“ASKARIS” AND THE RISE OF PERVERSE ETHNIC GLOBALIZATION

July 2, 2010 at 9:47 pm | Posted in Africa, Film, Germany, Globalization, History, Military, United Kingdom, World-system | Leave a comment

spin-globe.gif

books-globe.gif

globe-purple.gif

history.gif

world.gif

compass.gif

loudspeaker.gif

globeinmoney.jpg

askariswarsaw.jpg

Globalization and Ethnic Mobilization for the Military:

“Askaris” in Africa in WW I and Warsaw in WW II

In the 1976 movie, “Shout at the Devil” (with Lee Marvin), set in German and Portugese Africa in 1913/1914, askaris and askari troops play an important part in the story. They were native peoples trained into military roles by the colonial Europeans.

Tragically, a 1943 photo from the “Stroop Report” on the German annihilation of the Warsaw Ghetto, Latvian, Lithuanian and Ukrainian murder troops working for the Germans and under them, are dubbed “askaris by the Germans (see photo above).

Thus we have a kind of perverse globalization across continents.

Askari is an Arabic, Urdu, Turkish, Somali, Persian, Amharic and Swahili word meaning “soldier” (Arabic: askarī). It was normally used to describe local troops in East Africa, Northeast Africa, and Central Africa serving in the armies of European colonial powers. The designation can however also describe police, gendarmerie and security guards.[1]

During the period of European rule in East Africa locally recruited askari soldiers were employed by the Italian, British, Portuguese, German and Belgian colonial forces. They played a crucial role in the initial conquest of the various colonial possessions and subsequently served as garrison and internal security forces. During both World Wars askari units served outside the boundaries of their colonies of origin.

British Empire

The British Imperial British East African Company raised units of askari from amongst the Swahili people, the Sudanese and Somalis. There was no official uniform, nor standardised weaponry. Many of the askaris campaigned in their native dress. Officers wore civilian clothes. From 1895 the British askaris were organised into a regular, uniformed force called the East African Rifles, later part of the King’s African Rifles.[2] The designation of “askari” was retained for locally recruited personnel in the King’s African Rifles, smaller military units and colonial police forces until the end of British rule in Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda during the period 1961-63.

German Empire

The German Colonial Army (Schutztruppe) of the German Empire employed native troops with European officers and NCOs in its colonies. The main concentration of such locally recruited troops was in German East Africa (now Tanzania.) Formed in 1881 after the transfer of the Wissmanntruppe (raised in 1889 to suppress the Abushiri Revolt) to German imperial control. Although the first Askaris formed in German East Africa were by DAOG (Deutsche Ost-Afrika Gesellschaft – the German East Africa Company) in about 1888. Originally drawn from Sudanese mercenaries, the German askaris were subsequently recruited from the Wahehe and Angoni tribal groups. They were harshly disciplined (as were all German troops of that time) but well paid (on a scale twice that of their British counterparts in the King’s African Rifles) and highly trained by German cadres who were themselves subject to a rigorous selection process. Prior to 1914 the basic Schutztruppe unit in Southeast Africa was the feldkompagnie comprising seven or eight German officers and NCOs with between 150 and 200 askaris (usually 160) – including two machine gun teams. Such small independent commands were often supplemented by tribal irregulars or ruga-ruga.

They were successfully used in German East Africa where 11,000 askaris, porters and their European officers commanded by Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck managed to resist numerically superior British, Portuguese and Belgian colonial forces until the end of World War I in 1918.

The Weimar Republic provided pension payments to the German Askaris. Due to interruptions during the worldwide depression and World War II, the parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) voted in 1964 to fund the back pay of the askaris still alive. The West German embassy at Dar es Salaam identified approximately 350 ex-askaris and set up a temporary cashiers office at Mwanza on Lake Victoria. Only a few claimants could produce the certificates given to them in 1918; others provided pieces of their old uniforms as proof of service. The German banker who had brought the money came up with an idea: as each claimant stepped forward he was handed a broom and ordered in German to perform the manual of arms. Not one of them failed the test.[3]

Nazi Germany

During WWII, Germans used the term Askari for Soviet deserters or prisoners who switched sides and collaborated with them.[4][5][6] Members of the Latvian Arajs Kommando and Lithuanian auxiliary police Saugumas were nicknamed “askaris” during 1943-44[7] as were Ukrainian and Russian units under German command, employed during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944.

