BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS APRIL 20 2012: JAPAN-US ECONOMIC RELATIONS

April 20, 2012 at 2:43 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, History, Japan, Research | Leave a comment

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Central bankers’ speeches for 20 April now available

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Fri 4/20/12

Central bankers’ speeches for 20 April 2012
now available on the BIS website

Masaaki Shirakawa: Society, economy and the central bank

Masaaki Shirakawa: Japan-US economic relations – what we can learn from each other

Hirohide Yamaguchi: Agenda for Japan’s economy and challenges facing small and medium-sized enterprises

Peter Praet: The role of the central bank and euro area governments in times of crisis

José Manuel González-Páramo: Future challenges for central bank statistics

All speeches from 1997 onwards are available from the BIS website at:

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Communications

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Central bankers’ speeches for 20 April now available

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Fri 4/20/12 
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BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS AUGUST 9 AND AUGUST 10 2011: JAPAN’S ECONOMY

August 11, 2011 at 3:30 pm | Posted in Development, Economics, Financial, History, India, Japan, Research | Leave a comment

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Central bankers’ speeches for 9 and 10 August now available‏

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Thu 8/11/11

Central bankers’ speeches for 10 August 2011

now available on the BIS website

Masaaki Shirakawa: Recent developments in Japan’s economy and the conduct of monetary policy

Alan Bollard: The role of banks in the economy – improving the performance of the New Zealand banking system after the global financial crisis

Central bankers’ speeches for 9 August 2011

now available on the BIS website

Jean-Claude Trichet: ECB press conference – introductory statement

K C Chakrabarty: Indian education system – issues and challenges

 27 July

All speeches from 1997 onwards are available from the BIS website at:

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Thu 8/11/11 
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BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS JULY 25 AND JULY 26 2011: GLOBAL FINANCIAL REFORM

July 26, 2011 at 12:16 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, Japan, Research | Leave a comment

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Central bankers’ speeches for 25 and 26 July now available‏

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Tue 7/26/11

Central bankers’ speeches for 26 July 2011

now available on the BIS website

Glenn Stevens: The cautious consumer

Masaaki Shirakawa: Japan’s economy and monetary policy

Hirohide Yamaguchi: Challenges to Japan’s economy and monetary policy after the Great Earthquake – preparations for uncertainties and strengthening of growth potential

Central bankers’ speeches for 25 July 2011

now available on the BIS website

Jean-Claude Trichet: Interview with the Süddeutsche Zeitung

Tiff Macklem: Global financial reform – maintaining the momentum

Malcolm Edey: General economic and financial environment in Australia

All speeches from 1997 onwards are available from the BIS website at: http://www.bis.org/list/cbspeeches/index.htm.

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Tue 7/26/11

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ART TREASURES IN JAPANESE MOVIES: “STILL WALKING” BY HIROKAZU KORE-EDA

June 12, 2011 at 2:43 am | Posted in Art, Asia, Film, History, Japan | Leave a comment

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One of the topics discussed casually in the Japanese movie, “Still Walking” is the status and condition of the art treasures of the Takamats-zuka Tomb and “Asuka Beauty,” one of the murals.

Still Walking (歩いても 歩いても Aruitemo aruitemo) is a 2008 Japanese film directed by Hirokazu Kore-eda. The film is a portrait of a family over roughly 24 hours as they commemorate the death of one member.

Plot

The Yokoyama family are briefly reunited to commemorate the death of the eldest son, Junpei, who drowned accidentally 12 years ago. His retired doctor father Kyohei and mother Toshiko are joined by surviving son Ryota, daughter Chinami and their respective families. The family share nostalgia, humour, sadness and tension as memories are shared and ceremonies performed.

Cast

Reception

In a Chicago Sun-Times review, Roger Ebert gave Still Walking four stars (out of four). Ebert’s review argues that director Kore-eda is an heir of Yasujiro Ozu.[1]

References

  1. 1.                              Ebert, Roger (26 August 2009). “Still Walking”. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 13 November 2010.

Takamatsuzuka Tomb

The Takamatsuzuka Tomb (高松塚古墳 Takamatsuzuka Kofun) or “Tall Pine Tree Ancient Burial Mound” in Japanese is an ancient circular tomb in Asuka village, Nara prefecture, Japan.

The tomb is thought to have been built at some time between the end of the 7th century and the beginning of the 8th century. It was accidentally discovered by a local farmer in the 1960s.

The mound of the tomb was built of alternating layers of clay and sand. It is about 16 meters in diameter and 5 meters high. Digging yielded a burial chamber with painted fresco wall paintings of courtiers in Goguryeo-style garb. The paintings are in full color with red, blue, gold, and silver foil representing four male followers and four abigails together with the Azure Dragon, Black Tortoise, White Tiger, and Vermilion Bird groups of stars. The paintings are designated as a national treasure of Japan.

For whom the tomb was built is unknown, but the decorations suggest it is for a member of the Japanese royal family or a high-ranking nobleman. Candidates include:

  1. 1.     Prince Osakabe (? – 705), a son of Emperor Temmu
  2. 2.     Prince Yuge (? – 699), also a son of Emperor Temmu
  3. 3.     Prince Takechi (654? – 696), also a son of Emperor Temmu, general of Jinshin War, Daijō Daijin
  4. 4.     Isonokami Ason Maro (640 – 717), a descendant of Mononobe clan and in charge of Fujiwara-kyo after the capital was moved to Heijo-kyo
  5. 5.     Kudara no Konikishi Zenko (617-700), a son of the last king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.

[1][2]

The Cultural Affairs Agency of Japan is considering taking apart the stone chamber and reassembling it elsewhere to prevent further deterioration to its wall paintings. A painting called Asuka Bijin, or “beautiful women”, is one of the murals in the tomb facing deterioration. The unusual preservation method is being considered because the tomb’s current situation makes it impossible to prevent further damage and stop the spread of mold.

Unlike the Kitora Tomb, also in Asuka, removing pieces of the Takamatsuzuka wall plaster and reinforcing them for conservation appears difficult because the plaster has numerous tiny cracks.

Directed by Hirokazu Koreeda

Written by Hirokazu Koreeda

Starring Hiroshi Abe Yui Natsukawa

You Music by Gontiti

Cinematography Yutaka Yamasaki

Editing by Hirokazu Koreeda

Release date(s)

June 28, 2008 (Japan)
August 28, 2009 (USA)

Running time 114 minutes

Country Japan

Language Japanese

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SONGS AND MOVIES IN JAPAN: “HARP OF BURMA”

May 16, 2011 at 12:56 am | Posted in Art, Asia, Books, History, Japan | Leave a comment

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Songs and Movies in Japan: “Hanyu no yado” 

“Hanyu no yado–埴生の宿” is the Japanese title of an old song that is known as “Home, Sweet home“. We can listen it at the end of Ghibli movie “Hotaru no haka—-The grave of the Fireflies”—-performed by Amelita Galli-Curci. In the original lyric, there is a phrase “Be it ever so humble, there’s no place like home”.

