EGYPTIAN JEWS: “THE MAN IN THE WHITE SHARKSKIN SUIT” MEMOIR

February 15, 2010 at 3:13 am | Posted in Arabs, Art, Books, History, Islam, Israel, Judaica, Literary, Middle East, Palestine | Leave a comment

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The Man in the White Sharkskin Suit

A Jewish Family’s Exodus from Old

Cairo to the New World

By Lucette Lagnado

Book Description

Lucette Lagnado’s father, Leon, is a successful Egyptian businessman and boulevardier who, dressed in his signature white sharkskin suit, makes deals and trades at Shepherd’s Hotel and at the dark bar of the Nile Hilton. After the fall of King Farouk and the rise of the Nasser dictatorship, Leon loses everything and his family is forced to flee, abandoning a life once marked by beauty and luxury to plunge into hardship and poverty, as they take flight for any country that would have them.

A vivid, heartbreaking, and powerful inversion of the American dream, Lucette Lagnado’s unforgettable memoir is a sweeping story of family, faith, tradition, tragedy, and triumph set against the stunning backdrop of Cairo, Paris, and New York.

Winner of the Sami Rohr Prize for Jewish Literature and hailed by the New York Times Book Review as a “brilliant, crushing book” and the New Yorker as a memoir of ruin “told without melodrama by its youngest survivor,” The Man in the White Sharkskin Suit recounts the exile of the author’s Jewish Egyptian family from Cairo in 1963 and her father’s heroic and tragic struggle to survive his “riches to rags” trajectory.

(from Trudy Rubin):

Every Egyptian Jew I met, without exception, assured me that the Jews had led a good life before 1948. One elderly Cairo Jew, still wealthy, whose family has lived in Egypt for centuries, told me, his eyes misting over, “We had everything then. The Jews owned the banks, the shops; they owned and managed all the big societies of credit — the bourse and the cotton exchange. The banks used to close on Rosh Hashonah and Yom Kippour (the Jewish New Year and Day of Atonement).”

As we sat in his comfortable downtown apartment, he reeled off the names of famous Jewish families: “Yusuf Cattaui Pasha, he was Minister of Finance in the ‘30’s and one son was a deputy and another a senator: Madame Cattaui was first lady-in-waiting to the queen: there was Chicorel and Chemla and Addis — they owned the big department stores — and Green, who owned many buildings and was a cereal merchant and Alfred Suares, who founded the National Bank of Egypt at the turn of the century and of course, the Mesnasche family in trade and banking….

“In Cairo we had 15 synagogues and a big Jewish school and a hospital. The Jewish doctors had many Arab customers. They recognized that the Jews were clever. Before 1948 we were like brothers with the Arabs. The older generation still has many friends, but the new generation under Nasser has turned against the Jews.

“We were well-treated and had all our satisfactions here. My children had Moslem friends in the Lycee Francais. (His children have long since emigrated to Europe and the United States.)

“But now, we have nothing, nothing. Of 250 Jews in Cairo, 150 live off the charity of the Jewish community. They are all old. There aren’t 50 families, which still work for a living. Sometimes we can’t even get a minyan (ten men) in synagogue. Why, we used to have parties with 150 people….”

The exodus of Egyptian Jews did not start immediately after the 1948 war. According to members of the community, many prominent Jews were interned after 1948 and held in camps, but were not ill-treated and were finally released. I was told, “After 1948 there was no intensive official hard feelings. On the contrary, there were still very good business relations and Jews were respected and appreciated.”

In 1952, a wave of nationalist xenophobia swept Cairo and many big shops and a hotel were burned down during a rampage known as the ‘Cairo fire’. The Jews, many of whom held foreign passports and were lumped by the nationalists with the other non-Egyptian owners of most of Egypt‘s business and industry, were one of the targets of this rage. But the wave passed, and King Farouk reimbursed property owners for damages. However, in July 1952, the Free Officers Movement, including the then unknown Gamal Abdel Nasser, overthrew King Farouk. At this point many wealthy Jews began to leave.

During the next four years, “there was no open persecution, but you felt if you needed a special signature, people were reticent about giving it to you.” Young Jews holding non-Egyptian passports found it hard to get jobs, although Egyptian Jews did not feel so much animosity.

The invasion of Sinai in 1956 by Israeli, French, and British forces sparked a full exodus. Many Jews were temporarily interned and their property sequestered. All British and French citizens, which included many Jews, were ordered to leave. Among those Jews who remained, many were dismissed from all official positions and kicked out of all clubs. (They were later allowed to return to some jobs, at lower levels, and club memberships were eventually restored.)

“Feelings against Jews were high but were restrained,” one Cairo Jew recalled. “You could leave the country but you had to leave everything behind. But they never threw Jews out of the university, and we were not limited in movement within the country. They were reasonable, not like in Syria or Iraq.”

In 1961 the Nasser regime nationalized all large firms and foreign banks which included, of course, Jewish-owned firms, leading still more Jews to leave. In addition, many families whose children had been sent abroad to university and could not return began leaving to join their children.

By 1967 about 5,000 Jews were left in Egypt. The Six Day War spelled the virtual end of the community. During the war, 400 men between the ages of 18 and 50 were interned as a potential fifth column. About 150 were released after several weeks, mostly holders of foreign passports, but the remainder were held for three and one-half years. During the first few weeks they were treated badly, including beatings, but after that treatment was adequate, and visits allowed. Ironically, they were held in a camp for political internees, which included members of the fanatical Moslem Brotherhood, apparently leading to better understanding between the two groups, according to Cairo Jews. The internees were finally released upon agreement to leave the country immediately. Seventeen refused to emigrate, preferring prison, and were finally let go. (For some inexplicable reason, when recently questioned by a group of Jewish journalists about the internment incident, Egyptian Information Minister Kamal Abul Magd denied that it had ever happened, and asked one journalist to bring him specific details. Several other Egyptian officials spoke openly of the affair to me, some defending it as necessary for security reasons, others feeling it was a mistake.)

Those Jews who remain live quietly and inconspicuously. The community is elderly and increasingly depleted by funerals. There are still some lawyers, a doctor, a few teachers in private schools, skilled workers, some government workers (but only in unimportant posts) and of course, the retired. One Cairo Jew is part owner of one of the city’s newest and poshest restaurants along with a Moslem and a Christian. I met three Jewish youngsters studying at the university.

In both Cairo and Alexandria, the communities depend heavily on income from property, which has not been disturbed by the government. This goes for upkeep of synagogues and cemeteries, and stipends for the poor. In Alexandria, where the property is worth about $2,500,000, it also supports a home for the aged with a communal kitchen, and a small monthly grant to nearly every Jew according to need. Some former Jewish school buildings are used by the Egyptian government and they pay rent to the Jewish community.

Jews with whom I spoke concurred that the Egyptian govern — has respected their religious practices. The Jews still own all their synagogues, and there has been no desecration, with the exception of petty thievery inside closed-up synagogues after the 1967 war. The Jewish cemetery in Cairo is in bad shape, with many of its marble stones looted. “I don’t think it is anti-semitism,” one Jew told me. “Gangs come at night. The Christian cemeteries are robbed also but ours is easy because it is open and not well-protected and near the desert.” In Alexandria where the cemetery is well protected, thievery is a minor problem.

There is no shortage of religious articles in Egypt. In Cairo‘s Adli St. Synagogue, the only one open in the city, there is a surfeit of prayer books and torah scrolls encased in beautiful silver and inlaid mother-of-pearl cases. There is a kosher butcher in Cairo and both the Alex and Cairo communities bake their own Matzoh (unleavened bread) for the Passover holidays. But the last rabbi left Cairo more than two years ago, and the brief Saturday service seems more an excuse for the participants to commune with each other and their past than a religious service.

Synagogue functions are protected by government police. During the Yom Kippour War last year services were held: Jews entered by the back door while the police protected the front. There were no incidents. There is a policeman in plain clothes on duty all the time inside the Cairo and Alex synagogues. He serves two functions: He reports to the government who — especially foreigners enters, and he handles any complaints of the worshippers.

For the Jews of Egypt, the thorns in their existence are loneliness, and political uncertainty, and, on occasion, petty bureaucratic harassment. This is most noticeable in the area of travel abroad. There are no restrictions for Jews on internal travel (unless they are holders of foreign passports in which case general restrictions on foreigners apply to them But before the October War it was almost impossible for Jews to return to Egypt once they left it. Since the October war restrictions have eased and several Jews have received permission to leave and return. But the process is a long one with constant security checks and unexplained delays and constant questioning about the whereabouts of émigré relatives.

While there has never been any ban on Jewish tourists visiting Egypt, since the October War there has been an influx of Jewish visitors and Jewish journalists, including the editor of the Zionist magazine, Hadassah.

But when I asked members of the Jewish community whether they thought some former Egyptian Jews might try to return now, all echoed the words of one old man: “Before 1948 we were living perfectly. But I don’t see any solution now for the Jewish community here. We are living out our lives and in a few years it will all be gone.”

Alexandria had by far the richest Jewish community in Egypt before the start of the Israeli-Arab wars. The community dates back to the Ptolemaic era, around the time of Christ. The treaty of Alexandria which sealed the Arab conquest of Egypt in 641 A.D. expressly stipulates that Jews be allowed to remain there.

In the 1930’s the city held 30-40,000 Jews. Today there are 200 left. They were a cosmopolitan group, engaged largely in trade, banking, and commerce, owning rich villas and apartments, traveling frequently to Europe, and sending their children to Jewish or European-run schools. Their first language was French, followed by Italian, but many also spoke some Greek and English, and the men at least usually spoke Arabia. They moved in the extensive foreign communities, which have nearly disappeared since the French-British-Israeli invasion of Suez in 1956, and the nationalization of most large businesses by 1961.

Their origins were diverse, some with families who had lived in Egypt or in other parts of North Africa for centuries. Many had come from Syria or Palestine to Egypt to escape the battles of World War I. There were Jews from Turkey, Rumania, Greece, Italy and France, and even some — though not many — with Eastern European origins, usually having passed through Palestine.

Besides eight major synagogues, the community in the 1940’s — headed by a Community Council owned a hospital, an old age home, several elementary schools, a lycee and ran several charitable organizations as well as a handful of periodicals, mostly in French.

Today, only two synagogues are still functioning, including the magnificent Temple Eliahou Hanabi with its stained glass windows and four rows of pink marble columns three stories high. There is no rabbi, although a layman performs his functions, and the community maintains the daily minimum of ten men required by religious law in order to conduct a service by paying them each the equivalent of $18 monthly. The temples are maintained with income from property still held by the community. But there are no weddings and bar mitzvahs any more, only funerals.

The Man in the White Sharkskin Suit

A Jewish Family’s Exodus from Old

Cairo to the New World

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NAMIER VERSUS DMOWSKI AT THE VERSAILLES CONFERENCE: PARIS 1919 « Cambridge Forecast Group Blog

February 7, 2010 at 1:15 am | Posted in Globalization, History, Judaica, Research, World-system, Zionism | Leave a comment

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NAMIER VERSUS DMOWSKI AT THE VERSAILLES CONFERENCE: PARIS 1919 « Cambridge Forecast Group Blog.

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NAMIER VERSUS DMOWSKI AT THE VERSAILLES CONFERENCE: PARIS 1919

February 7, 2010 at 12:09 am | Posted in Globalization, History, Judaica, Research, Zionism | Leave a comment

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NAMIER VERSUS DMOWSKI:

PARIS 1919

At the Versailles Peace Conference of 1919, Namier served as part of the British delegation. His area of responsibility was Poland, and his relations with the chief Polish delegate, Roman Dmowski, were antagonistic owing to Dmowski’s anti-Semitism.

Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier

(1888-1960)

The English historian Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier (1888-1960) was a major force in introducing stronger empirical methods and social analysis into the study of 18th-century politics.

Lewis Namier was born Ludvik Bernstein near Warsaw on June 22, 1888. He studied briefly at Lausanne and the London School of Economics before entering Balliol College, Oxford. The Oxford years, from 1908 to 1912, were crucial in his development. There he acquired a British self-identity, changing his name to Namier (derived from his family’s older name, Niemirowski); there he also acquired a deep and permanent interest in British history of the 18th century.

Throughout his life Namier was strongly attracted to the world of power and policy making. At the start of World War I, he enlisted in the British army but was discharged in 1915 because of poor eyesight. As a civilian, he served in the Propaganda Department (1915-1917), the Department of Information (1917-1918), and the Political Intelligence Department of the Foreign Office (1918-1920).

He attended the Versailles Peace Conference as a technical expert on eastern European affairs.

Namier started his serious work on the “imperial problem during the American Revolution” while a postgraduate student at Oxford in 1912 and continued these researches while in business in New York in 1913-1914. In 1920 he returned to academic life at Balliol College. Finding that this did not allow him sufficient time for research, he resigned to go into business during 1921-1923, hoping to save enough to support his serious studies. Without any regular income, living on grants, loans, and savings, he devoted the years 1924 through 1929 entirely to research and writing. From these fruitful years came his two great works on 18th-century politics.

During the 1920s Namier became active in the Zionist movement and in 1929 accepted the position of political secretary of the Jewish Agency for Palestine. Finding that he lacked the personal political skills necessary for such a delicate job, he resigned after 2 years. From 1931 until his retirement in 1953, Namier was professor of modern history at Manchester University. He was knighted in 1952 and received many academic honors during the 1950s. Sir Lewis died in London Aug. 19, 1960.

Historical Work: 18th Century

Namier’s scholarly reputation is based primarily on his two related works on 18th-century politics. In The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III (1929), he attempted a static analysis of political society and the political process as it existed from 1754 until 1762, during the ascendancy of the Duke of Newcastle. In this great work he broke forever the remnants of the “Whig myth,” deriving ultimately from Horace Walpole and Edmund Burke, which saw the politics of the first 2 decades of the reign of George III as adhering to the two-party model of the 19th century. He showed parliamentary politics to be based not upon coherent parties but, rather, on a congeries of familial-personal factions and interests, with a significant element supporting the government of the day regardless of its composition and another congenitally but unstably “independent.” In most constituencies, family favor and personal dependency best explained voting patterns.

In England in the Age of the American Revolution (1930), Namier moved from static analysis to narrative history, in which he was less masterful. He intended to follow volume 1, which covered only 1760-1762, with other volumes but was deflected by teaching, other scholarly interests and international events.

In his work on 18th-century parliaments, Namier collected data on hundreds of members of Parliament. He realized that the work of all scholars doing such work would be immensely aided by the compilation of a biographical dictionary of all members of the House of Commons, with collective analysis where possible. As early as 1928 he helped publicize the project for such a history of Parliament, and after World War II, when the reorganized project obtained government support, Namier joined the new editorial board and devoted the years after his retirement in 1953 to editing the volumes on the period 1754-1790. His History of Parliament (3 vols., 1964) is a tool of inestimable value for students of pre-Victorian politics.

Historical Work: 19th and 20th Centuries

Namier was deeply interested in European history, particularly central and east-central Europe, in the years since 1815. Starting with a propaganda piece, Germany and Eastern Europe (1915), he published a number of short interpretive essays (many republished in Vanished Supremacies, 1962) rich in insight and fresh interpretation. On a somewhat larger scale was his 1848: Revolution of the Intellectuals (1946), which measured the formal liberal ideology of the central European revolutionaries against their class and national prejudices.

After 1940 Namier became involved in the problem of the diplomatic origins of World War II. Using government publications, early memoirs, and interviews with exiled officials in London, he published a series of articles, starting in 1943, on the diplomatic origins of the war. These were republished in 1948 as Diplomatic Prelude 1938-1939. He continued to publish articles and review essays in this area, subsequently republished in Europe in Decay (1950) and In the Nazi Era (1952). These were important for the rigorous scrutiny he gave to the dubious evidence and arguments advanced by some self-or national apologists.

Though he did not produce a major work on the 19th century, Namier had considerable influence on A. J. P. Taylor and others working since 1945 on central European history. His work on the diplomatic origins of World War II has stood up well and is still the starting point for all students in the field. The influence of his 18th-century studies is likely to last, for it has given us a whole new way of approaching the historical study of political behavior.

Further Reading

For Namier’s life see Julia Namier, Lewis Namier: A Biography (1971). His work is discussed by Catherine Sims in Herman Ausubel and others, eds., Some Modern Historians of Britain (1951), and Herbert Butterfield, George III and the Historians (1957; rev. ed. 1959).

Additional Sources

Colley, Linda, Lewis Namier, New York: St. Martin‘s Press, 1989.

Rose, Norman, Lewis Namier and Zionism, Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Namier, Sir Lewis Bernstein (nāmyər), 1888-1960, English historian, b. Poland.

He attended the London School of Economics and Oxford and became professor at the Univ. of Manchester in 1931, teaching there until 1953. His greatest fame rests on his Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III (1929, 2d ed. 1957). By minute biographical examination of the members of several parliaments, Namier determined that politics in the mid-18th cent. was controlled by a series of small and fluid groups and that self-interest was as important as great issues in dictating political allegiance. His method, which came to be called Namierism, was adopted by other historians and led to much reevaluation of English history. The Namierites have been criticized by scholars who feel that their method is not suitable for most periods of English history. Namier’s studies of Europe before World War II include Diplomatic Prelude, 1938-1939 (1948), Europe in Decay (1950), and In the Nazi Era (1952). Among his other works is 1848: The Revolution of the Intellectuals (1946). He was an active Zionist, and from 1929 to 1931 he was political secretary of the Jewish Agency for Palestine. He was knighted in 1952.

Lewis Bernstein Namier

Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier (27 June 1888 – 19 August 1960) was an English historian. He was born Ludwik Niemirowski in Wola Okrzejska in what was then part of the Russian Empire and is part of modern day Poland.

Life

Namier’s family were secular-minded Jewish gentry. His father, with whom young Lewis often quarreled, idolized Austria-Hungary. By contrast, Namier throughout his life detested the Dual Monarchy. He was educated at universities of Lemberg in Austrian Galicia (modern Lviv, Ukraine), Lausanne, and the London School of Economics. At Lausanne, Namier heard Vilfredo Pareto lecture, and Pareto’s ideas about elites would have much influence on him.

Namier migrated to the United Kingdom in 1906 and became a British subject in 1913. During World War I, he fought as a private with the 20th Royal Fusiliers in 1914–15 but was discharged owing to poor eyesight. He then held positions with the Propaganda Department (1915–17), the Department of Information (1917–18) and finally with the Political Intelligence Department of the Foreign Office (1918–20). At the Versailles Peace Conference of 1919, Namier served as part of the British delegation. His area of responsibility was Poland, and his relations with the chief Polish delegate, Roman Dmowski, were antagonistic owing to Dmowski’s anti-Semitism.