Italian Empire

The Italian army in Italian East Africa recruited Eritrean and subsequently Somali troops to serve with Italian officers and some NCOs. These forces comprised infantry, cavalry and some light artillery units. The Italian askaris fought in the First Italo–Ethiopian War, Italian-Turkish War, Second Italo-Abyssinian War and World War II (East African Campaign). Out of a total of 256,000 Italian troops serving in Italian East Africa in 1940, about 182,000 were recruited from Eritrea, Somalia and the recently occupied (1935–36) Ethiopia. In January 1941, British Commonwealth forces invaded Ethiopia and the majority of the newly recruited Ethiopian askaris serving with the Italian Army deserted. Most of the Eritrean Ascaris remained loyal until the Italian surrender four months later.

Spanish Colonies

As noted above “askari” was normally a designation used in East Africa. Exceptionally though, the term “askari” was also used by the Spanish colonial government in North-West Africa, in respect not of their regular Moroccan troops (see regulares), but of a locally recruited gendarmerie force raised in Spanish Morocco in 1913 and known as the “Mehal-la Jalifianas”. This was the equivalent of the better known Goumiers employed in French Morocco. Indigenous members of the Tropas Nomadas or desert police serving in the Spanish Sahara were also designated as “askaris”.

Iraq War

Ugandan private security guards for American installations in Iraq are also designated as askari.[citation needed] Guards were to receive $1,000 monthly salary and an $80,000 bonus if shot, but many have complained that the money was not paid or unfair fees assessed. The guards work for recruiting agencies such as Askar Security Services, which are hired by Beowulf International, a receiving company in Iraq, which subcontracts their services to EOD Technologies, an American company hired by the U.S. Department of Defense to provide security guards for Camp Victory in Baghdad. A Beowulf representative said that 400 of the workers “had impressed the US Army with their skill and experience”, but complained that some of the workers lacked police or security experience and “didn’t even know how to hold a gun”. At least eleven other Ugandan recruiters include Dresak International and Connect Financial Services.[8]

Other uses

· In apartheid South Africa, Askari was the term given to guerrillas who were captured by the South African army and “turned” or converted into spies or soldiers for the apartheid regime.

· Askari can also mean “spear bearer”.

· Older bull elephants which break away from the herd often form the nucleus of “bachelor herds” with one or a number of younger males. These younger males are referred to as “askari” (both for singular elephants and groups of elephants).

· Askari are a minor class of creature in the African/tropical-themed Mirage and Visions (and later Time Spiral) expansion sets of the collectable card game Magic: The Gathering[9].

· Askari, could refer to DST Global Solutions‘ market risk management tool.

References

1. [1] | Kamusi Project

2. Armies of the 19thC East Africa Chris Peer, Foundry books 2003

3. Miller, Charles. Battle for the Bundu: The First World War in German East Africa. London: Macdonald & Jane’s, 1974; and New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1974, p. 333. ISBN 0-02-584930-1

4. http://books.google.com/books?id=ilnACY97x4kC&pg=PA191&dq=Warsaw+Ghetto+askari&lr=&as_brr=3&sig=S4WnsXbZ4s2teGp3O-y7CmAuhfw

5. http://books.google.com/books?id=9ziQ9US5VnQC&pg=PA126&dq=askaris+german+lithuanian&lr=&as_brr=3&sig=OjZtutehGfwLh_Ank4BwJVbbz00

6. http://books.google.com/books?id=uf1rdNyUwRQC&pg=PA153&dq=askaris+german+lithuanian&lr=&as_brr=3&sig=TGE5flj2JcRr_cY02Df_37IxGeI

7. Stroop Report online-in German and English

8. “Uganda: Askaris in Iraq Ripped Off”. New Vision. 2007-08-12. http://allafrica.com/stories/200708171168.html.

9. “Gatherer search”. Wizards Of The Coast. http://ww2.wizards.com/gatherer/index.aspx?term=askari&Field_Name=on&Field_Rules=on&Field_Type=on&setfilter=All%20sets. Retrieved 2007-07-05.