It figures also in Kon Ichikawa’s movie masterpiece from 1956, “Harp of Burma.”

Hanyu no Yado means “a house made of mud”.

“Home, Sweet home” is played in “The Grave of the Fireflies.”

You can listen the Japanese version of this song on youtube.
http://jp.youtube.com/watch?v=_JA0whXi1Hw

Japanese translation:
埴生の宿も 我が宿 玉の装ひ 羨まじ
長閑也や 春の空 花はあるじ 鳥は友
おゝ 我が宿よ たのしとも たのもしや
書読む窓も 我が窓 瑠璃の床も 羨まじ
清らなりや 秋の夜半 月はあるじ むしは友
おゝ 我が窓よ たのしとも たのもしや

hiragana:
はにゅうのやども わがやど たまのよそおい うらやまじ
のどかなりや はるのそら はなはあるじ とりはとも
おお わがやどよ たのしとも たのもしや
ふみよむまども わがやど るりのゆかも うらやまじ
きよらなりや あきのよわ つきはあるじ むしはとも
おお わがまどよ たもしとも たのもしや

Roma-ji:
Hanyu no yado mo waga yado, Tama no yosooi urayamaji
Nodokanariya haru no sora, Hana wa aruji tori wa tomo
Oh, waga yado yo, Tanositmo tanomosiya
Fumi yomu mado mo waga mado, Ruri no yuka mo urayamaji
Kiyara nariya aki no yowa, Tsuki wa aruji mushi wa tomo
Oh, waga mado yo, Tanositmo tanomosiya

original
‘Mid pleasures and palaces though we may roam,
Be it ever so humble, There’s no place like home.
A charm from the skies Seems to hallow us there,
Which seek thro’ the world, is ne’er met with elsewhere.
Home, home, sweet sweet home,
There’s no place like home, there’s no place like home.
I gaze on the moon as I tread the drear wild,
And feel that my mother now thinks of her child;
As she looks on that moon from our own cottage door,
Thro’ the woodbine whose fragrance shall cheer me no more.
Home, home, sweet sweet home;
There’s no place like home, there’s no place like home.
An exile from home, splendor dazzles in vain,
Oh, give me my lowly thatched cottage again;
The birds singing gaily, that came at my call:
Give me them and that peace of mind, dearer than all.
Home, home, sweet sweet home,
There’s no place like home, there’s no place like home.
 
The Burmese Harp (Biruma no tategoto, a.k.a. Harp of Burma) is a 1956 black-and-white Japanese film directed by Kon Ichikawa.

The Burmese Harp (Biruma no tategoto, a.k.a. Harp of Burma) is a 1956 black-and-white Japanese film directed by Kon Ichikawa. It was based on a children’s novel of the same name written by Michio Takeyama. It was Ichikawa’s first film to be shown outside Japan,[1] and is “one of the first films to portray the decimating effects of World War II from the point of view of the Japanese army.”[2] The film was nominated for the 1957 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, during the first year that such a category existed.

In 1985, Ichikawa remade the film in color with different actors.

Plot

Private Mizushima, a Japanese soldier, becomes the harp (or) saung player of Captain Inōye’s group, composed of soldiers who fight and sing to raise morale in World War II Burma Campaign. When they are offered shelter in a village, they eventually realize they are being watched by British soldiers. They successfully retrieve their ammunition, then see the advancing force. Firing is declined, however. They are later told that the Japanese surrender has occurred and they surrender.

At a camp the Captain asks Mizushima to volunteer to talk down a group of soldiers who are still fighting on the mountain. He agrees to do so and is told by the British that he has 30 minutes to tell them to surrender. At the mountain he is almost shot down before they realize he is Japanese. He climbs up safely and asks to speak to whoever is in command. Meeting their commander in a cave bunker he informs him that the war has ended and they should surrender. The commander says he shall talk to the other soldiers, and they come out minutes later stating that unanimously they decided to fight to the end. Mizushima begs for them to surrender but they do nothing. He decides to ask for more time from the British, and when he creates a surrender flag, the others take it the wrong way and believe he’s surrendering for them. They beat him unconscious and leave him on the floor. Soon the artillery begins again and because he’s in the cave, he becomes the only survivor. He wanders around looking for the camp his group was in. He becomes sick looking at all the corpses on the ground and decides to help bury them and pray for them by stealing a monk’s robe.

Meanwhile, Captain Inōye and his men are wondering what happened, and cling to a belief that he is still out there. Eventually they buy a parrot (saying ‘Mizushima, let’s go back to Japan together’ over and over again) and tell a villager to bring it to a monk they suspect Mizushima is hiding as. But they get the parrot and a long letter replying that he won’t come back to Japan with them, because he must continue burying the dead while studying as a monk, and promoting the peaceful nature of mankind. Years later however, he allows for the prospect of returning to Japan.

Cast

Release

In Japan, Nikkatsu, the studio that commissioned the film, released it in two parts, three weeks apart. Part one (running 63 minutes) opened on January 21, 1956, and part two (80 minutes) opened on February 12, both accompanied by B movies.[1] Its total running time of 143 minutes was cut to 116 minutes for later re-release and export, reputedly at Ichikawa’s objection.[1]

Reception

Awards and nominations

Critical reception

In 1993, film scholar Audie Bock wrote:[4]

Screenwriter Natto Wada (Ichikawa’s former wife) lets minimal dialogue carry the emotion of The Burmese Harp. Ichikawa allows the grandeur of the Burmese landscape and the eerie power of its Buddhist statuary and architecture to sustain the mood of Mizushima’s conversion and the mystification of his Japanese comrades. Yet the gravity of the film lifts with the lyrical score, the light humor of a local bartering woman (Tanie Kitabayashi) with her parrots, and the genuine but uncomprehending affection of the soldiers for their missing mate.

In 2007, film critic Tony Rayns called it the “first real landmark in his career” and wrote:[1]

Ichikawa’s film is sharper and more clearheaded than Takeyama’s book, perhaps because it reflects an encounter with the reality of Burma and the Burmese. Most details in the film are taken directly from the book, although the overall structure has been changed….It’s with the dropping of one of the book’s episodes entirely and substituting ideas of his own that Ichikawa provides the measure of the film’s achievement. After Mizushima is sent on the futile mission to persuade a belligerent captain to surrender, he’s wounded in the leg by a British bullet and left to die….In the book, Mizushima is found and nursed back to health by a non-Burmese tribe of cannibals, who plan to eat him; … Ichikawa instead has Mizushima brought back from near death by a Buddhist monk, who intones over his patient the line “Burma is Burma. Burma is the Buddha’s country.” After his recovery, Mizushima shamelessly steals the monk’s robe (his only thought is self-preservation, and he needs a disguise) and makes his way south, intending to rejoin his company, which is where Ichikawa’s story line rejoins Takeyama’s.