After leaving the government, Namier served at Balliol College (1920–21) before going into business. Later Namier, who was a long-time Zionist, worked as political secretary for the Jewish Agency in Palestine (1929–31). For a time he was a close friend and associate of Chaim Weizmann, but Weizmann later severed relations with Namier when the latter converted to Anglicanism to marry his second wife.

Namier served as professor at the University of Manchester from 1931 until his retirement in 1953. Namier remained active in various Zionist groups (in particular, lobbying the British government to allow the creation of what he called a Jewish Fighting Force in the Palestine Mandate) and from 1933 was engaged in efforts on behalf of Jewish refugees from Germany.

He is best known for his work on the Parliament of Great Britain and its composition in the latter part of the 18th century, which by its very detailed study of individuals caused substantial revision to accounts based on a party system. Namier’s best-known works were The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III, England in the Age of the American Revolution and the History of Parliament series he edited later in his life with John Brooke. Namier used Prosopography or collective biography of every Member of Parliament (MP) and peer who sat in the British Parliament in the latter 18th century to reveal that local interests, not national ones, often determined how parliamentarians voted. Namier argued very strongly that, far from being tightly organized groups, both the Tories and Whigs were collections of ever-shifting and fluid small groups whose stances altered on an issue-by-issue basis. Namier felt that prosopographical methods were the best for analyzing small groups like the House of Commons, but was opposed to the application of prosopography to larger groups. At the time of its publication in 1929, The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III caused a historical revolution in understanding the 18th century.

In addition, Namier used other sources such as wills and tax records to reveal the interests of the MPs. In his time, Namier’s methods were innovative and quite controversial. Namier’s obsession with collecting facts such as club membership of various MPs and then attempting to co-relate them to voting patterns led his critics such as Sir Herbert Butterfield to accuse him of “taking ideas out of history”. Namier was well-known for his dislike in ideas and people who believed in them, and made little secret of his belief that the best form of government was that of a grubby self-interested elite.

A friend, admirer and patient of Sigmund Freud, Namier was an early pioneer in Psychohistory. He also wrote on modern European history, especially diplomatic history and his later books Europe in Decay, In the Nazi Era and Diplomatic Prelude unsparingly condemned the Third Reich and appeasement. In the 1930s, Namier had been active in the anti-appeasement movement and together with his protégé A. J. P. Taylor spoke out against the Munich Agreement at several rallies in 1938. In the early 1950s, Namier had a celebrated debate on the pages of the Times Literary Supplement with the former French foreign minister Georges Bonnet.[1] At issue was the question whether Bonnet had, as Namier charged, snubbed an offer by the Polish foreign minister Colonel Józef Beck in May 1938 to have Poland come to the aid of Czechoslovakia in the event of a German attack.[1] Bonnet denied that such an offer had been made, which led Namier to accuse Bonnet of seeking to falsify the record.[1] Namier concluded the debate in 1953 with words “The Polish offer, for what it was worth, was first torpedoed by Bonnet the statesmen, and next obliterated by Bonnet the historian”.[2] Namier was horrified by the Holocaust and his writings on German history have been criticized for Germanophobia[3]. Like the work of his friend Sir John Wheeler-Bennett, Namier’s diplomatic histories are generally poorly regarded by historians because Namier was content to condemn appeasement without seeking to explain the reasons for it.

He was married twice and knighted in 1952. Also, in 1952, Namier was given the honour of delivering the Romanes Lecture, on which subject Namier chose Monarchy and the Party System. Namier held markedly right-wing views, and has been called the most reactionary British historian of his generation. Ironically, Namier’s principal protégé was the left-wing historian A. J. P. Taylor.

Endnotes

1. a b c Adamthwaite, Anthony France and the Coming of the Second World War, London: Frank Cass, 1977 pages 183-184

2. Adamthwaite, Anthony France and the Coming of the Second World War, London: Frank Cass, 1977 page 184

3. Andrew J. Crozier (1997). “The causes of the Second World War. http://books.google.de/books?id=S2hBXzB7XaYC&pg=PA226&dq=namier+germanophobia&lr=&as_brr=3. Retrieved 2009-07-06.

Works

· The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III, 1929.

· England in The Age of the American Revolution, 1930.

· Skyscrapers and other Essays, 1931. Contains his essays on Austrian Galicia.

· In the Margin of History, 1939.

· Conflicts: Studies in Contemporary History, 1942.

· 1848: The Revolution of the Intellectuals, 1944.

· Facing East: essays on Germany, the Balkans and Russia in the twentieth century, 1947.

· Diplomatic prelude, 1938–1939, 1948.

· Europe in Decay: A Study in Disintegration, 1936–40, 1950.

· Avenues of History, 1952.

· In the Nazi era, 1952.

· Basic Factors in Nineteenth-Century European History, 1953.

· Monarchy and the party system: the Romanes Lecture delivered in the Sheldonian Theatre 15 May 1952, 1952.

· Personalities and powers, 1955.

· Vanished Supremacies; essays on European history, 1812–1918, 1958.

· Crossroads of Power: essays on eighteenth-century England, 1962.

· The House of Commons, 1754–1790, 1966, 1964, edited by John Brooke & Sir Lewis Namier.

References

· Burke, Peter “Namier, (Sir) Lewis Bernstein” page 207 from Great Historians of the Modern Age edited by Lucian Boia, Westport, C.T.: Greenwood Press, 1991.

· Colley, Linda Lewis Namier New York: St. Martin‘s Press, 1989.

· James, Clive. Cultural Amnesia: Necessary Memories from History and the Arts (2007) online excerpt

· Namier, Julia Lewis Namier: A biography, London: Oxford University Press, 1971.

· Pares, Richard & Taylor, A.J.P. (editors) Essays Presented to Sir Lewis Namier, London: Macmillan Press, 1956.

· Price, Jacob “Party, Purpose, and Pattern: Sir Lewis Namier and His Critics” pages 71–93 from Journal of British Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1 November 1961.

· Rose, Norman Lewis Namier & Zionism, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980.

Links

· Lewis Namier: Zionism and Manchester University

· Review of The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III

· Isaiah Berlin on Lewis Namier in his book Personal Impressions

He is best known for his work on Parliament and its composition in the latter part of the eighteenth century, which by its very detailed study of individuals caused substantial revision to be made to accounts based on a party system. Namier’s best known works were The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III, England in The Age of the American Revolution and the History Of Parliament series he edited later in his life with John Brooke. Namier used Prosopography or collective biography of every MP and peer who sat in the British Parliament in later the 18th century to reveal that local interests, not national ones, often determined how parliamentarians voted. Namier argued very strongly that far from being an tightly organized groups, both the Tories and Whigs were collections of every-shifting and fluid small groups whose stance altered on issue by issue basis.

Namier felt that prosopographical methods were the best ones for analyzing small groups like the House of Commons, but was opposed to the application of prosopography on larger groups. At the time of its publication in 1929, The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III caused an historical revolution in terms of understanding the 18th century.

In addition, Namier used other sources such as wills and tax records to reveal the interests of the MPs. In his time, Namier’s methods were innovative and were quite controversial. Namier’s obsession with collecting facts such as club membership of various MPs and then attempting to co-relate them to voting patterns led his critics such as Sir Herbert Butterfield to accuse him of “taking ideas out of history”. Namier was well-known for his dislike in ideas and people who believed in them, and made little secret of his belief that the best form of government was that of an grubby self-interested elite.

Roman Stanisław Dmowski

Roman Stanisław Dmowski (August 9, 1864, Warsaw – January 2, 1939, Drozdowo, Poland) was a Polish politician, statesman, and chief ideologue and co-founder of the National Democracy (“Endecja“) political camp.

Early life

Dmowski was born in Congress Poland, then part of the Russian Empire. As a student he became active in the Polish Youth Association “Zet” (Związek Młodzieży Polskiej “Zet”), organizing a student street demonstration on the 100th anniversary of the Polish Constitution of May 3, 1791. For this he was imprisoned by the Russian Tsarist authorities for six months in the Warsaw Citadel.

Later Dmowski headed the National League (Liga Narodowa). In 1895 he settled in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (modern Lviv, Ukraine; known as Lwów to the Poles), and in 1897 co-founded the National-Democratic Party (Stronnictwo Narodowo-Demokratyczne or “Endecja“). The Endecja was to serve as a political party, a lobby and an underground organization that would unite Poles who espoused Dmowski’s views into a disciplined and committed political group.[1] In 1899, Dmowski founded the Society for National Education as an ancillary group.[2] A biologist of some repute, he attained great prestige within the Polish community for his scientific accomplishments. Between 1898-1900, he resided in both France and Britain. In the face of an ascendant Germany, he argued for tactical Polish cooperation with Tsarist Russia and brought about a pro-Russian orientation within the National-Democratic Party. In 1901 he took up residence in Kraków, then part of the Austrian partition of Poland.

Upon the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, Dmowski traveled to Japan in a successful effort to prevent her from providing Józef Piłsudski with Japanese assistance for a planned insurrection in Poland, an insurrection which Dmowski felt would be doomed to failure.[3]

In 1905 Dmowski moved to Warsaw, at the time, part of the Russian partition of Poland. During the Russian Revolution of 1905, Dmowski favoured co-operation with the Imperial Russian authorities and welcomed Nicholas II‘s October Manifesto of 1905 as a stepping stone on the road towards renewed Polish autonomy.[3] During the revolt in Łódź in June 1905, the Endeks, acting under Dmowski’s orders, opposed the uprising led by Piłsudski’s Polish Socialist Party.[3] Ironically, during the course of the “June Days,” as the Łódź uprising is known, a miniature civil war raged between Endecja and the PPS.[3]

As a result of the elections to the First Duma, which were boycotted by the PPS, the National Democrats won 34 of the 55 seats allotted to Poland.[4] Dmowski himself was elected a deputy to the Second and Third Dumas and as president of the Polish caucus within it. Prior to 1914, Dmowski was prepared to settle for Polish autonomy within the Russian Empire, as he believed that an independent Poland would swiftly become dominated by Germany, as the Germans (in his view) had a better developed state and stronger social organisations. In light of what he regarded as German superiority, Dmowski felt that a strong Russia was in Poland’s best interest, and would afford it a better opportunity to ultimately reunite all Polish territories under one rule. In Dmowski’s view the Russian policy of Russification would not succeed in subjugating the Poles, while the Germans would be far more successful with their Germanisation policies. On the contrary, Dmowski’s great rival, Józef Piłsudski, argued that Russia was a greater threat to the Polish nation than either Germany or Austria-Hungary [e.g. “With the Germans, we lose our land. With the Russians, we lose our soul”.]

Political outlook

Throughout his life, Dmowski deeply disliked Piłsudski and everything he stood for.[5] Dmowski came from an impoverished urban background and had little fondness for Poland‘s traditional social structure.[5] Instead, Dmowski favored a modernizing program and felt Poles should stop looking back nostalgically at the old Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which Dmowski held in deep contempt and should instead embrace the “modern world”.[5] In particular, Dmowski despised the old Commonwealth for its multi-national structure and religious tolerance.[5] He was especially critical of its failure to create a common identity for various ethnic groups, such as Ukrainians and Belarusians.

Dmowski was a scientist and preferred logic and reason over emotion and passion.[5] He once told Ignacy Jan Paderewski that music was “mere noise”.[5] Dmowski felt very strongly that Poles should abandon what he considered to be foolish romantic nationalism and useless gestures of defiance and should instead work hard at becoming businessmen and scientists.[5] Dmowski was very much influenced by Social Darwinist theories, then popular in the Western world, and saw life as a merciless struggle between “strong” nations who dominated and “weak” nations who were dominated.[5] In his view nations could be classified in four categories:

1. Nations on the lowest scale of being able or desiring to become independent and self-governing, for example in Dmowski’s view the Belarusians.

2. Nations capable of self-governing themselves with awakened nationalistic aspirations, for example Ukrainians.

3. Nations wishing to regain independence with centuries-old cultures and statehoods past (e.g. Poles).

4. Nations on the highest ladder of social development and tradition, possessing a country currently (e.g. Germans).

In his 1902 book Myśli nowoczesnego Polaka (Thoughts of a Modern Pole), Dmowski denounced all forms of Polish Romantic nationalism and traditional Polish values.[1] He sharply criticized the idea of Poland as a spiritual concept and as a cultural idea.[1] Instead Dmowski argued that Poland was merely a physical entity that needed to be brought into existence through pragmatic bargaining and negotiating, not via what Dmowski considered to be pointless revolts doomed to failure before they even began against the partitioning powers.[1] For Dmowski, what the Poles needed was a “healthy national egoism” that would not be guided by what Dmowski regarded as the unrealistic political principles of Christianity.[1] In the same book, Dmowski blamed the fall of the old Commonwealth due to its tradition of tolerance.[1] While critical of Christianity, Dmowski viewed some sub-groups of Christianity (other than Catholicism) as beneficial to certain nations. This was particularly true of Anglicanism and German Protestantism. Later in 1927 he revised this earlier view and renounced his criticism of Catholicism, seeing it as an essential part of the Polish identity. Dmowski saw all minorities as weakening agents within the nation that needed to be purged.[1] In regard to the Jewish minority, in Myśli nowoczesnego Polaka, Dmowski wrote:

“…in the character of this race [the Jews], so many different values strange to our moral constitution and harmful to our life have accumulated that assimilation with a larger number of Jews would destroy us, replacing us with decadent elements, rather than with those young creative foundations upon which we are building the future”.[6]

First World War

In 1914 Dmowski praised the Grand Duke Nicholas‘s Proclamation of August 15, 1914 which vaguely assured the Tsar’s Polish subjects that there would be greater autonomy for “Congress Poland” after the war, and that the Austrian provinces of East and West Galicia together with Pomerania province of Prussia would be annexed to the Kingdom of Poland when the German Empire and Austria-Hungary were defeated.[7] However, subsequent attempts on the part of Dmowski to have the Russians make firmer commitments along the lines of the Grand Duke Nicholas’s Proclamation were met with elusive answers.[7]

In 1915 Dmowski went abroad to campaign on behalf of Poland in the capitals of the western Allies. During his lobbying efforts, his friends included such opinion makers as the British journalist Wickham Steed. In particular, Dmowski was very successful in France, where made a very favorable impression on public opinion.[8] In 1917, in Paris, he created a Polish National Committee aimed at rebuilding a Polish state. In September 1917, the Polish National Committee was recognized by the French as the legitimate government of Poland.[8] The British and the Americans were less enthusiastic about Dmowski’s National Committee, but likewise recognized it as Poland‘s government in 1918.[9] However, the Americans refused to provide backing for what they regarded as Dmowski’s excessive territorial claims. The American President Woodrow Wilson reported, “I saw Mr. Dmowski and Mr. Paderewski in Washington, and I asked them to define Poland for me, as they understood it, and they presented me with a map in which they claimed a large part of the earth.”[10]

In part, Wilson‘s objections stemmed from dislike of Dmowski personally. One British diplomat stated, “He was a clever man, and clever men are distrusted: he was logical in his political theories and we hate logic: and he was persistent with a tenacity which was calculated to drive everybody mad.”[11] Another area of objection to Dmowski was to his antisemitic remarks, as in a speech he delivered at a dinner organized by the writer G. K. Chesterton, that began with the words, “My religion came from Jesus Christ, who was murdered by the Jews.”[12] A number of American and British Jewish organizations campaigned during the war against their governments recognizing the National Committee.[12] Another leading critic of Dmowski was the historian Sir Lewis Namier, who served as the British Foreign Office’s resident expert on Poland during the war and who claimed to be personally offended by antisemitic remarks made by Dmowski. Namier fought hard against British recognition of Dmowski and “his chauvinist gang”.[12]

After the First World War

At the end of World War I, two governments claimed to be the legitimate governments of Poland: Dmowski’s in Paris and Piłsudski’s in Warsaw. To put an end to the rival claims of Piłsudski and Dmowski, the composer Ignacy Jan Paderewski met with both men and persuaded them to reluctantly join forces.[13] Both men had something that the other needed. Piłsudski was in possession of Poland after the war, but as the Pole who had fought with the Austrians for the Central Powers against the Russians, he was distrusted by the Allies. Piłsudski’s newly reborn Polish Army needed arms from the Allies, something that only Dmowski could persuade the Allies to deliver upon.[14] Beyond that, the French were planning to send the Blue Army of General Józef Haller — loyal to Dmowski — back to Poland. The fear was that if Piłsudski and Dmowski did not put aside their differences, a civil war might break out between the partisans of Piłsudski and Dmowski.[15] Paderewski was successful in working a compromise in which Dmowski and himself were to represent Poland at the Paris Peace Conference while Piłsudski was to serve as provisional president of Poland.[14]

As a Polish delegate at the Paris Peace Conference and a signatory of the Versailles Treaty, Dmowski exerted a substantial influence on the Treaty’s favorable decisions regarding Poland. On January 29, 1919, Dmowski met with the Supreme Council of the Allies for the first time. At the meeting, Dmowski stated that he had little interest in laying claim to areas of Ukraine and Lithuania that were formerly part of Poland, but no longer had a Polish majority. At the same time Dmowski strongly pressed for the return of Polish territories with Polish-speaking majorities taken by Prussia from Poland in 1790s. Dmowski himself admitted that from a purely historical point of view, the Polish claims to Silesia were not entirely strong, but he claimed it for Poland on economic grounds, especially the coal fields.[14] Moreover, Dmowski claimed that German statistics had lied about the number of ethnic Poles living in eastern Germany and that, “these Poles were some of the most educated and highly cultured in the nation, with a strong sense of nationality and men of progressive ideas”.[14] In addition, Dmowski, with the strong backing of the French, wanted to send the “Blue Army” to Poland via Danzig, Germany (modern Gdańsk, Poland); it was the intention of both Dmowski and the French that the Blue Army create a territorial fait accompli.[14] This proposal created much opposition from the Germans, the British and the Americans, and finally the Blue Army was sent to Poland in April 1919 via land.[14] Piłsudski was opposed to needlessly annoying the Allies, and it has been suggested that he did not care much about the Danzig issue.[16]

In regard to Lithuania, Dmowski didn’t view Lithuanians as having a strong national identity, and viewed their social organisation as tribal. Those areas of Lithuania that had either Polish majorities or minorities were claimed by Dmowski on the grounds of self-determination. In the areas with Polish minorities, the Poles would act as a civilizing influence; only the northern part of Lithuania, which had a solid Lithuanian majority, was Dmowski willing to concede to the Lithuanians.[16] These claims caused Dmowski to have very acrimonious disputes with the Lithuanian delegation at Paris.[17] With regard to the former Austrian province of East Galicia, Dmowski claimed that the local Ukrainians were quite incapable of ruling themselves and also required the civilizing influence of Polish leadership.[18] In addition, Dmowski wished to acquire the oil fields of Galicia.[18] However, only the French supported Polish claims to Galica wholeheartedly. In the end, it was the actual fighting on the ground in Galicia, and not the decisions of the diplomats in Paris, that decided that the region would be part of Poland.[19] The French did not back Dmowski’s aspirations in the Cieszyn Silesia region, and instead supported the claims of Czechoslovakia.[20]

Dmowski himself was disappointed with the Treaty of Versailles, partly because he was strongly opposed to the Minorities Treaty imposed on Poland and partly because he wanted the German-Polish border to be somewhat farther to the west than what the Versailles had allowed. Both of these disappointments Dmowski blamed on what he claimed was the “international Jewish conspiracy”. Throughout his life, Dmowski maintained that the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George had been bribed by a syndicate of German-Jewish financiers to give Poland what Dmowski considered to be an unfavourable frontier with Germany. His relations with Lloyd George were very poor. Dmowski found Lloyd George to be arrogant, unscrupulous and a consistent advocate of ruling against Polish claims to the West and the East.[21] Dmowski was very offended by Lloyd George’s ignorance of Polish affairs and in particular was enraged by his lack of knowledge about river traffic on the Vistula.[21] Dmowski called Lloyd George “the agent of the Jews”.[21]

A political opponent of Józef Piłsudski, Dmowski favored what he called a “national state,” a state in which the citizens would speak Polish and be of the Roman Catholic faith. If Piłsudski’s vision of Poland was Jagiellon, a multinational federation (Międzymorze federation), Dmowski’s vision was the earlier Piast, ethnically and religiously homogeneous. Piłsudski believed in a wide definition of Polish citizenship in which peoples of different languages, cultures and faiths were to be united by a common loyalty to the reborn Polish state. Dmowski regarded Piłsudski’s views as dangerous nonsense, and felt that the presence of large number of ethnic minorities would undermine the security of Polish state. At the Paris Peace Conference, he argued strenuously against the Minority Rights Treaty forced on Poland by the Allies.