Globalization and Ethnic Mobilization for the Military:

“Askaris” in Africa in WW I and Warsaw in WW II

banknotes.jpg

“FINANCIAL TIMES”: FOUR ARTICLES FROM SAMUEL BRITTAN

July 2, 2010 at 3:40 pm | Posted in Economics, Eurozone, Financial, Globalization, Research, United Kingdom | Leave a comment

spin-globe.gif

books-globe.gif

globe-purple.gif

history.gif

world.gif

compass.gif

loudspeaker.gif

globeinmoney.jpg

Four new Samuel Brittan articles

Andrew Heavens (andrew.heavens@gmail.com)

Fri 7/02/10

What comes after inflation targets
The Financial Times 02/07/10

There is more to economic policy than bank regulation, which so often (like other regulation) amounts to closing the stable door after the horses have bolted. We must not forget the traditional aim of providing a framework for economic growth with low inflation. The main instrument for achieving this has been inflation targets pursued by semi-independent central banks by means of a very short-term official interest rate. As Robin Pringle, the editor of Central Banking, remarks in the latest issue of that journal: “The current dominant framework of monetary policy may not survive its association with the crisis, and perhaps does not deserve to.” There is every sign that many central banks want to cling leech-like to this failed framework. Yet I doubt if they will be able to avoid a rethink.
http://www.samuelbrittan.co.uk/text370_p.html

Are these hardships necessary?
The Financial Times 18/06/10

Contributors to the Financial Times are normally discouraged from using headlines with question marks. But there is a good reason for the present exception. Are These Hardships Necessary? is the title of a 1947 book by the late Roy Harrod, best known as the first biographer of John Maynard Keynes. Politically he might be described as a radical Conservative. The intention of his earlier polemical work was to protest against the miseries inflicted by Britain‘s postwar government, including even the retention of controls on where people could work.
http://www.samuelbrittan.co.uk/text369_p.html

The Rational Optimist
The Financial Times 12/06/10
Review of The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves

It will not be easy, but it is perfectly possible, indeed probable, that in the year 2110, a century after this book is published, humanity will be much, much better off than it is today and so will the ecology of the planet and society.” In these words, the writer and evolutionary biologist Matt Ridley throws down the gauntlet to contemporary pessimists.
http://www.samuelbrittan.co.uk/text368_p.html

A plan to live with ‘imbalances’
The Financial Times 04/06/10

Some of my older readers may remember national savings drives. These were prominent in the second world war as part of the “civilian effort”. But they lingered for many decades; and within living memory every UK Budget speech contained a sentence of thanks to the chairman of the National Savings Movement. Now the citizens of some countries, especially China and Germany, are being subjected to the opposite kind of propaganda: to spend more for the sake of the world economy. My own belief is that individuals and families should make up their own minds about how much to save. Official efforts should not go beyond school lessons in personal finance.
http://www.samuelbrittan.co.uk/text367_p.html

www.samuelbrittan.co.uk

Four new Samuel Brittan articles

Andrew Heavens (andrew.heavens@gmail.com)

www.samuelbrittan.co.uk

Fri 7/02/10

banknotes.jpg

JORDAN TELECOM CORPORATE BRIEF JUNE 2010

July 2, 2010 at 2:09 am | Posted in Arabs, Economics, Financial, Middle East, Research, Science & Technology | Leave a comment

spin-globe.gif

books-globe.gif

globe-purple.gif

history.gif

world.gif

compass.gif

loudspeaker.gif

globeinmoney.jpg

Jordan Telecom Corporate Brief June 2010

research@ab-invest.net

Thu 7/01/10

What started as a government owned telephone company has turned over the last few years into the sole integrated fixed, mobile, internet, and data provider in Jordan.

The introduction of mobile services rendered fixed lines obsolete for many, but not all, users, and threatened JTEL’s own existence. However, with France Telecom on board as a strategic partner, JTEL entered the mobile services market in 2000 as the market’s second operator. Since then, JTEL managed to increase its subscriber’s base to account for 70% of its 2.8 million subscribers.

Please click on the following link to read the Jordan Telecom Corporate Brief June 2010.

http://www.ab-invest.net/dmdocuments/JTELJUN2010.pdf

Sincerely,

AB Invest Research Division

Contact us:

http://www.atlasinvest.net/html/contact_us/contact_us.html

Jordan Telecom Corporate Brief June 2010

research@ab-invest.net

http://www.atlasinvest.net/html/contact_us/contact_us.html

http://download.com.com/3001-2145-10170808.html.

Thu 7/01/10

banknotes.jpg


Entries and comments feeds.