References

  1. 1.                              a b c d e Tony Rayns (16 March 2007). “The Burmese Harp: Unknown Soldiers”. The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 2010-07-10.
  2. 2.                              “The Burmese Harp (Biruma no tategoto)”. BBC Four. 22 August 2002. Retrieved 2010-07-10. “A compassionate, anti-war film (yet refusing to enter into any cinematic discussion of where to lay blame), this is one of the first films to portray the decimating effects of the war from the point of view of the Japanese army.”
  3. 3.                              The Burmese Harp (1956) at the Internet Movie Database
  4. 4.                              Audie Bock (27 January 1993). “The Burmese Harp”. The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 2010-07-10.

Directed by Kon Ichikawa

Produced by Masayuki Takagi

Written by Michio Takeyama (novel), Natto Wada

Starring Rentaro Mikuni, Shôji Yasui, Jun Hamamura

Studio Nikkatsu

Distributed by Brandon Films (USA)

Release date(s) (part 1) 21 Jan 1956; (part 2) 12 Feb 1956 (Japan)[1] Running time 143 minutes (Japan)
116 minutes (other countries)

Country Japan

Language Japanese

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BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS APRIL 26 2011: JAPAN’S ECONOMY

April 26, 2011 at 4:06 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, Japan, Research | Leave a comment

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Central bankers’ speeches for 26 April now available‏

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Tue 4/26/11

Central bankers’ speeches for 26 April 2011

now available on the BIS website

Jean-Claude Trichet: Interview with Helsingin Sanomat and Kauppalehti

Kiyohiko G Nishimura: The current state of Japan’s economy and monetary policy stance

All speeches from 1997 onwards are available from the BIS website at:

http://www.bis.org/list/cbspeeches/index.htm.

Communications

Bank for International Settlements

E-mail: press@bis.org

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Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

Central bankers’ speeches for 26 April now available‏

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Tue 4/26/11

 

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BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS APRIL 19 2011: ECONOMIC OUTLOOK

April 20, 2011 at 4:07 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, Islam, Japan, Research | Leave a comment

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Central bankers’ speeches for 19 April now available‏

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Wed 4/20/11

Central bankers’ speeches for 19 April 2011

now available on the BIS website

Pentti Hakkarainen: Economic outlook – still uncharted waters ahead

Masaaki Shirakawa: Great East Japan Earthquake – resilience of society and determination to rebuild

Øystein Olsen: Ensuring financial stability in turbulent times

Jan F Qvigstad: Managing wealth – the Norwegian experience

Duvvuri Subbarao: The global economy and framework

Paul Fisher: Central bank policy on collateral

Duvvuri Subbarao: Global challenges, global solutions – some remarks

Vítor Constâncio: Financial regulatory reform and the economy

Duvvuri Subbarao: The IMF and latest economic developments in the Indian Subcontinent

Louis Kasekende: Stronger rules foster growth, stability

Durmuş Yilmaz: Managing liquidity in the Islamic financial services industry

 All speeches from 1997 onwards are available from the BIS website at:

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Communications

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Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

Central bankers’ speeches for 19 April now available‏

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Wed 4/20/11 
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JAPANESE NARCO-UTOPIAN SCHEMES IN MANCHUKUO BEFORE WW II: THE JAPANESE MOVIE “THE SETTING SUN”

March 25, 2011 at 12:47 pm | Posted in Asia, China, Film, Financial, History, Japan | Leave a comment

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Manchukuo and Pan-Asian Narco-Utopian Dreams

The Setting Sun (Rakuyou) is a Japanese film released in 1992, based on a novel of the same name by the director Rou Tomono. The U.S. release was in 1999.

The Japanese movie “Setting Sun” which features Donald Sutherland and Diane Lane depicts the Japanese takeover of Manchuria from 1928-1945 and the narco-utopian pan-Asian daydreams of certain Japanese military leaders such as Ishiwara Kanji.

It stars Masaya Kato, Diane Lane, Yuen Biao and Donald Sutherland.

Directed by Rou Tomono

Produced by Lee Faulkner

Written by Duane Dell’Amico

Rou Tomono (novel)

Rou Tomono (screenplay)

Starring Masaya Kato, Diane Lane, Biao Yuen, Donald Sutherland

Music by Maurice Jarre

Cinematography Yoshihiro Yamazaki

Editing by Osamu Inoue

Release date(s) 1992

Running time 150 min.

Country Japan

Language Japanese

Kanji Ishiwara (Ishiwara Kanj, 18 January 1889 – 15 August 1949) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II. He and Itagaki Seishirō were the men primarily responsible for the Mukden Incident that took place in Manchuria in 1931.

Biography

Early life

Ishiwara was born in Tsuruoka city, Yamagata prefecture into a samurai class family. His father was a police officer, but as his clan had supported the Tokugawa bakufu and then the Northern Alliance during the Boshin War of the Meiji Restoration, its members were shut out of higher government positions.

At age thirteen, Ishiwara was enrolled in a military prep school. He was subsequently accepted at the 21st class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy and graduated in 1909. He served in the IJA 65th Infantry Regiment in Korea after its annexation by Japan in 1910, and in 1915 he passed the exams for admittance to the 30th class of the Army Staff College. He graduated second in his class in 1918. [2]

Ishiwara spent several years in various staff assignments and then was selected to study in Germany as a military attaché.

He stayed in Berlin and in Munich from 1922-1925, focusing on military history and military strategy. He hired several former officers from the German General Staff to tutor him, and by the time he returned to Japan, he had formed a considerable background on military theory and doctrine.

Prior to leaving for Germany, Ishiwara converted to Nichiren Buddhism. Nichiren had taught that a period of massive conflict would precede a golden era of human culture in which the truth of Buddhism would prevail. Japan would be the center and main promulgator of this faith, which would encompass the entire world. Ishiwara felt that the period of world conflict was fast approaching, and Japan relying upon its vision of the kokutai and its sacred mission to “liberate” China, would lead a unified East Asia to defeat the West. [3]

Ishiwara and Manchuria

Mukden Incident

Ishiwara was assigned as an instructor to the Army Staff College, followed by a staff position within the Kwantung Army in Manchuria. He arrived there at the end of 1928, some months after the assassination of Zhang Zuolin by Daisaku Komoto. Ishiwara quickly realized that the confused political situation in northern China, along with Japan’s already significant economic investments in the area provided the Kwantung Army with a unique opportunity, and began a plan to take advantage of the situation.

On 18 September 1931, a bomb was secretly planted on the tracks of the Japanese-controlled Southern Manchuria Railway. Charging that Chinese soldiers had attacked the rail line, Japanese troops under Ishiwara’s orders quickly seized the Chinese military barracks in the nearby city of Liutiaokou. Without bothering to inform the new Kwantung Army commander General Shigeru Honjō or the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff in Tokyo, Ishiwara ordered Kwantung Army units to seize control of all other Manchurian cities.