Anti-Semitism

Dmowski was an anti-semite and Social Darwinist who saw life as a zero-sum game in which any gain made by one group came at the expense of another. Dmowski often stated his belief in a “international Jewish conspiracy” aimed against Poland. In his essay “Żydzi wobec wojny” (Jews on the War), which comprises pages 301-308 of his 1926 book Polityka Polska i odbudowanie państwa (Polish Politics and the Rebuilding of the State), Dmowski claimed that Zionism was only a cloak to disguise the Jewish ambition to rule the world. Dmowski asserted that once a Jewish state was established in Palestine, this would serve as a nucleus for the Jewish take-over of the world.[22] In the same essay, Dmowski accused the Jews of being Poland‘s most dangerous enemy and of working hand in hand with the Germans to dismember Poland.[6] Dmowski believed that the 3,000,000 Polish Jews could not be assimilated and that they were far too numerous. In his own words, “a little salt may improve the taste of the soup, but too much will spoil it.”[23]

For Dmowski, one of Poland‘s principal problems was that not enough Polish-speaking Catholics were middle-class, while too many ethnic Germans and Jews were. To remedy this perceived problem, he favored a policy of confiscating the wealth of Jews and ethnic Germans and redistributing it to Polish Catholics. Dmowski was never able to have this program passed into law by the Sejm, but the National Democrats did frequently organize “Buy Polish” boycott campaigns against German and Jewish shops. The first of Dmowski’s anti-semitic boycotts occurred in 1912 when he attempted to organize a total boycott of Jewish businesses in Warsaw as “punishment” for the defeat of some Endecja candidates in the elections for the Duma, which Dmowski blamed on Warsaw‘s Jewish population.[24] Throughout his life, Dmowski associated Jews with Germans as Poland’s principal enemies; the origins of this identification stemmed from Dmowski’s deep anger over the forcible “Germanization” policies carried out by the German government against its Polish minority during the Imperial period, and over the fact that most Jews living in the disputed German/Polish territories had chosen to assimilate into German culture, not Polish culture.[25] In Dmowski’s opinion Jewish community was not attracted to the cause of Polish independence and was likely to ally itself with potential enemies of Polish state if it would benefit their status.[25]

Later life

Dmowski was a deputy to the 1919 Sejm and Minister of Foreign Affairs from October to December 1923. When it came time to write a Polish constitution in the early 1920s, the National Democrats insisted upon a weak presidency and strong legislative branch. Dmowski was convinced that Piłsudski would become president, and saw a weak executive mandate as the best way of crippling his rival. The constitution of 1921 did indeed outline a government with a weak executive branch, and a disgusted Piłsudski refused to seek the presidency. Instead, Piłsudski persuaded a friend of his, Gabriel Narutowicz to run for President. When Narutowicz was elected President by the Sejm in 1922, Dmowski was outraged. Narutowicz was elected with the support of the parties representing the Jewish, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Lithuanian and German minorities. In Dmowski’s view the election of Narutowicz was a sign that minorities are powerful in shaping politics of Poland. After Narutowicz’s election, the National Democrats started a major campaign of vilification of the “Jewish president” elected by “foreigners”. Subsequently, a National Democrat Eligiusz Niewiadomski assassinated Narutowicz.

In 1926 Dmowski founded the Camp of Great Poland (Obóz Wielkiej Polski), and in 1928 the National Party (Stronnictwo Narodowe). In 1934, a section of the youth wing of the Endecja found Dmowski insufficiently hardline for their taste and broke away to found the more radical National Radical Camp (known by its Polish acronym as the ONR).[26] Dmowski had long advocated emigration of the entire Jewish population of Poland as the solution to what Dmowski regarded as Poland’s “Jewish problem”,[27] came to argue for increasing harsh measures against the Jewish minority,[28] though Dmowski never advocated killing Jews.[29] His last major campaign was a series of attacks on the alleged “Judeo-Masonic” associates of President Ignacy Mościcki.[29]

Dmowski fell ill in 1937 and moved to the village of Drozdowo near Łomża, where he died on January 2, 1939. He had spent the last few years of his life there.

Dmowski was buried at the Bródno Cemetery (Cmentarz Bródnowski) in Warsaw in the family grave. According to Sanacja sources, disfavourable to Dmowski, the funeral was attended by 100,000 people. According to organizers, funeral was attended by as many as 200,000 people, which would make it the largest national manifestation in interwar Poland.

Recognition

After the fall of communism in Poland, Dmowski’s achievements and merits have began to be recognized. Several important roads and bridges have been named after him. In November 2006 statue of Roman Dmowski was unveiled in Warsaw, engraved with his famous quote Jestem Polakiem więc mam obowiązki polskie (I am Polish, therefore I have Polish obligations). Statue of Dmowski holds the Treaty of Versailles in his left hand.

For his achievement for the independence of Poland and expansion of Polish national consciousness, he was honoured on 8 January 1999 by the Polish Sejm with special legislation. The document honours him also for founding Polish school of political realism and responsibility, shaping Polish (especially Western) borders and “emphasizing the firm connection between Catholicism and Polishness for the survival of the Nation and the rebuilding of the State”.[30]

Works

· Myśli nowoczesnego Polaka (Thoughts of a Modern Pole), 1902.

· Niemcy, Rosja a sprawa polska (Germany, Russia and the Polish Cause), 1908.

· Separatyzm Żydów i jego źródła (Separatism of Jews and its Sources), 1909.

· Upadek myśli konserwatywnej w Polsce (The Decline of Conservative Thought in Poland), 1914.

· Polityka polska i odbudowanie państwa (Polish Politics and the Rebuilding of the State), 1925.

· Zagadnienie rządu (On Government), 1927.

· Kościół, naród i państwo (The Church, Nation and State), 1927.

· Świat powojenny i Polska (The World after War and Poland), 1931.

· Przewrót (The Coup), 1934.

Quotes

· “Wherever we can multiply our forces and our civilizational efforts, absorbing other elements, no law can prohibit us from doing so, as such actions are our duty.”[31]

References

1. a b c d e f g Zamoyski, Adam The Polish Way page 329.

2. Zamoyski pages 329-330.

3. a b c d Zamoyski page 330.

4. Zamoyski page 332.

5. a b c d e f g h Macmillan, Margaret Paris 1919 page 209.

6. a b Mendelsohn, Ezra The Jews of East Central Europe page 38.

7. a b Zamoyski, Adam The Polish Way page 333.

8. a b Zamoyski page 334.

9. Macmillan, Margaret Paris 1919 pages 209-210 & 212.

10. Macmillan pages 212-213.

11. Macmillan page 210.

12. a b c Macmillan page 212.

13. Macmillan page 213.

14. a b c d e f Macmillan pages 213-214.

15. Macmillan page 214.

16. a b Lundgreen-Nielsen, K. The Polish Problem at the Paris Peace Conference pages 131-134 & pages 231-233

17. Lundgreen-Nielsen pages 223-224.

18. a b Lundgreen-Nielsen page 225.

19. Lundgreen-Nielsen pages 225-226.

20. Lundgreen-Nielsen pages 238-240.

21. a b c Lundgreen-Nielsen page 217.

22. Mendelsohn, Ezra The Jews of East Central Europe pages 38 & 261.

23. Paulsson, Gunnar S., Secret City: The Hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940-1945, Yale University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-300-09546-5, Google Books, p. 37

24. ^ Paulsson page 21.

25. a b Paulsson page 41.

26. Paulsson pages 68-70.

27. Paulsson page 39.

28. Paulsson page 70.

29. a b Zamoyski, Adam The Polish Way page 347.

30. Uchwała Sejmu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 8 stycznia 1999 r. o uczczeniu pamięci Romana DmowskiegoPDF (29.7 KB)

31. Tomaszewski J. Kresy Wschodnie w polskiej myśli politycznej XIX i XX w.//Między Polską etniczną a historyczną. Polska myśl polityczna XIX i XX wieku.—T.6.—Warszawa, 1988.—S.101. Cited through: Oleksandr Derhachov (editor), “Ukrainian Statehood in the Twentieth Century: Historical and Political Analysis”, 1996, Kiev ISBN 966-543-040-8

Further reading

· Cang, Joel: “The Opposition Parties in Poland and Their Attitude towards the Jews and the Jewish Question” pages 241-256 from Jewish Social Studies, Volume 1, Issue #2, 1939.

· Davies, Norman “Lloyd George and Poland, 1919-20″” from Journal of Contemporary History, Volume 6, Issue 3, 1971.

· Fountain, Alvin Marcus Roman Dmowski: Party, Tactics, Ideology 1895-1907, Boulder : East European Monographs, 1980 ISBN 0-914710-53-2.

· Groth, Alexander: “Dmowski, Pilsudski and Ethnic Conflict in Pre-1939 Poland” pages 69-91 from Canadian Slavic Studies, Volume 3, 1969.

· Komarnicki, Titus Rebirth of the Polish Republic: A Study in the Diplomatic History of Europe, 1914-1920, London, 1957.

· Lundgreen-Nielsen, K. The Polish Problem at the Paris Peace Conference: A Study in the Policies of the Great Powers and the Poles, 1918-1919: Odense, 1979.

· Macmillan, Margaret Paris 1919 : Six Months That Changed The World, New York : Random House, 2003, 2002, 2001 ISBN 0-375-50826-0.

· Mendelsohn, Ezra The Jews of East Central Europe Between The World Wars, Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1983 ISBN 0-253-33160-9.

· Porter, Brian, When Nationalism Began to Hate. Imagining Modern Politics in Nineteenth-Century Poland, New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-515187-9

· Wandycz, Piotr Stefen “Dmowski’s Policy and the Paris Peace Conference: Success or Failure?” from The Reconstruction of Poland, 1914-23, edited by P. Latawski: London, 1992.

· Wapiński, Roman (1988). Roman Dmowski. Lublin: Wydawnictwo Lubelskie. ISBN 8322204809.

· Zamoyski, Adam The Polish Way A Thousand-Year History of the Poles and their Culture, London: John Murray Ltd, 1987 ISBN 0-7195-4674-5.



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ZIONISM & THE THREE GEARS OF GLOBALIZATION « Cambridge Forecast Group Blog

February 5, 2010 at 5:15 am | Posted in Globalization, History, Israel, Judaica, Third World, USA, World-system, Zionism | Leave a comment

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ZIONISM & THE THREE GEARS OF GLOBALIZATION « Cambridge Forecast Group Blog.

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BERLIN ATMOSPHERE IN WW I: SHMUEL AGNON 1952 NOVEL “TO THIS DAY”

January 18, 2010 at 1:27 am | Posted in Art, Books, Germany, History, Judaica, Literary | Leave a comment

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To This Day

S. Y. Agnon (Author)

Editorial Reviews

From Publishers Weekly

First published in 1952, this subtly woven, comic tale by Nobel Prize–winner Agnon is set in Germany during World War I. A young scholar writing a book on the history of clothing has strayed from his Austrian, Orthodox Jewish roots, ending up in Berlin at the outbreak of war, searching for a quiet place to stay, but compelled to move restlessly from one room to another. A letter by the ailing widow of the renowned Dr. Levy prompts him to set out for Grimma, in the hope of becoming the executor for the doctor’s vast Jewish library; however, he is waylaid in Leipzig by a former actress friend, Brigitta Schimmermann, now a fashionable wife who runs an important nursing hospital. Eventually abandoning his mission, he heads back to Berlin where he moves among boarding houses, befriending the various proprietors and their daughters, meeting war-damaged friends at nightclubs and observing in his detached manner the desperation and decadence of a society on the brink.

Translator Halkin offers a masterly introduction to this deeply moralistic work that portrays the Jew in diaspora with neither country nor room, seeking God’s plan in what might only be happenstance.

From The New Yorker

Published in 1952 and now translated into English for the first time, Agnon’s final novel presents an eccentric tour through First World War Berlin. The narrator, a Galician-born Jew from Palestine, is stranded in Germany, passing his days in search of a place to spend the night amid a severe housing shortage. As he moves through a series of apartments, convinced that there is “a grand conspiracy of rooms” against him, the narrative introduces, drops, and periodically reëncounters characters, among them a famous stage actress running a hospital for invalid soldiers; a young man under her care, too traumatized to speak; and a landlady who fills the bathtub with vegetables and dirty linen. All have stories of their own, leading the novel away from any central thread. Still, Agnon’s young exile, whose thoughts “jumbled everything while forgetting nothing,” gives voice to an idiosyncratic allegory of spiritual homelessness.

Product Details:

· Hardcover: 250 pages

· Publisher: The Toby Press

· April 1, 2008

· Language: English

· ISBN-10: 1592642144

· ISBN-13: 978-1592642144

To This Day

S. Y. Agnon (Author)

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“OUR EYES REGISTER THE LIGHT OF DEAD STARS”: OPENING LINE OF “LAST OF THE JUST” HOLOCAUST NOVEL BY ANDRE SCHWARZ-BART 1959

January 17, 2010 at 6:17 am | Posted in Art, Books, History, Judaica, Literary | Leave a comment

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“THE LAST OF THE JUST”

by Andre Schwarz-Bart

1959 Goncourt Prize

Opening Line of the Novel:

“Our Eyes Register the Light of Dead Stars”

Product Details:

· Paperback: 374 pages

· Publisher: Overlook TP

· January 31, 2000

· Language: English

· ISBN-10: 1585670162

· ISBN-13: 978-1585670161

Comment: originally “Le Dernier des Justes”

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MATERIAL CULTURE IN HISTORY: THE CASE OF JUNO CIGARETTES BERLIN BUSES AND THE HOLOCAUST

January 6, 2010 at 12:29 pm | Posted in Art, Books, Germany, History, Judaica, Literary | Leave a comment

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Material Culture:

The Case of Juno Cigarettes

The advertising banner “Berlin Raucht Juno” (“Berlin smokes Juno cigarettes”) is visible on the sides of buses in several movies such as “The Life and Times of Colonel Blimp”(1943) and “Night Train to Munich.”(1940).

These movie scenes show pre-war and wartime Berlin.

In the book, “Berlin: the Twenties” (Harry Abrams, 2007) a famous photo of Potsdamer Platz, “the Times Square of Berlin”, from 1930, is shown on pages 26 and 27 where a Berlin bus with the “Berlin Raucht Juno” ad banner is seen running along the top of the bus.

Book: Berlin: The Twenties

Berlin: The Twenties

by Rainer Metzger and Christian Brandstetter

(Hardcover – May 1, 2007)

Berlin,” a haunting vision of the twentieth centurys first modern city, is a cultural history filled with 400 shockingly fresh and romantic photographs, paintings, and other images.

In the brief years between the twentieth centurys two cataclysmic world wars, the modern metropolis was invented in Berlin.

Life in Berlin was a cabaret, and Marlene Dietrich, Thomas Mann, Alfred Einstein, or Joseph Goebbels might be seated at the next table. The avant-garde thrived there. The mass media magnified the impact of everything from fads to political ideas. Subcultures and club cultures nurtured gender-bending fashions and lifestyles. Architects and designers struggled to free themselves from the past.

In the background beat the new rhythms of urban experience: the coming and going of the latest planes and trains and automobiles, the clacking of typewriters in vast offices, the jazz band that never sleeps.

“Berlin: The Twenties”

Material Culture:

The Case of Juno Cigarettes II

“Why are Junos round?”

Władysław Szlengel (1914- 1943). One of few poets who lived and wrote poetry in the Ghetto till the very end, poetry that was passed hand to hand. He wrote the poem “Kontratak” in the wake of the armed resistance that met the entry of German units on January 19, 1943. In the three remaining months of the Ghetto’s existence, the poem became akin to the Ghetto’s anthem. Szlengel perished in the Uprising. The poem was found years later hidden between the leaves of a table.

Władysław Szlengel Counterattack

January 18, 1943

Peacefully they walked to the train,
Sick and tired of the daily battle,
Doggedly gaze into the brutal eyes did
The cattle.
The handsome officers gloated
That they are bothered by nothing,
That with a dull step the hordes are marching,
And only for diversion
The whips cracked,
Slashing their faces!
The throng in silence sank to the ground,
Before it dissolved in sobs in cattle cars,
Their blood and tears,
Trickling into the sandy ground,
And the Herrenvolk
Carelessly tossed
little boxes
on the corpses “Warum sind Juno rund?”
Then, on that day,
When on the Stimmung lulled city
They pounced like hyenas in dawn’s early mist,
Then the cattle awakened
And
Bared its teeth . . .
On Miťa Street the first shot was heard,
A gendarme staggered at the gate,
He stared surprised–stood still for a moment,
Patted his shattered arm–
Didn’t believe it.
Something is not right,
Everything went so smooth and straight,
As a favor, because of special influence,
He was turned back from the Eastern Front
(Had a few satisfying days),
Rested in Warsaw,
Driving this cattle in an Aktion,
And cleaning up this pigsty,
But here,
On Mi~la street, BLOOD
The gendarme pulled back from the gate
And swore: I’m really bleeding,
But here Braunings were barking
On Niska,
On Dzika,
On Pawia.
On the crooked stairway,
Where an old mother
Was dragged by the hair,
Lies SS-man Handtke,
Strangely puffed up,
As if he couldn’t digest death,
As if he choked on the revolt.
He belched, spitting up blood
Into the little box Juno sind rund, rund, rund.
Golden epaulets crush the dust,
Everything spins around,
The sky-blue uniform lies
On the spittle-covered stairs
Of the Jewish Pawia Street
And doesn’t know
That at Schultz and Toebbens
Bullets whirl in a joyous song,
REVOLT OF THE MEAT,
REVOLT OF THE MEAT,
REVOLT OF THE MEAT!
Meat spits grenades out the windows.
Meat belches out scarlet flames
And clings to the edges of life!
Hey! What joy to shoot in the eye!
THIS IS THE FRONT, MY LORDS!
THE FRONT – GENTLEMEN SHIRKERS
HIER TRINKT MAN MEHR BIER,
HIER HAT MAN MEHR MUT,
BLUT BLUT BLUT!

