seth Fletcher (Author)

Editorial Reviews

Electric cars are real—see the Tesla Roadster, Chevy Volt, and hybrids like the Nissan Leaf and Toyota Prius—but the drive to create safe, lightweight, and long-lasting batteries to power them has been anything but smooth. Faced with political, technological, and management obstacles, battery technology still lags. In the mid-1800s Fletcher says, clean, cheap lead-acid batteries were developed that by the early 20th century were preferred for use in automobiles over “unreliable, complicated, loud, and dirty” gasoline-powered cars—until it came time to refuel.

Thomas Edison tried to invent a safe, longer-duration battery, even experimenting with small amounts of lithium, but then Charles Kettering patented an automatic starter for gas engines, and the battle was lost.

Smog and 1970s gas shortages revived interest in electric cars—and lithium batteries. But obstacles remain: Bolivia, Chile, and China have less than optimal political leadership and minimal infrastructure to safely mine and process the poisonous ore. More importantly, many technical challenges must be overcome before electric cars and buses become everyday modes of transportation. But Fletcher remains optimistic. He balances science and history with a closeup look at business practices and priorities, providing lucid and thorough coverage of a timely topic.

Review

“Fletcher makes a good case that the electric-car trend may soon be able to shed its dubious reputation as a public-private hybrid and roll under its own power.” —Ronald Bailey, The Wall Street Journal

“A well-written, smart and—when Fletcher gets rolling in the last quarter of the book—rollicking story.”—Steve LeVine, Foreign Policy

“[Fletcher] follows lithium from the South American salt flats where most lithium minerals are mined to the labs of General Motors, tracing its journey from obscure metal to one of the most sought-after resources on earth—and perhaps the centerpiece of the automotive future.” —Discover

“Fletcher captivatingly explains just how significant lithium may become in satisfying the industrial world’s insatiable energy needs and, ultimately, reducing its dependence on oil . . . An informative and timely read.” —Carl Hays, Booklist

“[Fletcher] provides an entertaining, surprisingly eventful history of human efforts to harness energy in the form of battery power . . . A fine, readable work of popular science.” —Kirkus Reviews

“Balances science and history with a closeup look at business practices and priorities, providing lucid and thorough coverage of a timely topic.” —Publishers Weekly

Bottled Lightning jumpstarts the electric-car story with one of the key players of the story—batteries—and does it brilliantly. The more you know, the more you’re ready.” —Chris Paine, director, Revenge of the Electric Car and Who Killed the Electric Car?

“To move from our present energy predicament the most vexing challenge is transportation—in short, to find a convenient, safe, portable energy source that packs as much energy per kilogram as does gasoline. Electric batteries have tantalized car builders since the 19th century, but still they seem to be just down the road a bit. In Bottled Lightning, Seth Fletcher enlists chemists, geologists, business investors, and automotive engineers to tell an engrossing and important story of how we got to where we are. This book can help us get to where we need to go.” —Rush Holt, U.S. House of Representatives

“An engaging read detailing the intrigue surrounding the birth and development of modern lithium-ion batteries. Fletcher intersperses the story of the science, business and politics of batteries with colorful quotes from some of the eminent personalities in the field.” —Gerbrand Ceder, professor of materials science and engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Product Details:

  • Hardcover: 272 pages
  • Publisher: Hill and Wang
  • May 10, 2011
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0809030535
  • ISBN-13: 978-0809030538

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ENTROPY

May 8, 2011 at 12:34 am | Posted in Philosophy, Research, Science & Technology | Leave a comment

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MDPI Open Access Entropy E-Mail Alert (8 new articles)

MDPI E-Mail Alert

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Sat 5/07/11

Dear User,

We are pleased to send you a list of new publications from www.mdpi.com.

8 new articles found.

Entropy

Peter Crompton
The Decoherence of the Electron Spin and Meta-Stability of 13C Nuclear Spins in Diamond
Entropy 2011, 13(5), 949-965; doi:10.3390/e13050949
http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/13/5/949/
Published online: 5 May 2011

Shan Gao
Is Gravity an Entropic Force?
Entropy 2011, 13(5), 936-948; doi:10.3390/e13050936
http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/13/5/936/
Published online: 28 April 2011

Michael Paul Gough
Holographic Dark Information Energy
Entropy 2011, 13(4), 924-935; doi:10.3390/e13040924
http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/13/4/924/
Published online: 21 April 2011

Theo Kurtén
A Comment on Nadytko et al., “Amines in the Earth’s Atmosphere: A Density Functional Theory Study of the Thermochemistry of Pre-Nucleation Clusters”. Entropy 2011, 13, 554–569
Entropy 2011, 13(4), 915-923; doi:10.3390/e13040915
http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/13/4/915/
Published online: 19 April 2011

Daniele Cerra and Mihai Datcu
Algorithmic Relative Complexity
Entropy 2011, 13(4), 902-914; doi:10.3390/e13040902
http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/13/4/902/
Published online: 19 April 2011

Yun Zheng and Chee Keong Kwoh
A Feature Subset Selection Method Based On High-Dimensional Mutual Information
Entropy 2011, 13(4), 860-901; doi:10.3390/e13040860
http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/13/4/860/
Published online: 19 April 2011

Yudong Zhang and Lenan Wu
Optimal Multi-Level Thresholding Based on Maximum Tsallis Entropy via an Artificial Bee Colony Approach
Entropy 2011, 13(4), 841-859; doi:10.3390/e13040841
http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/13/4/841/
Published online: 13 April 2011

Yang Chen and Kazuyuki Aihara
Some Convex Functions Based Measures of Independence and Their Application to Strange Attractor Reconstruction
Entropy 2011, 13(4), 820-840; doi:10.3390/e13040820
http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/13/4/820/
Published online: 8 April 2011

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SOLAR PANELS CHINA: SUNTECH

April 21, 2011 at 8:53 pm | Posted in China, Earth, Ecology, Economics, Financial, Research, Science & Technology | Leave a comment

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Suntech Power Holdings Co., Ltd.