The sudden invasion of Manchuria alarmed political leaders in Japan, and brought international condemnation down on Japan from the world community. Ishiwara thought it most likely that he would be executed or at least dishonorably discharged for his insubordination. However, the success of the operation brought just the opposite. Ishiwara was adulated by right-wing younger officers, ultranationalist societies for his daring and initiative. He was returned to Japan, and given command of the IJA 4th Infantry Regiment in Sendai.

Army revolutionaries

Ishiwara was appointed to the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff in 1935 as Chief of Operations, which gave him primary responsibility for articulating his vision for Japan’s future. Ishiwara was a strong proponent of pan-Asianism and the hokushinron philosophy. He proposed that Japan should join with Manchukuo and China to form an “East Asian League”, which would then prepare for and then fight a war with the Soviet Union. After the Soviet Union was defeated, Japan could move to the south to free Southeast Asia from European colonial rule. Japan would then be ready to tackle the United States. [4]

However, in order to implement these plans, Japan would need to build up its economy and military. Ishiwara envisioned a one-party “national defense state” with a command economy in which political parties were abolished, and venal politicians and greedy businessmen removed from power.

However, Ishiwara stopped short of calling for a Shōwa Restoration and violent overthrow of the government. When the February 26 Incident erupted in 1936, rebels assassinated a number of major politicians and government leaders and demanded a change in government in line with Ishiwara’s philosophies. However, Ishiwara confounded their expectations by speaking out strongly against the rebellion and demanding proclamation of martial law. After Vice Chief of Staff Hajime Sugiyama pulled in from garrisons around Tokyo, Ishiwara was named Operations Officer of the Martial Law Headquarters.

Return to Manchukuo, and disgrace

In March 1937 Ishiwara was promoted to major general and transferred back to Manchukuo as Vice Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army. He discovered to his dismay that his Army colleagues had no intention of creation a new pan-Asian paradise, and were quite content to play the role of colonial occupiers. Ishiwara denounced the Kwantung Army leadership, and proposed that all officers take a pay cut. He confronted Kwantung Army commander in chief General Hideki Tojo over his allocation of funds to an officers’ wives club. After becoming an embarrassment to his seniors, he was relieved of command and reassigned to a local army base at Maizuru on the seacoast near Kyoto.

Back in Japan, he began to analyze Soviet tactics at Nomonhan, where Japanese forces were defeated, proposing counterstrategies to be adopted by the Army. He continued to write and give public addresses, continuing to advocate an East Asia League partnership with China and Manchukuo and continuing to oppose the invasion of China. He became a lieutenant general in 1939 and was assigned command of the IJA 16th Division.

His political nemesis, Hideki Tōjō, now risen to the highest ranks, felt that the outspoken Ishiwara should be retired from the Army, but feared the reactions of young officers and right-wing activists. Finally, after Ishiwara publicly denounced Tōjō as an enemy of Japan, who should “be arrested and executed,” he was put on the retired list. Ishiwara went back to Yamagata, where he continued to write and study agriculture until the end of the war.

After the end of World War II, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers called upon Ishiwara as a witness for the defense in the International Military Tribunal for the Far East. No charges were ever brought against Ishiwara himself, possibly due to his public opposition to Tōjō, the war against China and the attack on Pearl Harbor. He displayed his old fire in front of the American prosecutor, observing that U.S. President Harry S. Truman should be indicted for the mass bombing of Japanese civilians.[5]

References

Books

  • Maga, Timothy P. (2001). Judgment at Tokyo: The Japanese War Crimes Trials. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2177-9.
  • Peattie, Mark R. (1975). Ishiwara Kanji and Japan’s confrontation with the West. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691030995.
  • Samuels, Richard J. (2007). Securing Japan: Tokyo’s Grand Strategy and the Future of East Asia. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801446120.

Notes

  1. 1. Japanese
  2. 2. Ammenthorp, The Generals of World War II
  3. 3. Peatty, Ishiwara Kanji and Japan’s confrontation with the West
  4. 4. Peatty, Ishiwara Kanji and Japan’s Confrontation with the West
  5. 5. Maga, Judgement at Tokyo

Opium poppies

The opium poppy was grown to obtain opium. In November 1932 the Mitsui Zaibatsu conglomerate held a state monopoly for poppy farming with the “declared intention” of reducing its heavy local use. Fixed cultivation areas were set up in Jehol and northwest Kirin. For 1934-35, cultivation area was evaluated as 480 square kilometres (190 sq mi) with a yield of 1.1 tonnes/km². There was much illegal growing, and its high profitability retarded the effective suppression of this dangerous drug.

“Nikisansuke”, a secret Japanese merchant group, participated in the opium industry.

This group was formed by:

The monopoly generated profits of twenty to thirty million yen per year.

The military prohibited the use of opium and other narcotics by its troops (punishment was loss of Japanese citizenship) but allowed it to be used as a “demoralization weapon” against “inferior races”, a term that included all non-Japanese peoples.

One of the participants, Naoki Hoshino negotiated a large loan from Japanese banks using a lien on the profits of Manchukuo’s Opium Monopoly Bureau as collateral. Another authority states that annual narcotics revenue in China, including Manchukuo, was estimated by the Japanese military at 300 million yen a year.

Similar policies operated across Japanese-occupied Asia.

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“ROMAJI DIARY”: ISHIKAWA TAKUBOKU BOOK

March 23, 2011 at 9:08 pm | Posted in Art, Asia, Books, Japan, Literary | Leave a comment

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Romaji Diary and Sad Toys

Takuboku Ishikawa (Author)

Sanford Goldstein (Editor, Translator)

Seishi Shinoda (Editor, Translator)

About the Author

Takuboku Ishikawa (1886-1912) was the son of a Zen priest. A middle-school dropout, he was raised in rural Shibumi and emigrated to Tokyo as a young man. In Tokyo, he frequented literary circles and began to write poetry and fiction and to support himself as a journalist. He later worked as a substitute teacher and journalist in northern Honshu and Hokkaido before returning to Tokyo. He died, in poverty, from tuberculosis at the age of twenty-seven.

Product Details:

  • Paperback: 279 pages
  • Publisher: Tuttle Publishing
  • November 2000
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0804832536
  • ISBN-13: 978-0804832533

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JAPANESE POET ISHIKAWA TAKUBOKU(1886-1912): “KANASHIKI GANGU” “SAD TOYS”

March 22, 2011 at 10:21 pm | Posted in Art, Asia, Books, Japan, Literary | Leave a comment

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ISHIKAWA TAKUBOKU (1886-1912)

Tanka Poet

Takuboku Ishikawa (Ishikawa Takuboku, February 20, 1886 – April 13, 1912) was a Japanese poet. He died of tuberculosis. Well known as both a tanka and ‘modern-style’ (shintaishi or simply shi) or ‘free-style’ (jiyūshi) poet, he began as a member of the Myōjō group of naturalist poets but later joined the “socialistic” group of Japanese poets and renounced naturalism.