Peal off the fair, smooth, leather gloves,
Put your whips aside and helmets on.
Tomorrow issue a press release:
“Penetrated the lines of Toebbens’ block.
Revolt of the meat,
REVOLT OF THE MEAT,
SONG OF THE MEAT!
Hear, O German God,
How the Jews, in the “wild” houses pray,
Clenching in the fist a stick, a stone.
We beg you, O God, for a bloody battle,
We implore you for a violent death,
Let our eyes not see, before we expire,
The stretch of the train tracks,
But let the precise aim of our hand, O Lord,
Stain their livid uniforms with blood,
Let us see, before the mute groan
Shreds our throats,
Our simple human fear in their
Haughty hands, in their whip-wielding paws.
From Niska, Mi-la, and Muranowska Streets,
Like scarlet flowers of blood,
Sprout the flames of our gunbarrels.
This is our Spring! Our Counterattack!
The intoxication of our battle!
These are our partisan forests:
The alleys of Dzika and Ostrowska Streets.
“Block” numbers quiver on breasts,
Medals of the Jewish war.
The cry of six letters flashes in red,
Like a battering ram bellows the word: REVOLT
And on the street, the bloodied.
Trampled packet:
JUNO SIND RUND!

Juno was the name of a German cigarette brand and “Juno sind rund !” (“Juno cigarettes are round!”) was the brand’s advertising slogan.

Władysław Szlengel (1914- 1943). One of few poets who lived and wote poetry in the Ghetto till the very end, poetry that was passed hand to hand. He wrote the poem “Kontratak” in the wake of the armed resistance that met the entry of German units on January 19, 1943. In the three remaining months of the Ghetto’s existence, the poem became akin to the Ghetto’s anthem. Szlengel perished in the Uprising. The poem was found years later hidden between the leaves of a table.

This poem is shown on pages 69-71 of the Holocaust memoir, “I Remember Nothing More,” of Adina Blady Szwajger, Pantheon Books, NY, 1990.

A footnote on page 69 of this book reads:

“Juno cigarettes were round, like today’s cigarettes, at a time when most cigarettes were flat.”

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TAGORE PLAY IN WARSAW GHETTO JULY 1942

December 1, 2009 at 5:25 am | Posted in Art, Books, Germany, History, Judaica, Literary | Leave a comment

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The Warsaw Ghetto:

A Guide to the Perished City

Barbara Engelking and Jacek Leociak

The establishment and liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto has become an icon of the Holocaust experience. Remarkably, a full history of the Ghetto has never been written, despite the publication over some sixty years of numerous memoirs, studies, biographical accounts, and primary documents. The Warsaw Ghetto: A Guide to the Perished City is this history, researched and written with painstaking care and devotion over many years and now published for the first time in English.

The authors explore the history of the ghetto’s evolution, the actual daily experience of its thousands of inhabitants from its creation in 1940 to its liquidation following the uprising of 1943. Encyclopedic in scope, the book encompasses a range of topics from food supplies to education, religious activities to the Judenrat’s administration. Separate chapters deal with the mass deportations to Treblinka and the famous uprising. A series of original maps, along with biographies, a glossary, and a bibliography, completes this masterful work.

Barbara Engelking is professor and chief of the Polish Center for Holocaust Research at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Jacek Leociak is head of the Research Team for Holocaust Literature Study at the Institute for Literary Researches, Polish Academy of Sciences. Both authors live in Warsaw.

Yale University Press

July 13 2009
936 p., 6 1/8 x 9 1/4
250 b/w illus. 36 color and 3 color maps
ISBN: 9780300112344
ISBN-10: 0300112343

The Warsaw Ghetto: A Guide to the Perished City

Barbara Engelking and Jacek Leociak

Tagore Play in the Warsaw Ghetto July 1942

The Post Office

Rabindranath Tagore (Author)

This play by the Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore is one of those pieces of literature that truly deserves to be remembered and admired as it was in London in 1914, when William Butler Yeats remarked that this little play “…is very perfectly constructed and conveys to the right audience an emotion of gentleness and peace.”

To Western eyes, at first glance, a play about a dying child may see morbid. The reader and theatre goer quickly realize, however, that Amal, the moribund boy, simply wants to experience the world through they eyes of a common dairyman and receive a letter from the king. He appreciates the small things in life and wants to live his life to the fullest, without pity or decadence. The thought of death barely enters his mind. It is, then, without coincidence, that the play was aired over the radio during Europe‘s darkest hours under Nazi occupation in World War II. The most poignant performance of the play was in July 1942, in the Warsaw Ghetto, when the Polish doctor, educator, writer, and children’s rights activist Janusz Korczak had the children in his orphanage stage this play. As with the central character, Amal, the children were better able to accept death as part of life, preparing for certain death that awaited them.

The Warsaw Ghetto:

A Guide to the Perished City

Barbara Engelking and Jacek Leociak

Comment: Tagore play discussed in above-mentioned Warsaw book.

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CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: MIDDLE EAST AND WORLD CFG GEOCITIES ARCHIVES

November 4, 2009 at 12:05 pm | Posted in Arabs, Islam, Israel, Judaica, Middle East, Palestine, Research, World-system, Zionism | Leave a comment

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CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP

CFG GEOCITIES ARCHIVAL

MIDDLE EAST & WORLD

01. BANTUSTAN FOR PALESTINIANS

02. BANTUSTAN II

03. CAPTURING US OFFICIALS

04. CHRISTIANS

05. COMMITTEE PRESENT DANGER

06. GENERAL WESLEY CLARK

07. ISRAEL CONFERENCE

08. ISRAEL RESEARCH

09. ISRAEL RESEARCH II

10. JERUSALEM

11. KNESSET MEMBERS

12. KNESSET MEMBERS II

13. OUTSOURCING AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY

14. OUTSOURCING II

15. PALESTINIAN TRANSFER PLANS

16. PATAI AND ZIONIST ARABOLOGY

17. US VETO HISTORY

18. WOOLSEY

19. WOOLSEY II

20. WOOLSEY III

21. WOOLSEY IV

22. WOOLSEY V

23. WOOLSEY VI

24. LEBANON POLICY

25. YEMEN TIMES

26. SHARON CHRISTIANS

27.NEO-CONS AT STRESA CONFERENCE

28.CAPTURING OFFICIALS II

29.CHRISTIAN ANTI-ISLAM

30.CHECHNYA AND NEO-CONS

31.ORWELLO-ZIONISM

32.ISRAEL UNITS

33.ISRAEL UNITS II

34.ISRAEL SPECIAL OPS

35.ISRAELIZATION V AICE

36.ISRAELIZATION VI MUSLIMS

37.ISRAELIZATION VII RADICALIZATION

38.ISRAELIZATION VIII WASHINGTON

39.ISRAELIZATION IX ZOA

40.IAGS COHEN

41.MACROHISTORY

42.ISRAELIZATION III SAUDI TARGET

43.ISRAELIZATION II HERZLIYA

44.ISRAELIZATION I: IASPS

45.ISRAELIZATION IV NEAR EAST

46.NEOCON-ZIONIST MEDIA

47.ZIONIST WORLD ORDER

48.GENTILITY TRICKS

49.GAFFNEY FEITH PERLE

50.CLUB OF ROME AND PRINCE BIN TALAL

51.GREENSTOCK PARALYZED BY NEO-CON/ZIONISTS

52.CAPTURING MEDIA PERSONALITIES FOR ISRAEL: OLIVER NORTH

53.MIDDLE EAST RESEARCH DOCUMENTS

54.KNESSET AND LIKUD FACTS

55.ISRAEL SUPREME COURT VERSUS SHARON WALL

56.UN VETOES FOR ISRAEL BY US

57.UNITED STATES INSITUTE OF PEACE AND CONDOLEEZZA RICE

58.CAPTURING JOHN KERRY AND MANY OTHERS: THE JERUSALEM FUND

59.SPEECHES: SHARON, NETANYAHU, BUSH

60.AJC CAPTURES MAYORS FOR ISRAEL WORLDWIDE

61.US-ISRAEL CONGRESSIONAL CAUCUS SPONSORED BY THE AJC

62.ISRAELIZATION OF WASHINGTON POLICY: THE JCPA

63.RICHARD PERLE AND NEO-CON ZIONISTS MOVE IN ON KAZAKHSTAN AND CENTRAL ASIA

64.CONGRESSMAN BURTON OF INDIANA AND THE RABBIS

65.MIDDLE EAST ECONOMIC REFORM CONFERENCE

66.JERUSALEM SUMMIT II: ISRAEL UNITY COALITION AS CO-SPONSOR

67.PALESTINE INCIDENTS AND ENCROACHMENTS

68.PERES CENTER TRIES FUTILELY TO FUSE ZIONISTS AND PEACE LOVING SCANDINAVIANS

69.PRESIDENT KATSAV OF ISRAEL CAPTURES PRESIDENT GEORGE BUSH: B’NAI B’RITH AND THE JERUSALEM WORLD CENTER

70.SHARON AND MOFAZ E-MAIL ADDRESSES

71.PROMOTING GLOBAL CIVIL WAR UNDER THE CAMOUFLAGE OF TERRORISM-FIGHTING: MEMRI

72.PALESTINIAN LEADERS AS OF AUGUST 28, 2004

73.DOUGLAS FEITH: PENTAGON’S NUMBER THREE OFFICIAL

74.DOUGLAS FEITH: ORGANIZATION CHART PENTAGON

75.CAESAREA RISK CONFERENCES: MAKING MONEY BY FOMENTING CHAOS

76.PROFESSOR DAVID BUKAY AND THE ISLAMOPHOBIA/ARAB-BASHING INDUSTRY

77.KERRY AS ANOTHER DEMOCRATIC ISRAEL SLAVE

78.PERES CENTRE FOR PEACE “GLOCALIZATION” CONFERENCE: ROME, MAY 2004

79.ISRAELIZATION OF WASHINGTON POLICY: MOSSAD OPS AND “TERRORISM” EXPERTS

80.MELSON in “YEMEN TIMES”

81.ISRAEL INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES

82.TERRORISM AS A NEO-CON/ZIONIST “INDUSTRY”

83.PRIME MINISTER’S WEEKLY CABINET MEETING: ISRAEL

84.MORRIS AMITAY AND THE BUYING AND POLITICAL BROWBEATING OF THE US CONGRESS

85.JINSA “CAPTURES” INDIA

86.”ONE JERUSALEM DOT ORG” AS A PRESSURE GROUP BLOCKING ANY SETTLEMENT

87.ARAB-US CONFERENCE, SEPTEMBER, 2004

88.CHRISTIAN ZIONISTS ORGANIZED FOR ISRAEL BY RABBI ECKSTEIN: IFCJ AND ISRAEL SOLIDARITY DAY, OCTOBER 17, 2004

89.OMAN OUTLOOK BY KATZ

90.IRAN AS NEXT TARGET ON NEO-CON ZIONIST HIT LIST?

91.NEWT GINGRICH AS NEO-CON ZIONIST EXTREMIST

92.SENATOR SAM BROWNBACK, REPUBLICAN OF KANSAS: CHRISTIAN ZIONISM AND JERUSALEM SUMMITS

93.JERUSALEM SUMMITS ASIA: MANILA, AUGUST, 2004

94.ISLAM-BASHING: “JEWISH WORLD REVIEW” AS HEADQUARTERS OF ISLAMOPHOBIA

95.GOVERNOR GEORGE PATAKI OF NEW YORK AND HIS WIFE LIBBY LABORING FOR SHARON

96.GOVERNOR ZELL MILLER OF GEORGIA AND THE ISRAELIZATION PROCESS AT THE STATE LEVEL

97.BUYING CONGRESS, 2004: ISRAEL PAC MONEY

98.ISLAMIC FINANCE FORUM: THIRD WORLD DEVELOPMENT AS NEW GLOBAL ECONOMIC ENGINE?

99.ISLAMOPHOBIA AS NEW ZIONIST-LEAD GLOBAL JERUSALEM-BASED “HATE INDUSTRY”?

100.ARIEL CENTER: THINK TANK FOR SHAMIR, ARENS, AND OTHER EXPANSION-ORIENTED “LEBENSRAUM” ZIONISTS

101.SHARON “BANTUSTAN PLAN” FOR PALESTINIANS: PRESERVING A MINIMAL FIGLEAF FOR THE AMERICANS

102.PHILIP ZELIKOW, “9/11 COMMISSION,” CONDOLEEZZA RICE, PFIAB: ISRAEL AS REAL MOTIVE FOR IRAQ WAR

103.”YEMEN TIMES” MELSON PIECE FOR SEPTEMBER 6, 2004: SHARON TRUE NATURE

104.SCHOLASTIC ISLAMOPHOBIA AND OPPORTUNISTIC ARCHEOLOGY AS PRIME TOOLS IN NEO-CON ZIONIST THIEVES’ TOOLBOX: GAMLA

105.ISRA-AMERICA: WASHINGTON AS A SATELLITE OF ISRAEL NEO-CON GROUPING

106.SENATOR JOHN McCAIN AND ISRAEL: THE IRI SETTING

107.IRAN IN THE CROSSHAIRS: TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY ANALYSIS

108.MUSLIMS WORLDWIDE IN THE ZIONIST NEO-CON CROSSHAIRS: JERUSALEM SUMMIT II, NOVEMBER 2004

109.YURI SHTERN OF THE KNESSET TARGETS MUSLIMS WORLDWIDE: JERUSALEM SUMMIT II, NOVEMBER 2004

110.CAUCASUS: TEL AVIV ANALYSIS

111.THREE ISLAMIC STRATEGIES: FROM ZINOVIEV in 1920 THROUGH SHARON/SHTERN in 2004

112.ISRAEL OPINION POLL

113.SEPTEMBER CONFERENCE IN WASHINGTON: US/ARAB

114.KERRY/EDWARDS, JEWS, ISRAEL

115.SETTLER MOVEMENT IN ISRAEL: YESHA

116.ISRAEL AND ORWELLO-ZIONIST SECURITY ANALYSES

117.LETTER FROM YURI SHTERN: CHAIRMAN OF KNESSET CHRISTIAN ALLIES CAUCUS

118.HERZLIYA CONFERENCES: ISRAELIZATION OF IRAQ AND WASHINGTON’S IRAQ POLICY

119.SHARON, NETANYAHU, SETTLERS: LIKUD SQUABBLES

120.KERRY: MEL LEVINE KEEPS KERRY IN LINE FOR AIPAC

121.FOURTH ICT HERZLIYA INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, SEPTEMBER 11-14, 2004: ROPING IN MUSLIM LEADERS

122.SOME CONTACTS: ISRAEL AND RUSSIA

123.KERRY ISRAEL SPEECHES

124.ISLAMIC FINANCE ASIA CONFERENCE: SEPTEMBER 2004

125.MUSLIM WORLD: 9/11

126.CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP BOOKS PUBLISHED IN JAPAN RECENTLY: MIDDLE EAST AND THE WORLD: I

127.CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP BOOKS PUBLISHED IN JAPAN: MIDDLE EAST AND THE WORLD: II

128.JAPAN BOOKS OF CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: MIDDLE EAST, JAPAN, WORLD: III

129.JAPAN BOOKS OF CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: MIDDLE EAST, JAPAN, WORLD: IV

130.JAPAN BOOKS OF CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: MIDDLE EAST, JAPAN, WORLD: V

131.JAPAN BOOKS OF CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: MIDDLE EAST, JAPAN, WORLD: VI

132.ISRAEL’S ANTI-PALESTINIAN PROPAGANDA MACHINERY: “PALESTINE MEDIA WATCH”

133.GENERAL JAY GARNER AND THE PLANNED NEO-CON/ZIONIST ISRAELIZATION OF IRAQ

134.TWO CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP BOOKS FROM JAPAN

135.HERZLIYA CONFERENCES: “SISTER” OF “JERUSALEM SUMMITS” IN BUILDING A NEW ZIONIST WORLD ORDER

136.NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT, AUGUST 2004 SUMMIT: PALESTINE

137.KERRY AS ISRAEL SUPPORTER

138.FOREIGN MINISTER OF ISRAEL’S UN SPEECH

139.MUSLIMS AND JEWS IN THE WORLD SYSTEM

140.ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS IN PALESTINE DESIGNED BY SHARON TO KILL TWO-STATE SOLUTION VIA CREEPING ANNEXATION

141.ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS IN PALESTINE DESIGNED BY SHARON TO KILL TWO-STATE SOLUTION VIA CREEPING ANNEXATION PART II

142.ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS IN PALESTINE DESIGNED BY SHARON TO KILL TWO-STATE SOLUTION VIA CREEPING ANNEXATION PART III

143.WORLD ISLAMIC BANKING CONFERENCE: BAHRAIN, DECEMBER 11, 2004

144.MIDDLE EAST MAPS: FROM CIA FACTBOOK

145.SHIMON PERES OF ISRAEL AND THE PROBLEM OF “GLOBALONEY”

146.CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: WHAT IS THE BASIC PROBLEM THAT WE ANALYZE?

147.SYRIA AND LEBANON: TAU-NOTES 112

148.SABEEL JERUSALEM CONFERENCE AGAINST “CHRISTIAN ZIONISM”: APRIL 2004

149.KERRY-EDWARDS CAMPAIGN: JEWS, ISRAEL, FLORIDA

150.MUSLIMS AND JEWS IN THE “WORLD SYSTEM”

151.SABEEL ACTIVITY AND PALESTINIAN CHRISTIANS

152.MISUSING ISLAM FOR ZIONIST ENDS

153.KNESSET: PHONE AND FAX NUMBERS

154.KERRY SUNDAY OCTOBER 3, 2004 JEWISH CONFERENCE

155.SHARON WEEKLY CABINET MEETING: SEPTEMBER 26, 2004

156.SHARON SPEECHES: JULY 2004

157.PUBLIC COMMITTEE AGAINST TORTURE IN ISRAEL

158.BERNARD SHAPIRO WANTS SHARON TO STEP UP ETHNIC CLEANSING OF TERRITORIES

159.BUSH NEED TO CATER TO CHRISTIAN FUNDAMENTALISTS’ ISLAMOPHOBIA USEFUL NEO-CON ISRAEL TOOL

160.MAYOR OF JERUSALEM, LUPOLIANSKI, SPEEDS UP ANTI-ARAB ETHNIC CLEANSING

161.KERRY-EDWARDS ON MIDDLE EAST PEACE FROM “OUR PLAN FOR AMERICA.”