Suntech Power Holdings Co., Ltd. (Chinese: pinyin: Shàngdé) (NYSESTP) is the world’s largest producer of solar panels, with 1,800MW of annual production capacity by the end of 2010. With offices or production facilities in every major market, Suntech has delivered more than 13,000,000 solar panels to thousands of companies in more than 80 countries around the world [3]. As the center for the company’s global operations, Suntech Headquarters, in Wuxi, China, features the world’s largest building integrated solar facade[4].

Installations

Suntech Power has supplied or installed solar modules for numerous solar power plants and systems around the world. Notable installations include:

The company’s Suntech Energy Solutions division completed Google‘s 1.6 MW solar installation in June 2007.[5]

Suntech Power joined with Israeli company Solarit Doral to build Israel’s largest solar power station, a 50 kW rooftop project in the Israeli settlement of Katzrin in the Golan Heights, which was connected to the electricity grid in December 2008.[6][7]

Global Operations

Suntech Power has representative offices in China, Australia, the United States, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Japan, and Dubai, as well as production facilities in Wuxi, Luoyang, Qinghai, Shanghai, Germany, Japan, and Goodyear, Arizona.

Suntech America is based in San Francisco, California, and the company has plans to start a production facility in Phoenix, Arizona in 2010.[8] Suntech also has executives of their US operations in top posts in American solar panel industry groups.[9]

Awards

Suntech Power was recognized as the 2008 Frost & Sullivan Solar Energy Development Company of the Year. Frost & Sullivan Research Analyst Mary John commented on the recognition, “The company’s pioneering success in developing energy-efficient, cost-effective and customizable building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems and crystalline PV cells, and modules for solar energy conversion into electricity are highly commendable. It has gone beyond just meeting global energy needs to anticipating them as well and highly satisfied customers testify that the BIPV systems and other energy-efficient products are customized precisely to their needs.”[10]

The Andalay AC Solar PV Panel was awarded one on MSN’s most brilliant products of 2009 because of innovations that advanced their ease of installation and use.[11] Suntech Power is one of the main manufacturers of components for the Andalay Solar Panel sold by Akeena Solar (AKNS).[12]

Founder

Dr Shi Zhengrong (born c. 1963[13]) is the founder [14], chairman and chief executive officer of Suntech Power.

He is a graduate of the University of NSW‘s School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering.[15][16] At UNSW, Dr. Shi studied under Professor Martin Green and met Stuart Wenham, now Suntech’s Chief Technology Officer.

Dr. Zhengrong Shi was honored in January 2010 as a finalist for the Zayed Future Energy Prize. In 2007, Dr. Shi was named one of Time Magazine’s Heros of the Environment.He is often referred to as the world’s first ‘green billionaire’.[17]

Investors

Before going public on the NYSE in 2005, Suntech was funded by a consortium of private equity firms, including Actis Capital and Goldman Sachs. The consolidated private equity investment into Suntech is generally considered to be one of China’s most profitable private equity investments ever, as each firm is thought to have made gains well over 10x on their original investments.

See also

References

  1. 1.                              a b c Suntech’s annual income statement via Wikinvest
  2. 2.                              a b Suntech’s annual balance sheet via Wikinvest
  3. 3.                              http://ir.suntech-power.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=192654&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1533389&hilight=
  4. 4.                              http://www.green-energy-news.com/nwslnks/clips109/jan09010.html
  5. 5.                              Google Solar Panel Project
  6. 6.                              Israel opens largest solar plant with Chinese help, December 10, 2008.
  7. 7.                              Chinese PV pioneer helps build Israel’s biggest solar power station, Xinhua, December 9, 2008.
  8. 8.                              http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=192654&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1355511&highlight=
  9. 9.                              Retrieved November 12, 2009, from Solar Energy Industries Association: About: SEIA Board website: http://www.seia.org/cs/seia_board
  10. 10.                         http://www.redorbit.com/news/business/1342480/frost__sullivan_recognizes_suntech_power_for_its_technical_expertise/index.html
  11. 11.                         MSN Tech and Gadgets. 10 Most Brilliant Products of 2009. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from MSN website: http://tech.msn.com/products/slideshow.aspx?cp-documentid=22104619&imageindex=6
  12. 12.                         Google Finance. Akeena Solar, Inc. (Public, NASDAQ:AKNS). Retrieved November 12, 2009, from Akeena Solar Inc. company profile website: http://www.google.com/finance?q=NASDAQ:AKNS
  13. 13.                         The alternative rich list. September 22, 2006. Accessed May 7, 2007.
  14. 14.                         [1]
  15. 15.                         School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering
  16. 16.                         Dr. Zhengrong Shi
  17. 17.                         http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1663317_1663322_1669932,00.html

Suntech Power Holdings Co., Ltd. Type Public (NYSESTP)

Industry Photovoltaics

Founded September 2001

Founder(s) Shi Zhengrong

Headquarters Wuxi, Jiangsu province, People’s Republic of China Number of locations United States, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, Australia, Italy, Spain

Revenue US$1.92 Billion (FY 2008)[1] Operating income US$215 Million (FY 2008)[1] Net income US$87.9 Million (FY 2008)[1] Total assets US$3.22 Billion (FY 2008) [2] Total equity US$1.07 Billion (FY 2008)[2] Website www.suntech-power.com/

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