Major works

His major works were two volumes of tanka poems plus his diaries:

Timeline

Ishikawa Takuboku, ca. 1900

  • 1886 – Born at Joko Temple, Hinoto-mura (presently named Hinoto, Tamayama-mura), Minami-Iwate-gun, Iwate Prefecture, to Ittei, the father, who was the priest of the temple, and Katsu, the mother.
  • 1887 – Moved to Shibutami-mura (presently named Shibutami, Tamayama-mura)
  • 1891 – Attended Shibutami Elementary School (4 years)
  • 1895 – Attended Morioka Upper Elementary School (2 years)
  • 1898 – Attended Morioka Middle School
  • 1899 – Published literary booklet “Choji-kai”, printed by hand with method called hectograph
  • 1900 – Formed self-study group “Union Club” in order to learn English. First and second issues of “Choji Magazine” were published. Fell in love with Setsuko Horiai who was a student at Morioka Girls’ Middle School.
  • 1901 – Published the third issue of “Mikazuki” (crescent moon), a magazine for circulating, and the first issue of “Nigitama.” His tankas appeared on Iwate Nippo (news paper) under the pen name of “Suiko”, the first public appearance of his works.
  • 1902 – His tankas appeared on “Myōjō”, a literary magazine, under the pen name of “Hakuhin”. Dropped out of Morioka Middle School because of his aspiration for literature. Went to Tokyo and made the acquaintances of Tekkan and Akiko Yosano.
  • 1903 – Went home to Shibutami. Serial articles “Ideas of Wagner” appeared on Iwate Nippo. Poem ”Shucho” (sorrowful melodies) was appeared on “Myōjō”. The pen name of “Takuboku” was used for the first time. In November, joined the circle of poets “Shinshisha”.
  • 1904 – Serial articles “Senun Yoroku” (personal memorandum of war time) appeared on Iwate Nippo. This was right after the outbreak of Russo-Japanese War.
  • 1905 – The first collection of poems “Akogare” (admiration) was published by Odajima Shobo. Got married to HORIAI Setsuko. Published literary magazine “Sho-Tenchi” (small world).
  • 1906 – Became a substitute teacher at Shibutami Upper Elementary School. Novel “Kumo wa Tensai dearu” (the clouds are geniuses) was written, which was never published during his lifetime. Novel “Soretsu” (funeral procession) appeared on literary magazine “Myōjō” (December issue of 1906).
  • 1907 – Became a substitute teacher at Hakodate Yayoi Elementary School, and a freelance reporter at Hokodate Nichinichi Shinbun (news paper). There at the Hakodate Yayoi Elementary School, he met Chieko Tachibana, who he was instantly awestruck by her beauty. Although Takuboku only encountered Chieko in person twice, she left a lasting impression on him, and 22 of the tanka written in “Wasuregataki-Hitobito” in “Ichiaku-no-Suna” were written about Chieko Tachibana. Later despite efforts to visit Chieko in her home in Sapporo, to pursue courtship, he had learned from her father that she had recently been married. Because of the great fire in Hakodate, he lost both jobs and left Hakodate. Employed at places like Hokumon Shinpo or Otaru Nippo (publishers of news paper)
  • 1908 – Employed at Kushiro Shinbun (news paper), wrote “Benifude-dayori”. Moved to Hongo, Tokyo in spring.
  • 1909 – Employed at Asahi Shinbun as a proof reader. Issued literary magazine “Subaru” as a publisher.
  • 1910 – First collection of tankas “Ichiaku-no-Suna” (a fistful of sand) was published by Shinonome-do Shoten.
  • 1911 – Moved to Koishikawa because of health reasons.
  • 1912 – In March, his mother Katsu died. He himself died of tuberculosis on April 13, being looked after by his friend Bokusui Wakayama and his wife Setsuko, at age of 27. After his death, his second collection of tankas “Kanashiki Gangu” (grieving toys) was published by Shinonome-do Shoten.
  • 1926 – In August, his grave was erected by both Miyazaki Ikuu, his brother-in-law, who was also a poet, and Okada Kenzo, the chief of Hakodate Library.
  • 1988 – The main-belt asteroid 4672 Takuboku (1988 HB) is named in his honor.

References

  • Ishikawa Takuboku, On Knowing Oneself Too Well, translated by Tamae K. Prindle, Syllabic Press, © 2010. ISBN 978-0615345628
  • Ishikawa Takuboku, Romaji Diary and Sad Toys, translated by Sanford Goldstein and Seishi Shinoda. Rutland, Charles E. Tuttle Co. 1985.
  • Ishikawa Takuboku, Takuboku: Poems to Eat, translated by Carl Sesar, Tokyo. Kodansha International, 1966.
  • Ueda, Makoto, Modern Japanese Poets and the Nature of Literature, Stanford University Press © 1983 ISBN 0-8047-1166-6 [Ishikawa Takuboku is one of the eight poets profiled in the book, with forty two pages devoted to him. There are nine “free-style” poems and thirty one tanka included in the commentary.]

ISHIKAWA TAKUBOKU (1886-1912)

Tanka Poet

“Kanashiki Gangu”

悲しき玩具

一握の砂以後

石川啄木
呼吸(いき)すれば、
胸の中(うち)にて鳴る音あり。
凩(こがらし)よりもさびしきその音(おと)!

眼(め)閉(と)づれど、
心にうかぶ何もなし。
さびしくも、また、眼をあけるかな。

途中にてふと気が変り、
つとめ先を休みて、今日も、
河岸(かし)をさまよへり。

咽喉(のど)がかわき、
まだ起きてゐる果物屋(くだものや)を探しに行きぬ。
秋の夜ふけに。

遊びに出(で)て子供かへらず、
取り出して
走らせて見る玩具(おもちや)の機関車。

本を買ひたし、本を買ひたしと、
あてつけのつもりではなけれど、
妻に言ひてみる。

旅を思ふ夫(をっと)の心!
叱(しか)り、泣く、妻子(つまこ)の心!
朝の食卓!

家(いへ)を出て五町ばかりは、
用のある人のごとくに
歩いてみたれど――

痛む歯をおさへつつ、
日が赤赤(あかあか)と、
冬の靄(もや)の中にのぼるを見たり。

いつまでも歩いてゐねばならぬごとき
思ひ湧(わ)き来(き)ぬ、
深夜の町町(まちまち)。

なつかしき冬の朝かな。
湯をのめば、
湯気(ゆげ)がやはらかに、顔にかかれり。

何(なん)となく、
今朝(けさ)は少しく、わが心明るきごとし。
手の爪(つめ)を切る。

うっとりと
本の挿絵(さしゑ)に眺め入(い)り、
煙草(たばこ)の煙吹きかけてみる。

途中にて乗換(のりかへ)の電車なくなりしに、
泣かうかと思ひき。
雨も降りてゐき。

二晩(ふたばん)おきに、
夜(よ)の一時頃に切通(きりどほし)の坂を上(のぼ)りしも――
勤(つと)めなればかな。

しっとりと
酒のかをりにひたりたる
脳の重みを感じて帰る。

今日(けふ)もまた酒のめるかな!
酒のめば
胸のむかつく癖(くせ)を知りつつ。

何事か今我つぶやけり。
かく思ひ、
目をうちつぶり、酔(ゑ)ひを味(あじは)ふ。

すっきりと酔ひのさめたる心地(ここち)よさよ!
夜中に起きて、
墨(すみ)を磨(す)るかな。

真夜中の出窓(でまど)に出(い)でて、
欄干(らんかん)の霜に
手先を冷(ひ)やしけるかな。

どうなりと勝手になれといふごとき
わがこのごろを
ひとり恐(おそ)るる。

手も足もはなればなれにあるごとき
ものうき寝覚(ねざめ)!
かなしき寝覚!