162.KERRY AND JEWISH SUPPORTERS

163.GAZA DISENGAGEMENT AS PURE BLUFF

164.ISRAEL’S NUCLEAR STRATEGY: PROFESSOR BERES AND “PROJECT DANIEL”

165.ELON “TRANSFER” PLAN: JORDAN IS PALESTINE REVISITED

166.RABBIS PROMOTE RABID ISLAMOPHOBIA IN RUSSIA

167.ISRAEL-PALESTINE-INTERNATIONAL WATER CONFERENCE: II

168.DEIR YASSIN AND “THE LITTLE DRUMMER GIRL”

169.DEIR YASSIN REMEMBERED

170.TERRORISM CENTER NEAR TEL AVIV: DEMONIZING THE PALESTINIANS

171.NEWSPAPER OP-ED CONTACTS FOR MIDDLE EAST

172.PROFESSOR LOUIS BERES OF PURDUE: SHARON’S NUCLEAR STRATEGY ADVISOR

173.KERRY AND ISRAEL-WORSHIP: CONTINUED

174.HEALTH IN GAZA: DEBATE

175.ICEJ AND SHARON: UTILITY OF CHRISTIAN ZIONISM FOR SHARON’S VISIONS AND STRATEGIES

176.”B’SHEVA” WEEKLY NEWSPAPER’S “JERUSALEM CONFERENCE”: MARCH 2004

177.TWO RADICAL ZIONIST LECTURERS

178.PCATI LETTER ON ASSASSINATIONS BY ISRAEL

179.”BRIDGES FOR PEACE” GROUP & VIRULENT CHRISTIAN ISLAMOPHOBIA

180.INTERNATIONAL FELLOWSHIP OF CHRISTIANS AND JEWS: “WINGS OF EAGLES” PROGRAM

181.DORE GOLD’S “NGO MONITOR”

182.ISRAEL DEATH SQUADS: SEQUEL

183.JUDEOCENTRISM AS A BLOCKAGE OF WORLD POLITICS

184.JUDEOCENTRISM AS A BLOCKAGE OF WORLD POLITICS AND PALESTINE

185.SHARON BUSH LETTERS OF APRIL 2004 PLUS ISRAEL GOVERNMENT CABINET COMMUNIQUE

186.MOSSAD AND METSADA ASSASSINS

187.LECTURE ON SAUDI ARABIA

188.”ARAB DECLINE”: ESSAY FROM DAYAN CENTER

189.”JERUSALEM ISSUE BRIEF”: OCTOBER 2004

190.CONTACTING NETANYAHU

191.MISUSING THE HOLOCAUST FOR ZIONISM “SALES”

192.”BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL”: “PALESTINE”

193.ISRAEL: PRESBYTERIANS VERSUS JEWS

194.LETTER TO LIKUD CENTRAL COMMITTEE

195.MUNICH CONFERENCE: FEBRUARY 2004

196.MUNICH CONFERENCE PHOTOS: FEBRUARY 2004

197.BERLIN CONFERENCE AND ELIE WIESEL: APRIL 2004

198.SHARON KNESSET SPEECH OCTOBER 25, 2004: PUSHING FOR A GAZA “BANTUSTAN” FOR THE PALESTINIANS

199.TAU NOTES # 113: TUNISIA

200.JERUSALEM SUMMIT II: NOVEMBER 2004. TOWARDS A “ZIONIST NEW WORLD ORDER”

201.JERUSALEM SUMMIT II: NOVEMBER 2004. TOWARDS A “ZIONIST NEW WORLD ORDER.” SENATOR BROWNBACK

202.RICHARD MELSON 2003 PIECES

203.HUDSON INSTITUTE GOES INTO RADICAL ISLAMOPHOBIA

204.TAU NOTES 114: POST-ARAFAT

205.OLIVE HARVEST WEST BANK: ACRI

206.RABBIS HUMAN RIGHTS

207.REPUBLICAN JEWISH COALITION

208.ARABS RIGHTS ISRAEL

209.”SYRIA REPORT”

210.PHYSICIANS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS-ISRAEL

211.BERES “PROJECT DANIEL”

212.MIDDLE EAST FORUM: DANIEL PIPES

213.PROF. DAVID BUKAY’S “ISLAM-WATCHING”: PART II

214.”MACCABEAN ONLINE”

215.MANHIGUT YEHUDIT(“JEWISH LEADERSHIP”)

216.MOLEDET AND “TRANSFER” OF PALESTINIANS

217.AMERICAN “MOLEDET”: CONTACT INFO

218.ARAB NETWORK HUMAN RIGHTS: NOVEMBER 2004

219.PALESTINIAN EXILE IN VIENNA

220.PALESTINE CONFERENCE

221.ISRAEL21c: SHOVAL PIECE

222.PALESTINE SURVEYS

223.NETANYAHU: CONTACT INFO

224.POLLING PALESTINE: CONTACT INFO

225.”JERUSALEM ISSUE BRIEF”: “HAMAS-STAN”

226.AMERICAN TASK FORCE ON PALESTINE

227.ARUTZ SHEVA

228.MPAC NEWS

229.JERUSALEM NEWSWIRE: CHRISTIAN ZIONIST-FUNDAMENTALIST

230.MONTREAL MUSLIM NEWS: “NEW ELECTORAL MAP”

231.JERUSALEM FUND AND PALESTINE CENTER

232.HEBRON IMPLACABLES

233.CASPIAN OIL PIPELINES

234.PALESTINE MEDIA WATCH

235.CHRISTIAN ACTION FOR ISRAEL

236.”END THE OCCUPATION”

237.PALESTINE REPORT

238.ONEJERUSALEM.ORG: SHARANSKY BOOK AND “BUSH-CAPTURE”

239.AMAN: ISRAEL INTELLIGENCE

240.”YESH GVUL”: “THERE IS A LIMIT”

241.JEWISH ALLIANCE FOR JUSTICE AND PEACE

242.MIFTAH: HANAN ASHRAWI AND RASHID KHALIDI

243.PALESTINE CENTER PUBLIC OPINION: POLL

244.”B’TSELEM”: ISRAELI INFORMATION CENTER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS

245.JEWISH VOICE FOR PEACE

246.”EI”: ELECTRONIC INTIFADA

247.SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS

247.SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS: U.S. VOTING RECORD

248.”MIFKAD”: PEOPLE’S VOICE PEACE INITIATIVE

249.PALESTINE WEAPONS

250.REDRESS WEBSITE: AVNERY

251.WORLD ISLAMIC BANKING CONFERENCE: BAHRAIN, DECEMBER 11, 2004

252.ISRAEL ACADEMIA MONITOR: DANIEL PIPES-TYPE WATCHDOG

253.AL-HAQ

254.THE PALESTINIAN HUMAN RIGHTS MONITORING GROUP

255.THE WASHINGTON REPORT ON MIDDLE EAST AFFAIRS

256.JEWS FOR JUSTICE FOR PALESTINIANS

257.ADDAMEER PRISONER’S SUPPORT AND HUMAN RIGHTS ASSOCIATION

258.MERIA NEWS

259.IAGS: ENERGY “ZIONOMICS”

260.IASPS: JERUSALEM-WASHINGTON THINK TANK

261.ECONOMIC RESEARCH FORUM: CAIRO MIDDLE EAST THINK TANK

262.BITTERLEMONS AND BITTERLEMONS INTERNATIONAL

263.MIDDLE EAST NEWSLINE

264.ISRAEL INSIDER WEEKLY BRIEFING

265.WASHINGTON KURDISH INSTITUTE

266.ADALAH RIGHTS MOVEMENT

267.WORLD ISLAMIC BANKING CONFERENCE: WIBC

268.GUYSEN ISRAEL NEWS

269.ALAQSA INTIFADA

270.ISRAELI COMMITTEE AGAINST HOUSE DEMOLITIONS

271.PALESTINE NATIONAL INITIATIVE

272.MACHSOM AND ISRAELI CHECKPOINTS

273.ALTERNATIVE INFORMATION CENTER

274.FOUNDATION FOR MIDDLE EAST PEACE

275.PARENTS CIRCLE

276.BUSINESS MONITOR INTERNATIONAL: QATAR ENERGY

277.GUSH SHALOM: PEACE BLOC

278.GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS: DUBAI DECEMBER 2004 GISTEC CONFERENCE

279.BLOG: LAURA ROZEN

280.MAPS: REFERENCE MATERIALS

281.GLOBES: REFERENCE MATERIALS

282.STOP THE WALL

283.CCFI: SAUDI ARABIA

284.AME INFO: UAE

285.JIF BANK: JORDAN

286.MENAFN

287.BENADOR ASSOCIATES: NEO-CON PR FIRM

288.SHUAA CAPITAL

289.MIDDLE EAST ECONOMIC SURVEY: MEES

290.MIDDLE EAST ECONOMIC DIGEST: MEED

291.GIC: KUWAIT

292.ALJAZEERA NEWS

293.TAIB

294.OMAN ARAB BANK

295.SICO: BAHRAIN

296.STANDARD CHARTERED BANK: JORDAN

297.KAMCO: KUWAIT

298.HERMES: EGYPT

299.YKB BANK: TURKEY

300.BAKHEET FINANCIAL ADVISORS: SAUDI

301.BMI DAILY MIDDLE EAST

302.BANK AUDI: LEBANON

303.EF BANK: JORDAN

304.DANIEL PIPES

305.OPEC: VIENNA PRESS RELEASE

306.CENTRAL BANK OF TURKEY

307.BADIL: PALESTINE

308.MUSLIM WORLD INITIATIVE: USIP AND DANIEL PIPES

309.CENTRE GLOBAL ENERGY STUDIES: SHEIK YAMANI IN LONDON

310.FORUM FOR THE FUTURE: RABAT

311.ATLAS INVESTMENT GROUP: AMMAN JORDAN

312.BLOMINVEST: BEIRUT LEBANON

313.RIYAD BANK

314.SAUDI-AMERICAN FORUM: BOOK SERIAL

315.TRADE ARABIA

316.MIDDLE EAST INFO: DANIEL KATZ NEO-CON SITE

317.IRAQ FOUNDATION

318.IRAQ FOUNDATION FOR DEVELOPMENT AND DEMOCRACY

319.ZAWYA

320.CASPIAN STUDIES: IRANIAN OIL AND GAS

321.PALESTINE CENTER: JERUSALEM FUND ANNOUNCEMENT

322.SOUTH CENTRE

323.IPCRI: BASKIN

324.GLOBES: ISRAEL MARKETS & TECH UPDATE

325.SETTLEMENTS: OCCUPIED TERRITORIES

326.MIDDLE EAST WEB

327.SAUDI INFORMATION: SEE MAP

328.THE SAUDI BRITISH BANK

329.SAMA: SAUDI ARABIAN MONETARY AUTHORITY

330.AL RAJHI BANK: SAUDI ARABIA

331.AN-NAJAH UNIVERSITY: NABLUS

332.MEMRI

333.JERUSALEM REPORT

334.THINK ISRAEL

335.COMMITTEE ON THE PRESENT DANGER: JAMES WOOLSEY & GEORGE SHULTZ

336.HDIP: RAMALLAH

337.AL MEZAN INSTITUTE: GAZA

338.WAFA: PALESTINE NEWS AGENCY TWO PHOTOS

339.AL-DAMEER

340.PALESTINE CENTER FOR PUBLIC OPINION

341.MIDDLE EAST POLICY COUNCIL

342.NATIONAL COMMERCIAL BANK: ALAHLI SAUDI ARABIA

343.JTA

344.JEWISH WORLD REVIEW

345.NEW ENGLAND COMMITTEE TO DEFEND PALESTINE

346.MUSLIM PUBLIC AFFAIRS COUNCIL: MPAC

347.ARAB RESEARCH INSTITUTE JERUSALEM: ARIJ

348.PALESTINE MONITOR

349.ARAB FINANCE CORPORATION: BEIRUT

350.YORAM ETTINGER: JERUSALEM BOARDROOM & JERUSALEM CLOAKROOM

351.MILLI GAZETTE: MUSLIM INDIA MELSON

352.KIRKUK: IRAQ TURKMEN

353.CONFERENCE OF PRESIDENTS OF MAJOR AMERICAN JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS: DAILY ALERT

354.JIHAD WATCH

355.AL-HEWAR: VIENNA VIRGINIA

356.THE FOUNDATION FOR INDO-TURKIC STUDIES: GAJENDRA SINGH

357.CAIR: ISLAMIC COUNCIL WASHINGTON DC

358.US EMBASSY: BAGHDAD

359.ZAMAN ONLINE: TURKEY

360.MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS: ISRAEL

361.MUSLIM UZBEKISTAN

362.JONATHAN POLLARD

363.MUSLIM COUNCIL

364.MOVEMENT OF ISLAMIC REFORM IN ARABIA: MIRA

365.COLLEGE OF JUDEA AND SAMARIA: ZIONIST SETTLER COLLEGE

366.WISDOM FUND

367.AMERICAN MUSLIM PERSPECTIVE: RAND STUDY

368.SYRIA REPORT: UPDATED WEBSITE

369.THE OTHER ISRAEL: TOI

370.SCIRI: IRAQ

371.CHECHNYA ADVOCACY NETWORK: CAN

372.TURKISH PRESS

373.ZIONIST DOMINATION US-CHINA POLICY

374.KHILAFAH: ISRAEL PALESTINE PAKISTAN

375.NATIONAL BANK OF KUWAIT: NBK

376.TEL AVIV NOTES 119: EGYPT-ISRAEL TRADE AGREEMENT

377.JEWISH NATIONAL FUND: JNF

378.SAUDI-US RELATIONS

379.AL-BAWABA

380.PHYSICIANS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS

381.PALESTINE CHRONICLE

382.HAARETZ HEADLINES

383.BRITAIN ISRAEL COMMUNICATIONS AND RESEARCH CENTRE: BICOM

384.PUBLIC COMMITTEE AGAINST TORTURE IN ISRAEL: PCATI

385.IRAQ-WAR.RU: RUSSIA IRAQ SITE MELSON ESSAY

386.IMRA: THE KNESSET FORUM ARTICLE

387.ROOT AND BRANCH ASSOCIATION: RBA ISRAEL

388.FREEMAN CENTER

389.GLORIA: MIDDLE EAST REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

390.ARAB MEDIA WATCH: LONDON

391.KNESSET FORUM ON THE MIDDLE EAST

392.RAFAH: HOUSE DEMOLITIONS PALESTINE

393.IF AMERICANS KNEW: PAUL FINDLEY GROUP

394.WOMEN IN GREEN

395.VOICE OF JUDEA

396.THE DAVID PROJECT: BOSTON

397.PALESTINE RED CRESCENT SOCIETY

398.PALESTINE MEDIA WATCH: ACTION

399.MIDDLE EAST REALITIES: WASHINGTON

400.DAR AL-HAYAT: MELSON

401.WALID PHARES: CHRISTIAN ZIONIST ARAB

402.ABU MAZEN: PALESTINE

403.TAU NOTES: LIBYA & SAUDI ARABIA

404.AL-AHRAM, CAIRO: MELSON LETTERS

405.ARAB TIMES, KUWAIT: MELSON LETTER

406.ONE JERUSALEM: SHARANSKY

407.WESTERN MUSLIMS: TARIQ RAMADAN BOOK

408.TARIQ RAMADAN WEBSITE

409.DAYAN CENTER: MAURETANIA COUP

410.IMVP MIT: CARS

411.ALJAZEERAH.INFO ARTICLE: GAJENDRA SINGH

412.SOUTH BULLETIN NO.109: SOUTH CENTRE GENEVA

413.MUSLIMS INDIA: MILLI GAZETTE

414.GOLD INDIA: GFMS LONDON

415.REVAVA MOVEMENT: ISRAELI SETTLERS

416.PA DEMOGRAPHICS

417.JCPA: JERUSALEM ISSUE BRIEF DORE GOLD

418.SAVE GUSH KATIF

419.THE INVISIBLE WEAPON: DANIEL HEADRICK BOOK

420.GUSH SHALOM: URI AVNERY PEACE BLOC

MIDDLE EAST & WORLD

01. SERVICES TRADE

02. CASPIAN OIL

03. MERIA: RELIGIOUS MINORITIES EGYPT

04. MERIA: IRAQ

05. GLOBAL ISRAEL ALLIANCE

06. IMOPA: PALESTINE

07. BARGHOUTHI: PALESTINE POLITICS

08. MERETZ

09. IDF SUPPORT GROUP: USA

10. SAKAKINI: PALESTINE CULTURE

11. PALESTINE COMMISSION CITIZENS RIGHTS

12. AL-QUDS

13. JERUSALEM NEWSLETTER: “OUT OF ZION”

14. JINSA: JEWISH INSTITUTE FOR NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS

15. ISLAMIC FINANCE: LONDON

16. JAFFEE ASSESSMENT

17. ARABIC NEWS

18. TAU NOTES 122: TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY

19. TAU NOTES 121

20. PALESTINIAN NATIONAL AUTHORITY

21. ISRAEL POLICY FORUM

22. AN-NAJAH OPINION POLL

23. EGYPT ECONOMIC FORUM

24. SETTLEMENTS: MAP

25. ARAB DECISION

26. ARAB MONITOR: ITALY

27. INDIA: MIDDLE EAST

28. PALESTINE: INFO

29. QUMSIYEH

30. STOP THE WALL ORGANIZATION: MAPS

31. CAPITAL INTELLIGENCE CYPRUS: TUNISIA BANK

32. AMERICAN-ARAB ANTI-DISCRIMINATION COMMITTEE

33. DAYAN CENTER: ARAB DECLINE

34. STAND FOR ISRAEL: ISRAEL DAY

35. ARAB RIGHTS

36. PALESTINE SURVEY RESEARCH

37. WAFA: PALESTINE

38. WOMEN IN GREEN: RUTH MATAR LETTER

39. SOUTH BULLETIN 89: SOUTH CENTRE

40. TERRORISM RESEARCH: ISRAEL

41. JEWISH ALLIANCE FOR JUSTICE AND PEACE

42. MER: MIDDLE EAST RESEARCH

43. KESHEV: MEDIA ISRAEL

44. RAPHI: ULTRA-ZIONISM

45. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: HOW TO PREDICT THE FUTURE

46. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: ECONOMIC GROWTH AND HUMAN CAPITAL

47. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH VIA THIRD WORLD DEVELOPMENT

48. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: WORLD ECONOMY FROM CHARLEMAGNE

49. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: REAGAN REVOLUTION

50. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS

51. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: THIRD WORLD PHOBIA

52. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: LAWRENCE FEINER

53. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: LAWRENCE FEINER DISCUSSION II

54. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: FUTURE ENGINE OF GROWTH

55. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: BOOK PROPOSAL 1998

56. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: FIRST JAPAN NEWSLETTER 1982

57. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: FIRST AMERICAN NEWSLETTER 1979

58. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: JAPAN BOOK 1989: NEW AMERICAN GLOBALISM

59. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: JAPAN BOOK 1991: DECADE TO COME

60. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: JAPAN BOOK 1995: STRUCTURE OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

61. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: JEWS VERSUS BLACKS AND THE THIRD WORLD: EMERGING WORLD ECONOMY AND ETHNIC TENSIONS

62. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: JUDEOCENTRISM AND WORLD POLITICS

63. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: MUSLIMS AND JEWS IN THE WORLD SYSTEM

64. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: MUSLIMS AND JEWS IN THE WORLD SYSTEM II

65. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: NEW JAPANESE BOOK

66. SHARON LETTER & E-MAIL

67. ISRAELI FACES: OCCUPATION CHIEFS

68. ISRAELI FACES: OCCUPATION CHIEFS II

69. ISRAELI FACES: OCCUPATION CHIEFS III

70. OPEC: PRESS RELEASE FROM VIENNA

71. ROOT AND BRANCH ASSOCIATION: ISRAEL

72. IMRA: MANHIGUT YEHUDIT ISRAEL

73. PRISM: ISLAMIST MOVEMENTS REUVEN PAZ ISRAEL

74. GLOBAL BEAT

75. EMPIRE: MISES INSTITUTE

76. JEWS FOR JUSTICE FOR PALESTINIANS

77. AL-AWDA: PALESTINE RETURN

78. INEAS: CAMBRIDGE

79. MAFQUD: CAMBRIDGE

80. VANUNU CAMPAIGN

81. CASPIAN OIL UPDATE

82. NBK UPDATE: FEBRUARY 2005 KUWAIT

83. TAIB BANK

84. CHATHAM HOUSE: LONDON

85. MINING INDONESIA: NEWSLETTER

86. DAILY STAR: LEBANON

87. YALE GLOBAL

88. SHUAA CAPITAL

89. AXIS OF LOGIC

90. TAU NOTES: IRAQ AFTER THE ELECTIONS

91. PMWATCH

92. MUNICH CONFERENCE ON SECURITY

93. JERUSALEM NEWSWIRE: CHRISTIAN ZIONISM

94. ZIONIST NEW WORLD ORDER? MELSON

95. CHECHYNA PEACE COMMITTEE: ZBIGNIEW BRZEZINSKI

96. KHALEEJ TIMES ONLINE: DUBAI

97. WOMEN FOR WOMEN: IRAQ

98. GLOBAL POLICY FORUM: IRAQ

99. ARAB NEWS ONLINE

100. MERIP: DAVID AND MEYRAV WURMSER

101. IRAQI DEMOCRATS AGAINST OCCUPATION: IDAO

102. US EMBASSY: BAGHDAD IRAQ

103. ZIONISM VERSUS JEWS

104. KAVKAZ CENTER: CHECHNYA

105. JUAN COLE: FEITH RESIGNATION

106. MANAGING THE ATOM HARVARD: IRAN

107. SOUTH BULLETIN: SOUTH CENTRE

108. CAUCASUS REPORTING SERVICE: IWPR LONDON

109. ADALAH: ARAB RIGHTS ISRAEL

110. COUNCIL FOR THE NATIONAL INTEREST: PALESTINE

111. ISLAMIC-FINANCE.COM: LONDON JEDDAH CONFERENCE DETAILS

112. PRIME EGYPT GROUP

113. SAUDI-US NEWS

114. USELESS-KNOWLEDGE.COM: FEITH AND SISMI

115. AMERICANS FOR A SAFE ISRAEL: AFSI

116. YKB BANK: TURKEY BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

117. WORLD ISLAMIC LEAGUE: LONDON

118. SETTLEMENTS: JANUARY 2005 UPDATE

119. THE WISDOM FUND

120. CAMPUS WATCH: NEO-CONS AND PIPES

121. DAR AL-HAYAT: SAUDI ARABIA

122. SEPHARDIC POLITICS

123. CENTRE FOR GLOBAL ENERGY STUDIES: LONDON

124. JERUSALEM CENTER: DORE GOLD AND HUDNA

125. TURKISH PRESS

126. ISRAEL DEATH SQUADS: MUSLIM WAKE UP!

127. RAFAH REPORTS: MELSON

128. CENTRAL BANK OF TURKEY: ALERT

129. OUR QURAN AND MUSLIM REVIVAL: MELSON

130. ASSYRIA

131. ARAB TIMES: MELSON

132. SEEDS OF PEACE: NEW YORK

133. INDIA MUSLIMS: MILLI GAZETTE

134. FREEMAN CENTER

135. STATE DEPARTMENT: WASHINGTON FILE MIDEAST

136. RAMALLAH ONLINE FORUM: MELSON

137. ASIA TIMES FORUM: ELIE WIESEL ZIONIZES EUROPE

138. THE GLOBALIST

139. LONG-TERM HISTORICAL CHANGE: PETER TURCHIN

140. ISRAELI FACES: OCCUPATION CHIEFS

141. MUSLIM PROFESSIONALS UK: MELSON

142. JERUSALEM BOARDROOM

143. PALESTINE SURVEY RESEARCH: EXIT POLLS

144. PAKISTAN TRIBUNE FORUM: MELSON JERUSALEM

145. JEDDAH CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY: JCCI

146. MWU: RICHARDHOT ITEMS

147. PALESTINE PRESS RELEASES: HEALTH AND THE WALL

148. TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY NOTES: TAU-124

149. INTELLIGENCE: C.S.S ISRAEL

150. SCIRI: IRAQ AND LONDON

151. ARAB BRITISH CHAMBER OF COMMERCE

152. GUSH-SHALOM: URI AVNERY

153. OCCUPATION WATCH: IRAQ

154. CASPIAN OIL: CONFERENCE IN TURKEY

155. KURDS: WKI WASHINGTON

156. TRADE ARABIA

157. NBK: NATIONAL BANK OF KUWAIT

158. NBK: NATIONAL BANK OF KUWAIT II

159. THINK ISRAEL

160. TAU NOTES 125: TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY

161. BIS REVIEW: FEBRUARY 2005

162. IPS: IRAQ INVASION ON BEHALF OF ISRAEL

163. U.S. CENTCOM: MILITARY IN IRAQ

164. LEBANON-WIRE

165. JEDDAH ECONOMIC FORUM

166. JERUSALEM SUMMIT II: NOVEMBER 2004

167. MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS: MFA ISRAEL

168. DAREMAR: DAMASCUS

169. DAILY STAR: BEIRUT MICHAEL YOUNG OPINION EDITOR

170. IPCRI

171. AL-JARIDA: MOROCCO

172. CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: GOOGLE SEARCH

173. NCB BANK: SAUDI ARABIA JEDDAH

174. HILL AND KNOWLTON: BAHRAIN

175. TURKEY BUDGET: YAP KREDI BANK

176. CAPITAL INTELLIGENCE: OMAN

177. PUK: KURDS

178. TRADE FORUM: GENEVA

179. TAU NOTES 126: LEBANON

180. FOREIGN POLICY ASSOCIATION(FPA): GLOBAL IMBALANCES

181. OXFORD CENTRE: MIDDLE EAST DIALOGUE

182. OXFORD CENTRE: WARSAW GHETTO PICTURE

183. PALESTINE-JAPAN: FOREIGN PRESS CENTER JAPAN

184. JAPAN-MIDDLE EAST AGRICULTURE

185. GLOCOM: JAPAN MIDDLE EAST GLOBAL

186. ITTO: TROPICAL TIMBER ORGANIZATION JAPAN

187. IIMA TOKYO: JAPAN MIDDLE EAST GLOBAL

188. ZION NET

189. IRAQI NATIONAL CONGRESS: CHALABI

190. IRAQ MEMORY FOUNDATION: KANAN MAKIYA

191. ISLAMIC BANKING CONFERENCE: SINGAPORE WITH AL GORE

192. SOUTH CENTRE BULLETIN: BIODIVERSITY

193. SYRIA REPORT NEWSLETTER

194. MERIA: MARCH 2005 HIZBALLAH LEBANON

195. BIS REVIEWS: No. 12 and 13

196. HERZLIYA CONFERENCE: MELSON PIECE TEMPOINTERAKTIF INDONESIA

197. CATHOLIC NEWS: PALESTINE AS CENTRAL ISSUE

198. MIDDLE EAST INTERNATIONAL: PATRICK SEALE LONDON

199. ARAB NEWS: MELSON

200. ARAB NEWS: MELSON II

201. REUVEN PAZ: ISLAM PRISM ISRAEL

202. TEL AVIV NOTES: 127

203. CCFI: SAUDI ARABIA CONSULTING

204. YKB: INFLATION TURKEY

205. SIKKUY REPORTS: ARABS IN ISRAEL

206. TZEMACH NEWS SERVICE

207. RABBI ECKSTEIN: IFCJ

208. FINANCIAL STABILITY FORUM: BIS

209. LEVY ECONOMICS INSTITUTE: LEVY NEWS

210. BANK MUSCAT MERGER: HILL AND KNOWLTON BAHRAIN

211. JORDAN RESEARCH

212. SISTANI

213. PAKISTAN TRIBUNE

214. MWU!: LOOKING FOR GOOD JEW

215. YKB: TURKEY BOP

216. WTO: TRADE DISPUTES

217. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT: IIED LONDON

218. BOSTON FEDERAL RESERVE BANK: CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

219. TAU NOTES 128: IRAN

220. TAU NOTES 110: IRAN

221. CHATHAM HOUSE: ROYAL INSTITITE OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS LONDON

222. NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH: NBER

223. ISLAMIC FINANCE DOT COM: LONDON

224. PROFESSOR MAMDANI: GOOD MUSLIM AND BAD MUSLIM BOOK

225. MERIA: SALAFI

226. FORUM FOR INTERNATIONAL POLICY

227. RUSSIA & MIDDLE EAST: CDI RUSSIA WEEKLY

228. GERMANY & MIDDLE EAST: DRESDNER BANK NEWSLETTER

229. FINANCIAL STABILITY FORUM PRESS RELEASE

230. FINANCIAL STABILITY FORUM PRESS RELEASE: TOKYO MEETING

231. MISES INSTITUTE: BUSH AS BUDGET CUTTER?

232. MERIA: BUSH PRESIDENCY

233. FINANCIAL TIMES: DOUGLAS FEITH WHITEWASH

234. NERA: GLOBAL ANTITRUST WEEKLY

235. TRADE FORUM: VALUE CHAIN

236. KHILAFAH DIGEST

237. EARTH NEGOTIATIONS BULLETIN: IISD

238. ROYAL SOCIETY: LONDON

239. DEUTSCHE WELLE: ENGLISH SERVICE

240. DEUTSCHE WELLE: NEWSLETTER

241. MENAFN NEWSLETTER

242. RIGHT ROAD TO PEACE: BENNY ELON PLAN MOLODET

243. SCITECH DAILY REVIEW: NANOTECHNOLOGY AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

244. IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST

245. JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE: CONGRESS

246. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE: DOD

247. ID21NEWS: UNIVERSITY OF SUSSEX DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH

248. DTE: DOWN TO EARTH ECOLOGY

249. ECRI: ECONOMIC CYCLE RESEARCH INSTITUTE

250. OMAN ARAB BANK

251. TAU NOTES 129: SAUDI ARABIA

252. DEUTSCHE BANK RESEARCH

253. DAYAN CENTER

254. SOUTH BULLETIN 99: SOUTH CENTRE

255. GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT NEWS: GDN

256. PALESTINIAN FORUM FOR ISRAELI STUDIES: MARDAR JOURNAL

257. HEARTLAND: RIGHT ROAD TO PEACE

258. TIMES LITERARY SUPPLEMENT: TLS LONDON

259. TIMES ONLINE: UK

260. SECRECY NEWS: FEDERATION OF AMERICAN SCIENTISTS

261. JAPAN FOUNDATION: ARAB FILM FESTIVAL TOKYO

262. BBC NEWSNIGHT: NEO-CON IRAQ OIL PLANS I

263. JUAN COLE: NEO-CON IRAQ OIL PLANS II

264. FEARNLEY RESEARCH: WORLD SHIPPING NEWS

265. MOFA: MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS JAPAN PALESTINE

266. MICROFINANCE: DEVELOPMENT GATEWAY

267. OXFORD INSTITUTE FOR ENERGY STUDIES: PROF. MABRO

268. OECD DIRECT: WORKING PAPERS ALERT

269. WAFA: PALESTINE NEWS AGENCY

270. U.S. STATE DEPARTMENT: MIDDLE EAST

271. COMMODOTIES: CIS

272. RIETI JAPAN: WORLD CITIES

273. IIASA: SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

274. POLLS: PALESTINE

275. GULF RESEARCH CENTER: GRC DUBAI

276. INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY MAGAZINE

277. BRITISH PETROLEUM: BP STATISTICAL REVIEW OF WORLD ENERGY

278. ALLIANZ: ECONOMIC RESEARCH

279. DEUTSCHE BANK RESEARCH: WORLD POPULATION CHART

280. GOLD: GOLD BULLETIN WORLD GOLD COUNCIL

281. FOUNDATION FOR ISLAMIC THOUGHT

282. AXIS OF LOGIC: BOSTON FEITH ARTICLE

283. RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR HUMANITY AND NATURE: RIHN KYOTO

284. MIDDLE EAST ECONOMIC SURVEY: MEES

285. INSTITUTE FOR AGRICULTURE AND TRADE POLICY: IATP

286. GOLD: GFMS LONDON

287. MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF JAPAN: MOFA IRAQ PROJECT

288. PASSIA: PALESTINE

289. CASPIAN STUDIES: TEHERAN

290. FOUNDATION FOR CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY: FDC

291. AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY: ACS ENERGY AND FUELS ALERT

292. IWPR: CAUCASUS REPORTING SERVICE II

293. GLOBAL ANTI-TRUST WEEKLY: NERA LONDON

294. URUKNET.INFO: IRAQ FEITH

295. URUKNET NEWSLETTER

296. DEVELOPMENT GATEWAY FOUNDATION: JAMES WOLFENSOHN

297. MIFTAH: PALESTINIAN INITIATIVE

298. ISRAEL RADIO ENGLISH PROGRAM: EIDELBERG REPORT

299. LAURA ROZEN BLOG: DOUGLAS FEITH

300. DEUTSCHE BANK: GROWTH II

301. WASHINGTON NOTE: BLOG BOLTON PROSPECTS

302. TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY NOTES 130: PALESTINIANS

303. MENA REPORT: WEEKLY NEWSLETTER

304. EUROMONEY: SEMINARS

305. PETROLEUM ECONOMIST: MAGAZINE

306. THE BANKER: MAGAZINE

307. KISHORE MAHBUBANI BOOK: AMERICA

308. IRAQ CASUALTIES: WEBSITE

309. MERIA: IRAQ EXILES

310. AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK: WATER CONFERENCE

311. FUEL CELLS: FUEL CELL COUNCIL

312. FUEL CELLS: II TECHNOLOGY UPDATE NEWSLETTER

313. IAGS: NEOCON ENERGY THINK TANK

314. DAYAN CENTER

315. ZAWYA: BAHRAIN CONFERENCE

316. ARIEL CENTER: NATIV AND FORUM ANNOUNCEMENTS

317. GLOBAL BEAT

318. STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT: JCSS ISRAEL

319. INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE: IRRI LOS BANOS

320. MIT ENERGY NEWSLETTER

321. SOUTH BULLETIN 100 FARM TRADE REFORM: SOUTH CENTRE

322. NEW SCIENTIST: NEWSLETTER

323. JEWISH AGENCY FOR ISRAEL: JAFI NEWSLETTER

324. BERKELEY SCIENCE LAB NEWSLETTER

325. RIGHT WEB: NEO-CON PROFILES

326. ISM: PURCHASING MANAGERS INDEX

327. IPCRI: MIDDLE EAST WATER

328. GLOBAL EXCHANGE: NAFTA

329. IASPS: THINK TANK JERUSALEM AND WASHINGTON

330. MIT: GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITY

331. MIT: SCIENCE IMPACT COLLABORATIVE

332. PIPA: UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND

333. SANTA FE INSTITUTE: COMPLEXITY

334. ECONOMIC PRINCIPALS: DAVID WARSH

335. PLATTS MCGRAW-HILL: ENERGY CONFERENCES

336. CED: INDIA GLOBALIZATION BOOK

337. SWAMINATHAN CENTRE: CHENNAI INDIA

338. GANDHI INSTITUTE: MUMBAI INDIA

339. GLOBAL EQUITY INITIATIVE: LINCOLN CHEN HARVARD UNIVERSITY

340. MICROFINANCE GATEWAY

341. GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT NETWORK

MIDDLE EAST & WORLD

01. EARTHSCAN: LONDON

02. GLOBAL GOVERNANCE CENTRE: LONDON

03. IMRA: ISRAEL

04. MIT ENVIRONMENTAL SEMINARS

05. SOUTH-SOUTH TRADE

06. FOOD TRADE ALLIANCE

07. IIED: LONDON

08. FLOWS BULLETIN: IIED

09. YALE GLOBAL-ONLINE

10. MERIA: MARCH 2005

11. APEC: AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

12. NGO MONITOR: JERUSALEM

13. ROYAL ECONOMIC SOCIETY: LONDON

14. IPCRI: ISRAEL

15. OCHA UN: PALESTINE OCCUPATION

16. MALARIA RESEARCH: JOHNS HOPKINS

17. BRETTON WOODS PROJECT

18. BRETTON WOODS PROJECT: PART II

19. TEMPLE INSTITUTE: JERUSALEM

20. CEPR: WASHINGTON

21. TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY NOTES 131: ISRAEL BUDGET

22. INDONESIA PROJECT

23. SCITECH DAILY

24. JERUSALEM CLOAKROOM: YORAM ETTINGER

25. BIS REVIEW: NO. 24

26. JUAN COLE: INFORMED COMMENT BLOG

27. WORLD WATER COUNCIL: MARSEILLES

28. CGES: ENERGY STUDIES LONDON

29. AMERICAN JOBS: BLOG

30. DAILY STAR: LEBANON

31. GUSH SHALOM

32. CATERPILLAR: PROTEST

33. FORTUNE AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PYRAMID: BOOK

34. LONG-TERM CHANGE: WORLD HISTORY

35. JWSR: JOURNAL

36. SOUTH BULLETIN: 101

37. YAPI KREDI BANK: TURKEY

38. ARAB CONFERENCE: AHIC

39. JEWISH INSTITUTE FOR WESTERN DEFENCE: JERUSALEM

40. GOOD MUSLIM: MAMDANI BOOK

41. BEYOND THE AGE OF INNOCENCE: KISHORE MAHBUBANI BOOK

42. CROP BIOTECH: NEWSLETTER

43. ISAAA: AGRO

44. WORLD BANK: TRADE NEWSLETTER

45. WORLD BANK: PRESS RELEASE

46. ITTO: YOKOHAMA JAPAN

47. “CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP”: GOOGLE SEARCH

48. IDF: ISRAEL DEFENSE FORCES

49. MFA: MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS ISRAEL

50. ISRAEL NATIONAL RADIO

51. MUSLIM PUBLIC AFFAIRS COUNCIL: DOHA CONFERENCE

52. ISLAMIC LEASING: KUWAIT CONFERENCE

53. NATIONAL BANK OF KUWAIT: NBK NEWSLETTER

54. CASPIAN INVESTOR: WORLD TRADE EXECUTIVE NEWSLETTER

55. LIFE AND DEBT: JAMAICA KINCAID MOVIE RE: GLOBALIZATION

56. PETER FUSARO: FUSARO FOCUS ENERGY

57. SHIBLEY TELHAMI: BROOKINGS

58. ELIE WIESEL CENTER: BOSTON UNIVERSITY

59. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY REVIEW: LAWRENCE LIVERMORE LAB