朝な朝な
撫(な)でてかなしむ、
下にして寝た方(はう)の腿(もも)のかろきしびれを。

曠野(あらの)ゆく汽車のごとくに、
このなやみ、
ときどき我の心を通る。

みすぼらしき郷里(くに)の新聞ひろげつつ、
誤植(ごしよく)ひろへり。
今朝のかなしみ。

誰(たれ)か我を
思ふ存分(ぞんぶん)叱(しか)りつくる人あれと思ふ。
何(なん)の心ぞ。

何がなく
初恋人(はつこひびと)のおくつきに詣(まう)づるごとし。
郊外に来(き)ぬ。

なつかしき
故郷にかへる思ひあり、
久し振(ぶ)りにて汽車に乗りしに。

新しき明日(あす)の来(きた)るを信ずといふ
自分の言葉に
嘘(うそ)はなけれど――

考へれば、
ほんとに欲(ほ)しと思ふこと有るやうで無し。
煙管(きせる)をみがく。

今日ひょいと山が恋しくて
山に来(き)ぬ。
去年腰掛(こしか)けし石をさがすかな。

朝寝して新聞読む間(ま)なかりしを
負債(ふさい)のごとく
今日も感ずる。

よごれたる手をみる――
ちゃうど
この頃の自分の心に対(むか)ふがごとし。

よごれたる手を洗ひし時の
かすかなる満足が
今日の満足なりき。

年明けてゆるめる心!
うっとりと
来(こ)し方(かた)をすべて忘れしごとし。

昨日まで朝から晩(ばん)まで張りつめし
あのこころもち
忘れじと思へど。

戸の面(も)には羽子(はね)突(つ)く音す。
笑う声す。
去年の正月にかへれるごとし。

何となく、
今年はよい事あるごとし。
元日の朝、晴れて風無し。

腹の底より欠伸(あくび)もよほし
ながながと欠伸してみぬ、
今年の元日。

いつの年も、
似たよな歌を二つ三つ
年賀の文(ふみ)に書いてよこす友。

正月の四日(よっか)になりて
あの人の
年(ねん)に一度の葉書(はがき)も来にけり。

世におこなひがたき事のみ考へる
われの頭よ!
今年もしかるか。

人がみな
同じ方角(はうがく)に向いて行(ゆ)く。
それを横より見てゐる心。

いつまでか、
この見飽(みあ)きたる懸額(かけがく)を
このまま懸けておくことやらむ。

ぢりぢりと、
蝋燭(らふそく)の燃えつくるごとく、
夜となりたる大晦日(おほみそか)かな。

青塗(あをぬり)の瀬戸の火鉢によりかかり、
眼閉(と)ぢ、眼を開(あ)け、
時を惜(をし)めり。

何(なん)となく明日はよき事あるごとく
思ふ心を
叱(しか)りて眠る。

過ぎゆける一年のつかれ出(で)しものか、
元日といふに
うとうと眠し。

それとなく
その由(よ)るところ悲しまる、
元日の午後の眠(ねむ)たき心。

ぢっとして、
蜜柑(みかん)のつゆに染まりたる爪(つめ)を見つむる
心もとなさ!

手を打ちて
眠気(ねむげ)の返事きくまでの
そのもどかしさに似たるもどかしさ!

やみがたき用を忘れ来(き)ぬ――
途中にて口に入れたる
ゼムのためなりし。

すっぽりと蒲団(ふとん)をかぶり、
足をちぢめ、
舌を出してみぬ、誰(たれ)にともなしに。

いつしかに正月も過ぎて、
わが生活(くらし)が
またもとの道にはまり来(きた)れり。

神様と議論して泣きし――
あの夢よ!
四日(か)ばかりも前の朝なりし。

家(いへ)にかへる時間となるを、
ただ一つの待つことにして、
今日も働けり。

いろいろの人の思はく
はかりかねて、
今日もおとなしく暮らしたるかな。

おれが若(も)しこの新聞の主筆(しゆひつ)ならば、
やらむ――と思ひし
いろいろの事!

石狩(いしかり)の空知郡(そらちごほり)の
牧場のお嫁(よめ)さんより送り来(き)し
バタかな。

外套(ぐわいたう)の襟(えり)に頤(あご)を埋(うづ)め、
夜ふけに立どまりて聞く。
よく似た声かな。

Yといふ符牒(ふてふ)、
古日記(ふるにつき)の処処(しよしよ)にあり――
Yとはあの人の事なりしかな。

百姓の多くは酒をやめしといふ。
もっと困(こま)らば、
何をやめるらむ。

目さまして直(す)ぐの心よ!
年よりの家出の記事にも
涙出(い)でたり。

人とともに事をはかるに
適(てき)せざる、
わが性格を思ふ寝覚(ねざめ)かな。

何(なに)となく、
案外(あんがい)に多き気もせらる、
自分と同じこと思ふ人。

自分よりも年若き人に、
半日も気焔(きえん)を吐(は)きて、
つかれし心!

珍(めづ)らしく、今日は、
議会を罵(ののし)りつつ涙出(い)でたり。
うれしと思ふ。

ひと晩に咲かせてみむと、
梅の鉢(はち)を火に焙(あぶ)りしが、
咲かざりしかな。

あやまちて茶碗をこはし、
物をこはす気持のよさを、
今朝(けさ)も思へる。

猫の耳を引っぱりてみて、
にゃと啼(な)けば、
びっくりして喜ぶ子供の顔かな。

何故(なぜ)かうかとなさけなくなり、
弱い心を何度も叱(しか)り、
金かりに行く。

待てど待てど、
来る筈(はず)の人の来ぬ日なりき、
机の位置を此処(ここ)に変へしは。

古新聞!
おやここにおれの歌の事を賞(ほ)めて書いてあり、
二三行(ぎやう)なれど。

引越しの朝の足もとに落ちてゐぬ、
女の写真!
忘れゐし写真!

その頃は気もつかざりし
仮名(かな)ちがひの多きことかな、
昔の恋文(こひぶみ)!

八年前(はちねんぜん)の
今のわが妻の手紙の束(たば)!
何処(どこ)に蔵(しま)ひしかと気にかかるかな。

眠られぬ癖(くせ)のかなしさよ!
すこしでも
眠気(ねむけ)がさせば、うろたへて寝る。

笑ふにも笑はれざりき――
長いこと捜(さが)したナイフの
手の中(うち)にありしに。

この四五年、
空を仰(あふ)ぐといふことが一度もなかりき。
かうもなるものか?

原稿紙にでなくては
字を書かぬものと、
かたく信ずる我が児(こ)のあどけなさ!

どうかかうか、今月も無事(ぶじ)に暮らしたりと、
外(ほか)に欲もなき
晦日(みそか)の晩かな。

あの頃はよく嘘(うそ)を言ひき。
平気にてよく嘘を言ひき。
汗が出(い)づるかな。

古手紙よ!
あの男とも、五年前は、
かほど親しく交(まじ)はりしかな。

名は何(なん)と言ひけむ。
姓は鈴木なりき。
今はどうして何処(どこ)にゐるらむ。

生れたといふ葉書(はがき)みて、
ひとしきり、
顔をはれやかにしてゐたるかな。

そうれみろ、
あの人も子をこしらへたと、
何か気の済(す)む心地(ここち)にて寝る。

『石川はふびんな奴(やつ)だ。』
ときにかう自分で言ひて、
かなしみてみる。

ドア推(お)してひと足(あし)出(で)れば、
病人の目にはてもなき
長廊下(らうか)かな。

重い荷を下(おろ)したやうな、
気持なりき、
この寝台(ねだい)の上に来(き)ていねしとき。

そんならば生命(いのち)が欲しくないのかと、
医者に言はれて、
だまりし心!

真夜中にふと目がさめて、
わけもなく泣きたくなりて、
蒲団(ふとん)をかぶれる。

話しかけて返事のなきに
よく見れば、
泣いてゐたりき、隣の患者(くわんじや)。

病室の窓にもたれて、
久しぶりに巡査を見たりと、
よろこべるかな。

晴れし日のかなしみの一つ!
病室の窓にもたれて
煙草(たばこ)を味(あじは)ふ。

夜おそく何処(どこ)やらの室(へや)の騒がしきは
人や死にたらむと、
息をひそむる。

脉(みやく)をとる看護婦の手の、
あたたかき日あり、
つめたく堅(かた)き日もあり。

病院に入(い)りて初めての夜(よ)といふに、
すぐ寝入りしが、
物足らぬかな。

何(なに)となく自分をえらい人のやうに
思ひてゐたりき。
子供なりしかな。

ふくれたる腹を撫(な)でつつ、
病院の寝台(ねだい)に、ひとり、
かなしみてあり。

目さませば、からだ痛くて
動かれず。
泣きたくなりて、夜明くるを待つ。

びっしょりと寝汗(ねあせ)出(で)てゐる
あけがたの
まだ覚(さ)めやらぬ重きかなしみ。

ぼんやりとした悲しみが、
夜(よ)となれば、
寝台(ねだい)の上にそっと来て乗る。

病院の窓によりつつ、
いろいろの人の
元気に歩くを眺(なが)む。

もうお前(まへ)の心底(しんてい)をよく見届(みとど)けたと、
夢に母来て
泣いてゆきしかな。

思ふこと盗みきかるる如(ごと)くにて、
つと胸を引きぬ――
聴診器(ちやうしんき)より。

看護婦の徹夜するまで、
わが病(やま)ひ、
わるくなれとも、ひそかに願へる。

病院に来て、
妻や子をいつくしむ
まことの我にかへりけるかな。

もう嘘(うそ)をいはじと思ひき――
それは今朝(けさ)――
今また一つ嘘をいへるかな。

何となく、
自分を嘘のかたまりの如(ごと)く思ひて、
目をばつぶれる。

今までのことを
みな嘘にしてみれど、
心すこしも慰(なぐさ)まざりき。

軍人になると言ひ出して、
父母(ちちはは)に
苦労させたる昔の我かな。

うっとりとなりて、
剣をさげ、馬にのれる己(おの)が姿を
胸に描ける。

藤沢といふ代議士を
弟のごとく思ひて、
泣いてやりしかな。

何か一つ
大いなる悪事しておいて、
知らぬ顔してゐたき気持かな。

ぢっとして寝ていらっしゃいと
子供にでもいふがごとくに
医者のいふ日かな。

氷嚢の下より
まなこ光らせて、
寝られぬ夜(よる)は人をにくめる。

春の雪みだれて降るを
熱のある目に
かなしくも眺め入(い)りたる。

人間のその最大のかなしみが
これかと
ふっと目をばつぶれる。

廻診(くわいしん)の医者の遅(おそ)さよ!
痛みある胸に手をおきて
かたく眼をとづ。

医者の顔色をぢっと見し外(ほか)に
何も見ざりき――
胸の痛み募(つの)る日。

病(や)みてあれば心も弱るらむ!
さまざまの
泣きたきことが胸にあつまる。

寝つつ読む本の重さに
つかれたる
手を休めては、物を思へり。

今日はなぜか、
二度も、三度も、
金側(きんかは)の時計を一つ欲しと思へり。

いつか是非(ぜひ)、出(だ)さんと思ふ本のこと、
表紙のことなど、
妻に語れる。

胸いたみ、
春の霙(みぞれ)の降る日なり。
薬に噎(む)せて、伏(ふ)して眼をとづ。

あたらしきサラドの色の
うれしさに、
箸(はし)をとりあげて見は見つれども――

子を叱(しか)る、あはれ、この心よ。
熱高き日の癖(くせ)とのみ
妻よ、思ふな。

運命の来て乗れるかと
うたがひぬ――
蒲団(ふとん)の重き夜半(よは)の寝覚(ねざ)めに。

たへがたき渇(かわ)き覚(おぼ)ゆれど、
手をのべて
林檎(りんご)とるだにものうき日かな。

氷嚢のとけて温(ぬく)めば、
おのづから目がさめ来(きた)り、
からだ痛める。

いま、夢に閑古鳥(かんこどり)を聞けり。
閑古鳥を忘れざりしが
かなしくあるかな。

ふるさとを出(い)でて五年(いつとせ)、
病(やまひ)をえて、
かの閑古鳥を夢にきけるかな。

閑古鳥――
渋民村(しぶたみむら)の山荘(さんさう)をめぐる林の
あかつきなつかし。

ふるさとの寺の畔(ほとり)の
ひばの木の
いただきに来て啼(な)きし閑古鳥!

脈をとる手のふるひこそ
かなしけれ――
医者に叱られし若き看護婦!

いつとなく記憶(きおく)に残りぬ――
Fといふ看護婦の手の
つめたさなども。

はづれまで一度ゆきたしと
思ひゐし
かの病院の長廊下かな。

起きてみて、
また直(す)ぐ寝たくなる時の
力なき眼に愛(め)でしチュリップ!