60. CASPIAN STUDIES: CYRUS SAFDARI EURASIA NEWSLETTER

61. WATER: IPCRI PALESTINE

62. WATER: SIWI STOCKHOLM

63. WATER: UN AND MORE SIWI

64. BOOK: FIRST GREAT TRIUMPH: RE: AMERICAN IMPERIALISM 1900

65. RESURRECTING EMPIRE: RASHID KHALIDI BOOK

66. INDIA UNBOUND: BOOK

67. MAIZE AND GRACE: BOOK

68. SPECIAL PROVIDENCE: WALTER RUSSELL MEAD BOOK

69. GLOBAL AGENDA MAGAZINE

70. GLOBAL AGENDA MAGAZINE: PROFESSOR TARUN KHANNA HBS

71. THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY MAGAZINE

72. SCIDEV NEWSLETTER: SCIENCE AND DEVELOPMENT LONDON

73. NBER: ECONOMICS

74. CEPR: ECONOMICS RESEARCH LONDON

75. LEVY ECONOMICS INSTITUTE:

76. LONDON MIDDLE EAST INSTITUTE: GULF CONFERENCE

77. FEARNLEYS SHIPPING RESEARCH: NORWAY HEADQUARTERS

78. EPRI: ELECTRICITY CONFERENCE

79. UTILITIES: GAS ELECTRIC CONFERENCE

80. KHAN: ISLAM AND GLOBAL AFFAIRS BLOG

81. ICT: ISRAEL

82. ICETT JAPAN: TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

83. CAUCASUS REPORTING SERVICE: IWPR LONDON

84. BLUE OCEAN INSTITUTE

85. THINK ISRAEL

86. TAIB BANK

87. BIS REVIEW 25

88. FREEDOM JUST AROUND THE CORNER: BOOK

89. LAWRENCE LINDSEY BOOK: PUPPETMASTERS

90. MICHAEL KLARE BOOK: BLOOD AND OIL

91. PAUL ROBERTS BOOK: END OF OIL

92. PETRO-STATES: BOOK

93. BANK OF THAILAND

94. BANK MUSCAT RESULTS: OMAN

95. JAPAN MOFA: MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS

96. OXFORD CENTRE: ISLAMIC STUDIES

97. ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY

98. RUSSIA-ISRAEL: CDI RUSSIA LIST

99. GOLD: CHINA

100. FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW: FEER

101. MERIA RESEARCH: APRIL 2005

102. ENERGY CAUCUS: NGO

103. SPECIAL OPS: PRESS RELEASE

104. WORLD BANK: PUBLICATIONS ON DEVELOPMENT

105. NEW YORK REVIEW OF BOOKS: NYRB

106. BIS REVIEW 28

107. FINANCIAL STABILITY FORUM: BIS

108. OIL DEPLETION: LONDON

109. ASPO: PEAK OIL AND GAS

110. POWER TO THE PEOPLE: BOOK

111. PETROLEUM REVIEW: ENERGY INSTITUTE LONDON

112. ALBAWABA: BUSINESS NEWS MIDEAST

113. CAPITAL INTELLIGENCE: CYPRUS

114. CAPITAL INTELLIGENCE: INVESTBANK

115. DEUTSCHE BANK RESEARCH

116. TROPICAL AGRICULTURE: CIAT

117. U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES: ENERGY AND COMMERCE COMMITTEE

118. MUSLIM WAKE UP!: RICHARD MELSON “RICHARDHOT” POSTS

119. ASIATIMES ONLINE: RICHARD MELSON “RICHARDHOT” POSTS

120. WIDER: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS RESEARCH

121. TIMES LITERARY SUPPLEMENT: TLS LONDON

122. ISLAMIC FINANCE PROJECT: HARVARD LAW SCHOOL

123. IEA BOOKS: SAVING OIL IN A HURRY

124. NIS: BOSTON UNIVERSITY

125. CHINA REPORT: WORLDTRADE EXECUTIVE

126. SOUTH BULLETIN 102: SOUTH CENTRE

127. GOD’S POLITICS: JIM WALLIS BOOK

128. WORLD ON FIRE: AMY CHUA BOOK

129. WORLD AS SYSTEM: KENNETH BOULDING BOOK

130. ENERGY IN WORLD HISTORY: VACLAV SMIL BOOKS

131. RISE OF THE VULCANS: JAMES MANN BOOK

132. RUNNING THE WORLD: BOOK

133. END OF FAITH: SAM HARRIS BOOK

134. ALLIANCE FOR GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITY: MIT

135. BASEL BANK COMPLIANCE

136. ARAVA INSTITUTE: WATER ISRAEL

137. ZAWYA: ISLAMIC FINANCE CONFERENCE BAHRAIN

138. ZAWYA: ISLAMIC FUNDS CONFERENCE

139. HANS KUENG: GLOBAL ETHIC

140. IRAQ CASUALTIES

141. ONE JERUSALEM

142. THE NEW YORKER: DOUGLAS FEITH

143. TUNIS CONFERENCE: ARAB WOMEN

144. LAWRENCE BERKELEY LAB: TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

145. LAWRENCE BERKELEY LAB: YARRIS

146. CERF: CAMBRIDGE

147. MIFTAH: PALESTINE ASHRAWI

148. MEED: MIDDLE EAST ECONOMIC DIGEST

149. CENTER FOR GLOBAL DEVELEOPMENT: CGD WASHINGTON

150. MENA REPORT: ARAB ADVISORS CONFERENCE

151. JERUSALEM NEWSWIRE: CHRISTIAN ZIONISM

152. EARTH CHARTER INITIATIVE: COSTA RICA

153. TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY: TAU 132 ERDOGAN VISIT

154. JCPA: DORE GOLD

155. THE LONDON MIDDLE EAST INSTITUTE: OCCASIONAL PAPERS

156. COMMODITIES-NOW: UK

157. DUBAI: COMMODITIES

158. WORLD GOLD: LONDON

159. CHALCEDON: CHRISTIAN DOMINIONISM

160. ABS ENERGY: LONDON

161. MPAC

162. CCFI: GAFFAR AWAD SAUDI ARABIA

163. ISRAEL INSIDER: WEEKLY BRIEFING NO.198

164. MORGAN STANLEY: GLOBAL ECONOMIC FORUM

165. PCPSR: PALESTINE SURVEY RESEARCH RAMALLAH

166. NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY: NGA

167. ISIS: IRAN

168. ARUTZ SHEVA: ISRAEL

169. JTA: JEWISH TELEGRAPH AGENCY

170. JWR: JEWISH WORLD REVIEW

171. GLOBAL BEAT: NYU

172. SAUDI INSTITUTE: WASHINGTON

173. RIIA: CHATHAM HOUSE LONDON

174. SOUTH AMERICA-ARAB SUMMIT: B’NAI B’RITH INTERNATIONAL

175. STAND FOR ISRAEL: INTERNATIONAL FELLOWSHIP OF CHRISTIANS AND JEWS

176. PALESTINE REPORT

177. PALESTINE: BITTERELEMONS

178. MIDDLE EAST CENTRE LECTURE: OXFORD

179. REZA ASLAN: NO GOD BUT GOD BOOK

180. MATTHEWS ASIAN FUNDS

181. LOUIS BERES: FREEMAN CENTER

182. INSTITUTE OF WORLD ECONOMY: MOSCOW

183. ANTI-DEFAMATIOIN LEAGUE: ADL HEADLINES

184. OXFORD INSTITUTE FOR ENERGY STUDIES: OIES UK

185. THE GLOBALIST: WASHINGTON

186. ROOT AND BRANCH ASSOCIATION

187. NEW KIND OF SCIENCE: NKS WOLFRAM

188. RIYAD BANK ECONOMICS: SAUDI ARABIA

189. RIYAD BANK INVESTMENT RESEARCH: SAUDI ARABIA

190. GLOBAL INVESTMENT HOUSE: KUWAIT WEEKLY

191. SHUAA CAPITAL DUBAI UAE: EQUITIES BRIEF

192. SHUAA CAPITAL DUBAI UAE: EQUITY FUND

193. SHUAA CAPITAL DUBAI UAE: ECONOMICS

194. GIC: GULF INVESTMENT CORPORATION KUWAIT

195. AME INFO: DUBAI MEDIA CITY UAE

196. ATLAS INVESTMENT GROUP

197. EFG-HERMES MIDDLE EAST FUND: EGYPT

198. KAMCO ASSET MANAGEMENT: KUWAIT

199. JIF BANK: JORDAN

200. SICO-BAHRAIN: SECURITIES AND INVESTMENT COMPANY

201. BMI MIDDLE EAST: LONDON

202. OMAN ARAB BANK: MUSCAT OMAN

203. MENAFN: FINANCIAL NEWS

204. SIGMA CAPITAL: CAIRO

205. CAPITAL INTELLIGENCE: CYPRUS

206. GLOBAL INVESTMENT HOUSE: KUWAIT MONTHLY

207. BANK AUDI: BEIRUT

208. SHIITE CRESCENT: KING ABDULLAH OF JORDAN

209. EGYPT TODAY MAGAZINE: CAIRO

210. WASHINGTON REPORT ON MIDDLE EAST AFFAIRS

211. TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY: TAU NOTES 133

212. AN-NAJAH UNIVERSITY: POLL NO.12

213. PRISM REUVEN PAZ: ISLAM-WATCHING INDUSTRY IN ISRAEL

214. ALFA BANK: RUSSIA

215. BIS REVIEW No.34

216. FAWAZ GERGES: BOOKS ON POLITICAL ISLAM

217. FDD: FOUNDATION FOR THE DEFENSE OF DEMOCRACY

218. IRAQ CRISIS: IWPR LONDON

219. URUKNET: IRAQ INFORMATION

220. DRESDNER BANK: NEWSLETTER

221. GLOBES NEWSLETTERS: ISRAEL TECHUPDATE

222. GLOBES NEWSLETTERS: ISRAEL MARKETS

223. NATURE MAGAZINE: LONDON

224. EF BANK: AMMAN JORDAN

225. MIDDLE EAST ECONOMIC SURVEY: CYPRUS

226. BIS REVIEW NO.35: JAPANESE ECONOMIC GROWTH

227. COLLAPSE OF COMPLEX SOCIETIES: JOSEPH TAINTER BOOK

228. BAKHEET FINANCIAL ADVISORS: BFA SAUDI ARABIA

229. PROFESSOR SUGIHARA KAORU: OSAKA

230. INDIA UNTOUCHED: BOOK

231. JOURNAL OF WORLD HISTORY

232. REPORT ON SETTLEMENTS IN THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES

233. LEBANON BRIEF: BLOMINVEST BANK LEBANON

234. IPC: IRAN POLICY COMMITTEE

235. NGO MONITOR: JERUSALEM CENTER FOR PUBLIC AFFAIRS

236. THE DIGNITY OF DIFFERENCE: JONATHAN SACKS BOOK

237. GAMLA: ISRAEL

238. SIKKUY NEWSLETTER

239. NEAR EAST FOUNDATION

240. GULF TIMES DOHA: RUBIN ARTICLE ON FEITH

241. INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE: IRRI LOS BANOS

242. TAU NOTES 134: HIZBULLAH’S STRATEGY

243. BIS REVIEW 36 & 37

244. RIGHT WEB NEWS: NEO-CON WATCHING

245. ARABICNEWS.COM

246. ALAN DERSHOWITZ

247. MEMRI

248. ISA CONFERENCE: NORTH-SOUTH DIVIDE

249. BERKELEY LAB TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

250. MIDDLE EAST ECONOMIC SURVEY: MAY 2005

251. PALESTINE: ARC PROJECT

252. JORDINVEST: JORDAN

253. BIS REVIEW NO.38

254. GFMS LONDON: WORLD SILVER SURVEY

255. INTELLIGENCE AND TERRORISM INFORMATION CENTER: ISRAEL

256. LEVY INSTITUTE: ECONOMIC RESEARCH

257. STRATEGIC FORECASTING

258. MALARIA: WORLD BANK INSTITUTE

259. JEC: GLOBAL IMBALANCES

260. SAUDI-US

261. IAN LUSTICK: ETHNOPOLITICAL CONFLICT

262. TAIB KAZAKH BANK

263. RIETI: JAPAN

264. GLOCOM: JAPAN

265. BANKMUSCAT: HILL AND KNOWLTON

266. GAJENDRA SINGH: SAAG

267. BANK OF ENGLAND: FINANCIAL STABILITY REVIEW

268. IRMEP

269. CCFI: SAUDI ARABIA GAFFAR AWAD

270. WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM: AMMAN JORDAN MAY 2005

271. AFRICA: OECD DEVELOPMENT CENTER

272. GLOBAL COALITION FOR AFRICA

273. CLIMATOLOGY RESEARCH GROUP: OXFORD

274. G-20: CHINA 2005 CHAIRMANSHIP

275. MERIA: ISRAEL

276. AL NAKHLAH: TUFTS

277. SAUDI-AMERICAN FORUM

278. JUSTIN RAIMONDO BOOK: THE TERROR ENIGMA

279. OXFORD ANALYTICA

280. KHALEEJ TIMES ONLINE

281. STANLEY HOFFMANN BOOK: GULLIVER UNBOUND

282. NCB BANK: JEDDAH SAUDI ARABIA

283. MIDDLE EAST AVIATION CONFERENCE DUBAI: JANES

284. AIR & SPACE POWER JOURNAL: MAXWELL AFB

285. BIS REVIEW NO. 40

286. CERF: CAMBRIDGE FINANCE

287. CHARLES KUPCHAN: AMERICA BOOK

288. SOUTH CENTRE BULLETIN 104: ARAB-SOUTH AMERICAN SUMMIT

289. BIS REVIEW NO.41

290. PROGRESSIVE RESPONSE

291. THE RIGHT NATION: BOOK

292. THE COUSINS WARS: BOOK

293. AMERICAN DYNASTY: BOOK

294. WHEN ISLAM AND DEMOCRACY MEET: BOOK

295. MUSLIM PUBLIC AFFAIRS COUNCIL: WASHINGTON

296. U.S. CENTRAL COMMAND: IRAQ

297. DOD WEBSITES

298. MISES INSTITUTE: CHINA & U.S.INTEREST RATES

299. IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST: NIXON CENTER WASHINGTON

300. CLYDE PRESTOWITZ BOOK

301. TED FISHMAN BOOK: CHINA, INC.

302. JINSA: REPORTS

303. SYRIA REPORT

304. COPENHAGEN CONSENSUS

305. JEWISH ALLIANCE FOR JUSTICE AND PEACE

306. RICHARD HAASS BOOK: OPPORTUNITY

307. INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS: IIE WASHINGTON

308. TZEMACH NEWS SERVICE

309. GUYSEN ISRAEL NEWS

310. IEA: NEW WEBSITE FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY

311. THE OTHER ISRAEL

312. TEL AVIV NOTES 136

313. KIBUSH: OCCUPATION

314. AGROFORESTRY

315. TODAY IN PALESTINE: HEADLINES

316. EGYPT TODAY MONTHLY MAGAZINE: SUDANESE FARMERS AND CONAGRA

317. MILLI GAZETTTE INDIA: RICHARD MELSON PIECE

318. KNESSET: CHRISTIAN ALLIES CAUCUS

319. MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS ISRAEL: CABINET COMMUNIQUE JUNE 2005

320. MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS: ISRAEL LINE

321. MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS: ISRAEL

322. ARIEL CENTER FOR POLICY RESEARCH: NATIV ACPR ISRAEL

323. RENAISSANCE CAPITAL: RUSSIA

324. MIDDLE EAST FORUM PHILADELPHIA: MICHAEL RUBIN PIECE

325. INEAS: CAMBRIDGE MASSACHUSETTS

326. HEDGE FUNDS

327. FOOLED BY RANDOMNESS: NASSIM TALEB BOOK

328. THE PREDICTORS: THOMAS BASS BOOK

329. AMITAV GHOSH BOOK: THE HUNGRY TIDE

330. AFRICA COMMISSION & TONY BLAIR: LONDON

331. GLOBALIZATION: LEVERHULME CENTRE NOTTINGHAM UK

332. MERIA JOURNAL JUNE 2005

333. BIS REVIEW NO.42

334. IISD: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

335. MEMRI: WASHINGTON

336. ARAB NEWS: DOUGLAS FEITH PIECE

337. IIASA: SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AUSTRIA

338. TAU NOTES 137: TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY

339. BIS REVIEW NO.43: BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS

340. SOUND BITE SOCIETY: JEFFREY SCHEUER BOOK

341. STATOIL: STAVANGER NORWAY

342. YKB: ISTANBUL

343. WATER: ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK

344. PERFECTLY LEGAL: DAVID CAY JOHNSTON BOOK

345. AMERICA’S PROVIDENTIAL HISTORY: BOOK FROM CHRISTIAN RIGHT

346. SITE INSTITUTE: RITA KATZ

347. NEW YORKER: LETTER FROM BAGHDAD COLUMN

348. HAARETZ: WEAPONS TECHNOLOGY US/ISRAEL

349. FUTURE FOR INVESTORS: JEREMY SIEGEL BOOK

350. AGAINST THE GODS: PETER BERNSTEIN BOOK ON RISK

351. CLIODYNAMICS: PETER TURCHIN I

352. CLIODYNAMICS: PETER TURCHIN II

353. BRIDGES FOR PEACE: CHRISTIAN ZIONISTS JERUSALEM

354. LARRY DIAMOND BOOK: SQUANDERED VICTORY

355. GULFBASE: YAMAMA SAUDI CEMENT COMPANY

356. BANK ALJAZIRA

357. METI: JAPAN

358. MOFA: JAPAN

359. BOJ: JAPAN

360. JAPAN TIMES

361. STEVEN STROGATZ: CORNELL CHAOS THEORETICIAN

362. ISRAPUNDIT

363. NATURE: AN ECONOMIC HISTORY BOOK

364. HEDGEWORLD NEWS

365. BRETTON WOODS PROJECT: UPDATE NO.46

366. WORLD IN THE BALANCE: NOVA PROGRAM

367. INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR RESEARCH ON WOMEN: WASHINGTON

368. INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH: INDIA

369. HILL AND KNOWLTON: BAHRAIN

370. WATER WAR IN BOLIVIA: OLIVERA & LEWIS BOOK

371. ALLIANZ DRESDNER GROUP ECONOMIC RESEARCH: WORLD ECONOMY INDICATORS

372. FRB SAN FRANCISCO: ECONOMIC LETTER

373. WHY GLOBALIZATION WORKS: MARTIN WOLF BOOK

374. IRANIAN LABYRINTH: DILIP HIRO BOOK

375. PROFESSOR DAVID BLOOM: DEMOGRAPHY

376. CEDPA: POPULATION