堅(かた)く握(にぎ)るだけの力も無くなりし
やせし我が手の
いとほしさかな。

わが病(やまひ)の
その因(よ)るところ深く且(か)つ遠きを思ふ。
目をとぢて思ふ。

かなしくも、
病(やまひ)いゆるを願はざる心我に在(あ)り。
何(なん)の心ぞ。

新しきからだを欲しと思ひけり、
手術の傷(きず)の
痕(あと)を撫(な)でつつ。

薬のむことを忘るるを、
それとなく、
たのしみに思ふ長病(ながやまひ)かな。

ボロオヂンといふ露西亜名(ロシアな)が、
何故(なぜ)ともなく、
幾度も思ひ出さるる日なり。

いつとなく我にあゆみ寄り、
手を握り、
またいつとなく去りゆく人人(ひとびと)!

友も妻もかなしと思ふらし――
病(や)みても猶(なほ)、
革命のこと口に絶(た)たねば。

やや遠きものに思ひし
テロリストの悲しき心も――
近づく日のあり。

かかる目に
すでに幾度(いくたび)会へることぞ!
成(な)るがままに成れと今は思ふなり。

月に三十円もあれば、田舎(ゐなか)にては、
楽に暮せると――
ひょっと思へる。

今日もまた胸に痛みあり。
死ぬならば、
ふるさとに行(ゆ)きて死なむと思ふ。

いつしかに夏となれりけり。
やみあがりの目にこころよき
雨の明るさ!

病(や)みて四月(しぐわつ)――
そのときどきに変りたる
くすりの味もなつかしきかな。

病みて四月(ぐわつ)――
その間(ま)にも、猶(なほ)、目に見えて、
わが子の背丈(せたけ)のびしかなしみ。

すこやかに、
背丈(せたけ)のびゆく子を見つつ、
われの日毎(ひごと)にさびしきは何(な)ぞ。

まくら辺(べ)に子を坐らせて、
まじまじとその顔を見れば、
逃げてゆきしかな。

いつも子を
うるさきものに思ひゐし間(あひだ)に、
その子、五歳(さい)になれり。

その親にも、
親の親にも似るなかれ――
かく汝(な)が父は思へるぞ、子よ。

かなしきは、
(われもしかりき)
叱(しか)れども、打てども泣かぬ児の心なる。

「労働者」「革命」などといふ言葉を
聞きおぼえたる
五歳の子かな。

時として、
あらん限りの声を出し、
唱歌をうたふ子をほめてみる。

何思ひけむ――
玩具(おもちや)をすてておとなしく、
わが側(そば)に来て子の坐りたる。

お菓子貰ふ時も忘れて、
二階より、
町の往来(ゆきき)を眺むる子かな。

新しきインクの匂(にほ)ひ、
目に沁(し)むもかなしや。
いつか庭の青めり。

ひとところ、畳(たたみ)を見つめてありし間(ま)の
その思ひを、
妻よ、語れといふか。

あの年のゆく春のころ、
眼をやみてかけし黒眼鏡(くろめがね)――
こはしやしにけむ。

薬のむことを忘れて、
ひさしぶりに、
母に叱られしをうれしと思へる。

枕辺(まくらべ)の障子(しやうじ)あけさせて、
空を見る癖(くせ)もつけるかな――
長き病に。

おとなしき家畜のごとき
心となる、
熱やや高き日のたよりなさ。

何か、かう、書いてみたくなりて、
ペンを取りぬ――
花活(はないけ)の花あたらしき朝。

放(はな)たれし女のごとく、
わが妻の振舞(ふるま)ふ日なり。
ダリヤを見入る。

あてもなき金(かね)などを待つ思ひかな。
寝つ起きつして、
今日も暮したり。

何もかもいやになりゆく
この気持よ。
思ひ出しては煙草(たばこ)を吸ふなり。

或(あ)る市(まち)にゐし頃の事として、
友の語る
恋がたりに嘘(うそ)の交(まじ)るかなしさ。

ひさしぶりに、
ふと声を出して笑ひてみぬ――
蝿(はひ)の両手を揉(も)むが可笑(をか)しさに。

胸いたむ日のかなしみも、
かをりよき煙草の如(ごと)く、
棄(す)てがたきかな。

何か一つ騒ぎを起してみたかりし、
先刻(さっき)の我を
いとしと思へる。

五歳になる子に、何故(なぜ)ともなく、
ソニヤといふ露西亜名(ロシアな)をつけて、
呼びてはよろこぶ。

解(と)けがたき
不和(ふわ)のあひだに身を処(しょ)して、
ひとりかなしく今日も怒(いか)れり。

猫を飼(か)はば、
その猫がまた争(あらそ)ひの種となるらむ、
かなしきわが家(いへ)。

俺(おれ)ひとり下宿屋にやりてくれぬかと、
今日もあやふく、
いひ出(い)でしかな。

ある日、ふと、やまひを忘れ、
牛の啼(な)く真似をしてみぬ、――
妻子(つまこ)の留守に。

かなしきは我が父!
今日も新聞を読みあきて、
庭に小蟻(こあり)と遊べり。

ただ一人の
をとこの子なる我はかく育てり。
父母もかなしかるらむ。

茶まで断(た)ちて、
わが平復(へいふく)を祈りたまふ
母の今日また何か怒(いか)れる。

今日ひょっと近所の子等(こら)と遊びたくなり、
呼べど来らず。
こころむづかし。

やまひ癒(い)えず、
死なず、
日毎(ひごと)にこころのみ険(けは)しくなれる七八月(ななやつき)かな。

買ひおきし
薬つきたる朝に来し
友のなさけの為替(かはせ)のかなしさ。

児を叱れば、
泣いて、寝入りぬ。
口すこしあけし寝顔にさはりてみるかな。

何がなしに
肺が小さくなれる如(ごと)く思ひて起きぬ――
秋近き朝。

秋近し!
電燈の球(たま)のぬくもりの
さはれば指の皮膚(ひふ)に親しき。

ひる寝せし児の枕辺(まくらべ)に
人形を買ひ来てかざり、
ひとり楽しむ。

クリストを人なりといへば、
妹の眼がかなしくも、
われをあはれむ。

縁先(えんさき)にまくら出させて、
ひさしぶりに、
ゆふべの空にしたしめるかな。

庭のそとを白き犬ゆけり。
ふりむきて、
犬を飼はむと妻にはかれる。


底本:「日本文学全集12 国木田独歩・石川啄木集」集英社
1967(昭和42)年9月7日初版発行
1972(昭和47)年9月10日9版発行
入力:j.utiyama
校正:浜野智
1998年8月3日公開
2005年11月23日修正
青空文庫作成ファイル:
このファイルは、インターネットの図書館、青空文庫(http://www.aozora.gr.jp/)で作られました。入力、校正、制作にあたったのは、ボランティアの皆さんです。
●表記について

  • このファイルは W3C 勧告 XHTML1.1 にそった形式で作成されています。

ISHIKAWA TAKUBOKU (1886-1912)

Tanka Poet

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