377. CSE: INDIA

378. CED: INDIA

379. EPW: INDIA

380. ALJAZEERAH.INFO: CRAWFORD PACT AS SYKES-PICOT II

381. ALJAZEERAH.INFO: JERUSALEM SUMMITS MELSON ESSAY

382. RUSSIA: RAS

383. MID-EAST REALITIES: WASHINGTON

384. ZAMAN ONLINE: ISTANBUL FEITH STORY

385. PAKTRIBUNE FORUM: ETHNIC CLEANSING OF JERUSALEM

386. MUSLIM WAKEUP! FORUM: MUSLIMS AND JEWS IN THE WORLD SYSTEM

387. BANK OF ENGLAND: QUARTERLY BULLETIN

388. BANK OF ENGLAND: II

389. SAUDI ARABIA EXPOSED: JOHN BRADLEY BOOK

390. SOUTH CENTRE: BULLETIN 105

391. KICKING AWAY THE LADDER: CHANG BOOK

392. BIS REVIEW NO.46

393. THE ROYAL SOCIETY LONDON: AFRICAN FUTURE

394. THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY: LONDON

395. GREEN BELT MOVEMENT: AFRICA

396. REUVEN PAZ: PRISM HERZLIYA

397. HISTORY AND THEORY: JOURNAL

398. IRAQ MEMORY FOUNDATION: KANAN MAKIYA

399. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN FRONTIERS: HYDROGEN HOPES

400. COFFEE: IATP

401. CEBR FORECASTING EYE: LONDON

402. ENVIRONMENTAL DATA INTERACTIVE EXCHANGE: UK

403. BIS REVIEW NO.47: ISLAMIC FINANCE

404. GLOBAL EQUITY INITIATIVE: HARVARD LINCOLN CHEN

405. SCIRI: LONDON OFFICE

406. ECONOMICS OF ADJUSTMENT AND GROWTH: AGENOR BOOK

407. THE NEW HEROES: PBS PROGRAM ROBERT REDFORD

408. COLOSSUS: FERGUSON BOOK

409. SOUTH BULLETIN 106: DOHA SUMMIT

410. NEW AMERICAN MILITARISM: BACEVICH BOOK

411. BIS REVIEW NO.49: ISLAMIC FINANCE

412. MADE IN TEXAS: MICHAEL LIND BOOK

413. SIX DAYS OF WAR: MICHAEL OREN BOOK

414. PAUL KENNEDY: THE RISE OF THE ANGLO-GERMAN ANTAGONISM BOOK

415. CAESAREA CONFERENCE: SHARON & NETANYAHU

416. PLOUGH, SWORD, AND BOOK: ERNEST GELLNER BOOK

417. KICKSTART: NAIROBI

418. RECONSTRUCTING MACROECONOMICS: LANCE TAYLOR BOOK

419. FORUM FOR THE FUTURE: LONDON

420. RUSSIAN ECONOMIC FORUM: EVENTICA LONDON

421. GRAMEEN TRUST: NEWSLETTER

422. ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: STANFORD

423. RADICAL EVOLUTION: JOEL GARREAU BOOK

424. PARAMETERS QUARTERLY: MILITARY

425. IISS MILITARY BALANCE: LONDON

426. WORLD POLICY JOURNAL: WORLD POLICY INSTITUTE

427. JOURNAL OF WORLD-SYSTEMS RESEARCH: JWSR

428. ISLAMIC FINANCE FORUM: ISTANBUL SEPTEMBER 2005

429. TEL AVIV NOTES 139

430. REUVEN PAZ: PRISM ISLAM

431. BIO-ERA: CAMBRIDGE MASSACHUSETTS

432. COMMODITY INFORMATION SYSTEMS,INC.: WEATHER MARKETS

433. AVIAN FLU: VIETNAM CONFERENCE STVM

434. AVIAN FLU: OIE PARIS

435. IUSSP: DEMOGRAPHY PARIS

436. BRAUDEL INSTITUTE: BRAZIL

437. SOUTH CENTRE BULLETIN 107: POVERTY

438. WORLD TRADE EXECUTIVE: CONCORD MASSACHUSETTS

439. BIS REVIEW NO.50: STANLEY FISCHER ISRAEL

440. SUMMERS COMMENCEMENT SPEECH: THIRD WORLD CENTRALITY

441. KESHEV: JERUSALEM

442. LEVY NEWS: JULY 2005

443. JARED DIAMOND BOOK: MISES CRITIQUE

444. ISRAEL POLICY FORUM

445. INTERNATIONAL COUNTRY RISK GUIDE

446. BANKSCOPE: AMSTERDAM

447. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS JOURNAL: ISEE

448. ZAMAN ONLINE TURKEY: SECRETARY RICE

449. GLOBALIZATION I: AROUND THE WORLD IN EIGHTY DAYS

450. WORLD POPULATION DYNAMICS: KAPITZA RUSSIA

451. DEVELOPMENT & TRANSITION: LSE NEWSLETTER

452. EXPORT AGRICULTURE & CENTRAL AMERICA CRISIS: ROBERT WILLIAMS BOOK

453. ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS: FMEP

454. GLOBALIZED ISLAM BOOK: OLIVIER ROY

455. JOINT ECONOMIC COMMITTEE

456. PEAK OIL

457. SOUTH BULLETIN NO.108: SOUTH CENTRE

458. JAPAN TIMES ONLINE: NEO-LIBS & NEO-CONS

459. IREN: KENYA

460. ICIPE: KENYA

461. BIS NO.51: ISLAMIC FINANCE

462. CGES: LONDON

463. SAUDI STRATEGIES: SIMON HENDERSON

464. GLOBAL POVERTY RESEARCH GROUP: OXFORD UNIVERSITY CSAE

465. CENTER FOR THE GLOBAL SOUTH

466. ECONOMICS OF GLOBAL TURBULENCE: ROBERT BRENNER BOOK

467. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FORECASTING

468. REVIEW OF WORLD ECONOMICS

469. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CENTRAL BANKING

470. IMES: BANK OF JAPAN

471. NATIONAL BUREAU OF ASIAN RESEARCH

472. RUSSIAN ECONOMIC FORUM: EVENTICA

473. EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK: WORKING PAPER JULY 2005 GLOBALIZATION

474. ARUTZ SHEVA: ISRAEL

475. ONE JERUSALEM: ISRAEL

476. MERETZ: ISRAEL

477. CHINA SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PROJECT: CSEP

478. GOD’S COVENANT WITH ISRAEL: ELON BOOK

479. THE GLOBAL MECHANISM: UN CONVENTION TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION

480. BIS REVIEW NO.53

481. ISRAEL HASBARA COMMITTEE: IHC

482. MIT FUEL CELL ENERGY RESEARCH: PROF. NOCERA NOVA

483. MIT ENERGY RESEARCH: PROF. NOCERA II

484. FMEP: SETTLEMENTS NEW WEBSITE

485. HENI: FUEL CELLS & ENERGY RESEARCH

486. TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY NOTES: TAU NO.144

487. JERUSALEM SUMMIT ASIA II

488. GLOBAL OIL REPORT: CGES LONDON

489. JEWS FOR JUSTICE FOR PALESTINIANS: LONDON

490. ORIENT HOUSE: PLO HEADQUARTERS JERUSALEM

491. STRATEGIC ASSESSMENTS INITIATIVE: WASHINGTON & JERUSALEM

492. AZURE & SHALEM CENTER: JERUSALEM

493. GLOBAL BEAT: GAZA

494. ENERGY INTELLIGENCE

495. INTERNATIONAL PETROLEUM EXCHANGE: IPE LONDON

495. SEER: ENERGY RESEARCH

496. ASIAN ISLAMIC BANKING SUMMIT: MALAYSIA

497. NEPAD: AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT

498. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

499. ISRAELREPOTER.COM: GAZA BLOG

500. MELSON: INDONESIA POST

501. ARAB-US POLICYMAKERS CONFERENCE

MIDDLE EAST & WORLD

01. BIS REVIEWS NO.54&55

02. REUVEN PAZ: PRISM ISLAM-WATCHING ISRAEL

03. FINANCIAL STABILITY FORUM: BIS

04. TEL AVIV NOTES NO.145: IRAQ CONSTITUTION

05. CENTER FOR JEWISH-ARAB ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

06. RAFAH REPORTS: TWO MELSON POSTS

07. MILLI GAZETTE: MUSLIMS INDIA

08. YAPI KREDI BANK TURKEY: INFLATION

09. CGES LONDON: OIL

10. BIS REVIEWS NO.56&57

11. JABOTINSKY INSTITUTE: ISRAEL

12. UNCTAD GENEVA: TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT REPORT

13. RENMINBI PRESSURES: FINANCIAL TIMES COMMENT BASED ON UNCTAD REPORT

14. IITA: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL AGRICULTURE

15. IAGS: INSTITUTE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL SECURITY

16. AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES: DAEDALUS SPRING 2005 ISSUE ON IMPERIALISM

17. TEL AVIV NOTES: TAU NO.146 ISRAEL-PAKISTAN

18. AFRICA POVERTY: IDS SUSSEX

19. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: ICETT JAPAN

20. CENTER FOR THE GLOBAL SOUTH

21. WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORTS: WORLD BANK

22. WORLD DEVELOPMENT: JOURNAL

23. BUNDESBANK: DISCUSSION PAPERS

24. DEUTSCHE BANK RESEARCH

25. RAPHI.COM: ULTRA ZIONISM

26. RENAISSANCE CAPITAL MOSCOW: CONFERENCES

27. RUSSIA ROUNDTABLE: EVENTICA

28. ISLAMIC FINANCE: CONFERENCE IN ISTANBUL

29. NED: NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY

30. PALESTINE MONITOR

31. JEC OF THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS

32. CFG: MELSON

33. PROFESSOR KEVIN MACDONALD CRITIQUE OF NEO-CONS

34. SOUTH BULLETIN NO.93: SOUTH CENTRE

35. GUARDIAN OF ZION AWARD: ELIE WIESEL AND RUTH WISSE PHOTOS

36. MERIA JOURNAL VOLUME 9 NO.3: IRAN

37. TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY TAU NOTES NO.147: EGYPTIAN ELECTIONS

38. ISLAMIC FINANCE FORUM ISTANBUL II

39. WORLD ENERGY OUTLOOK 2005: IEA

40. ARABIALINK: US-ARAB CONFERENCES

41. MWU!: MUSLIM WAKE UP FORUM MELSON POST

42. WORLD TRADE NEWS

43. SOUTH BULLETIN NO.110: CONFLUENCE OF CIVILIZATIONS

44. NEPAD: AFRICA

45. FOCUS ON THE GLOBAL SOUTH

46. THE CORPORATION & THE TAKE: JOEL BAKAN & NAOMI KLEIN CRITIQUES

47. CCFI: SAUDI ARABIA RESEARCH

48. SUNS: THIRD WORLD NETWORK MALAYSIA

49. AN-NAJAH UNIVERSITY: PALESTINIAN OPINION POLLS

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52. ENERGY SECURITY ANALYSIS, INC.

53. THE WEST’S LAST CHANCE: TONY BLANKLEY BOOK

54. AMERICA LIBRE INSTITUTE: THINK TANK

55. ISLAMOPHOBIA INDUSTRY: REUVEN PAZ ISRAEL

56. ARIEL CENTER NATIV: ISRAEL

57. DAWN WIRE SERVICE PAKISTAN: ISRAEL

58. JERUSALEM SUMMITS ASIA: CHRISTIAN ZIONISM RECRUITMENT

59. EGYPTIAN MARKET NOTES

60. TEL AVIV NOTES 148: IRAN & IAEA

61. JERUSALEM BRIEF: IRAN & ISRAEL

62. SOUTH BULLETIN NO.111: SOUTH CENTRE GENEVA

63. DEUTSCHE BUNDESBANK DISCUSSION PAPERS

64. LOMBARD STREET: WALTER BAGEHOT BOOK

65. LOMBARD STREET: WALTER BAGEHOT BOOK: THE ISSUE OF MACROECONOMIC STABILIZATION THEN AND NOW

66. LOMBARD STREET: WALTER BAGEHOT BOOK II

67. THOUSAND YEARS OF NONLINEAR HISTORY BOOK: MANUEL DE LANDA

68. NCB: NATIONAL COMMERCIAL BANK SAUDI ARABIA

69. BIS REVIEW NO.60: GLOBAL IMBALANCES & WORLD ECONOMY

70. RADICAL EVOLUTION: JOEL GARREAU BOOK

71. YKB BANK TURKEY: INFLATION FIGURES

72. CHRISTIAN ALLIES CAUCUS: YURI SHTERN KNESSET ISRAEL

73. RUSSIA IN GLOBAL AFFAIRS: MOSCOW

74. MONTHLY OIL REPORT: CGES LONDON

75. DEUTSCHE BANK RESEARCH: POLAND AND CONSERVATIVES

76. DEUTSCHE BANK RESEARCH: EUROPEAN RETAIL WAREHOUSING

77. THE FORWARD: DOUGLAS FEITH ISRAEL & CHINA ARMS SALES

78. PRISM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: GLORIA CENTER HERZLIYA ISRAEL

79. IAEE: INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR ENERGY ECONOMICS

80. GLOBAL FINANCE MAGAZINE: ISLAMIC FINANCE

81. UZI LANDAU: KNESSET FAR RIGHT

82. JACKSON HOLE WYOMING: KC FED CONFERENCES

83. OIES: OXFORD INSTITUTE FOR ENERGY STUDIES

84. F&D MAGAZINE IMF MARCH 2004: GLOBAL FINANCE POLICY TRILEMMA

85. CLIMATE CHANGE: DANIEL SCHRAG HARVARD UNIVERSITY

86. CLIMATE CHANGE CARBON PPM: DANIEL SCHRAG HU GAZETTE

87. FOOLED BY RANDOMNESS: BOOK

88. E.M.FORSTER: TECHNO-PROPHET

89. E.M.FORSTER: TECHNO-PROPHET II

90. BIS REVIEW NO.61: ISLAMIC FINANCE HUB

91. METALWORING INSIDERS’ REPORT: NEWSLETTER ON MACHINE TOOLS

92. CENTRAL BANK OF CHILE: ANNUAL ECONOMIC CONFERENCES

93. HERZLIYA CONFERENCES

94. BEASTS OF THE EARTH: BOOK ON ANIMAL TO HUMAN DISEASE TRANSMISSION

95.PLANET FINANCE: MICROCREDIT JACQUES ATTALI

96.BIS REVIEW NO.62: ASIAN ECONOMY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

97.KIEL INSTITUTE FOR WORLD ECONOMICS

98.CAPITAL INTELLIGENCE: EGYPT ANALYSIS

99.TAIB KAZAN BANK

100.BIS REVIEW NO.63

101.SOUTH CENTRE: BULLETIN NO.112

102.BIS REVIEW NO.64: PAKISTAN

103.BIS REVIEW NO.65

104.BIS REVIEW NO.66: ENERGY

105.CHINA ANALYST

106.ABU DHABI WORLD LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: CLINTON & EDWARDS

107.ABU DHABI WORLD LEADERSHIP SUMMIT: CLINTON & EDWARDS II

108.ROYAL BANK OF AUSTRALIA: GLOBALIZATION CONFERENCE

109.BIS REVIEWS NOS.67-69

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“THE RETREAT”: AHARON APPELFELD NOVEL

August 30, 2009 at 12:18 pm | Posted in Books, History, Judaica, Literary | Leave a comment

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The Retreat: A novel

Aharon Appelfeld

The year is 1937. On a remote hilltop some distance from Vienna stands a hotel called The Retreat. Founded by a man who is determined to cleanse himself and his guests of all “Jewish traits,” it is a resort of assimilation, with daily activities that include lessons in how to look, talk, act–in short, how to pass–as a gentile. But with Hitler on the march, the possibilities of both assimilation and retreat are quickly fading for the hotel’s patrons, men and women who are necessarily–and horrifically–blind to their fate. Mordant, shrewd, and elegantly written, The Retreat is a moving story of people forbidden to retreat from themselves, by the writer whom Irving Howe called “one of the best novelists alive.”

Product Details

  • Paperback: 164 pages
  • Publisher: Schocken (January 20, 1998)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0805210962
  • ISBN-13: 978-0805210965

Marginal Jewish characters who would do without their own Jewish identity gather together at a ‘ retreat’ where they are to develop traits which will free them of their ‘undesirable’ Jewish traits. The major character, an actress who has been forced into retirement, and who has an uneasy relationship with her daughter comes to the Retreat and like its other inhabitants is enclosed and imprisoned by it. Appelfeld is a master of depicting such marginal characters, who seem somehow unreal and threatened not only by the hostile world outside but by their own lack of substance. On the edge of the great destruction of the Jewish people these characters seem half- dead and in some way longing for their own destruction.

The remembrance and the promise of a terrible disaster that has already happened, and is told as if it is about to come.

The Retreat: A novel

Aharon Appelfeld

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