ECOZONES AND BIOGEOGRAPHY: WALLACE’S LINE

June 16, 2010 at 7:53 pm | Posted in Asia, Development, Earth, History, Third World | Leave a comment

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Ecozones and Biogeographic Boundaries:

Wallace’s Line and Lydekker’s Line

Wallace’s line comes between Australian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deep water of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side.

The Wallace Line (or Wallace’s Line) is a boundary that separates the ecozones of Asia and Wallacea (which is a transitional zone between Asia and Australia). West of the line are found organisms related to Asiatic species; to the east, a mixture of species of Asian and Australian origin are present. The line is named after Alfred Russel Wallace, who noticed this clear dividing line during his travels through the East Indies in the 19th century. The line runs through Indonesia, between Borneo and Sulawesi (Celebes); and through the Lombok Strait between Bali (in the west) and Lombok (in the east). Antonio Pigafetta had also recorded the biological contrasts between the Philippines and the Maluku Islands (Spice Islands) (situated on opposite sides of the line) in 1521 during the continuation of the voyage of Ferdinand Magellan (after Magellan himself had been killed on Mactan).

The distance between Bali and Lombok is small, a matter of only about 35 kilometers. The distributions of many bird species observe the line, since many birds refuse to cross even the smallest stretches of open ocean water. Some bats have distributions that cross the Wallace Line, but other mammals are generally limited to one side or the other; an example of an exception is the Crab-eating Macaque. Other groups of plants and animals show differing patterns, but the overall pattern is striking and reasonably consistent.

Biogeography

Understanding of the biogeography of the region centers on the relationship of ancient sea levels to the continental shelves. Wallace’s Line is visible geographically when the continental shelf contours are examined; it can be seen as a deep-water channel that marks the southeastern edge of the Sunda Shelf linking Borneo, Bali, Java, and Sumatra underwater to the mainland of southeastern Asia. Australia is likewise connected via the shallow ocean over the Sahul Shelf to New Guinea, and the related biogeographic boundary known as Lydekker’s Line, which separates the eastern edge of Wallacea and the Australian region, has a similar origin. During ice age glacial advances, when the ocean levels were up to 120 m lower, both Asia and Australia were united with what are now islands on their respective continental shelves as continuous land masses, but the deep water between those two large continental shelf areas was — for a period in excess of 50 million years — a barrier that kept the flora and fauna of Australia separated from that of Asia. Wallacea consists of islands that were never recently connected by dry land to either of the continental land masses, and thus was populated by organisms capable of crossing the straits between islands. “Weber’s Line” runs through this transitional area (rather to the east of centre), at the tipping point between dominance by species of Asian vs. Australian origin.[1]

References

· van Oosterzee, Penny (1997). Where Worlds Collide: the Wallace Line.

· Pleistocene Sea Level Maps

· Wallacea – a transition zone from Asia to Australia, specially rich in marine life and on land.

· Dawkins, Richard (2004). The Ancestor’s Tale. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-7538-1996-1. Chapter 14 – Marsupials.

Borneo

· Abdullah, M. T. (2003). Biogeography and variation of Cynopterus brachyotis in Southeast Asia. PhD thesis. The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

· Hall, L. S., Gordon G. Grigg, Craig Moritz, Besar Ketol, Isa Sait, Wahab Marni and M. T. Abdullah (2004). “Biogeography of fruit bats in Southeast Asia“. Sarawak Museum Journal LX(81):191-284.

· Wilson D. E., D. M. Reeder (2005). Mammal species of the world. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

1. Mayr, E. (1944), “Wallace’s Line in the Light of Recent Zoogeographic Studies”, The Quarterly Review of Biology 19 (1): 1–14, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2808563

links

· Too Many Lines; The Limits of the Oriental and Australian Zoogeographic Regions George Gaylord Simpson, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 121, No. 2 (Apr. 29, 1977), pp. 107–120

· Wallacea Research Group

· Map of Wallace’s, Weber’s and Lydekker’s lines

Ecozones and Biogeographic Boundaries:

Wallace’s Line and Lydekker’s Line

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DERIVATIVES FORUM: NEW YORK CITY JULY 22 2010

June 16, 2010 at 3:36 pm | Posted in Economics, Eurozone, Financial, Globalization, Research | Leave a comment

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Invitation to Join Derivatives Leaders Forum 2010 on

July 22nd

Edgar Perez (eperezs@optonline.net)

Wed 6/16/10

Derivatives Leaders Forum 2010

Strategies for Increasing Profits under an Evolving Regulatory Framework
Thursday, July 22nd, 1:30PM-7:00PM, New York City

Download Information Package

The trading of derivatives, largely privately negotiated and traded, is going through significant transformation, in what constitutes the biggest financial regulatory revamp since the 1930s. In recent years, derivatives have constituted huge profit machines at institutions like Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan and Morgan Stanley. Now proposals in Congress call for Wall Street firms to wall off their derivatives businesses and place them in subsidiaries requiring substantially more capital. Some are now declaring that derivatives trading will be a less profitable endeavor over the next decade.

Lawmakers in the Senate and House currently are now tasked with reconciling two financial reform bills passed by their respective bodies, all by the end of June, for President Barack Obama to sign a final bill by July 4. Both House and Senate bills call for boosting capital requirements on firms as they grow and take on more risk. One possible outcome of the negotiations is a clearing requirement for the off-exchange deals. One aspect of the Senate bill that is unlikely to survive, however, is a requirement that banks spin off their derivatives business.

Glimmers are emerging of a new financial landscape of lower profits and reduced risks, even before Congress completes the financial regulation overhaul. Will profits really suffer whatever final form of the law emerges? How banks and brokerage firms will adjust to the changes and find ways to work around the new regulations? Which new revenue streams can be thought of to make up for reduced profits? How long will it take for Wall Street to adapt to the new regulations and thrive again? Join us at Derivatives Leaders Forum 2010 and find out.

A Conference that Shouldn’t be Missed: RSVP by June 17th and Save!

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2nd Private Equity Leaders Forum,

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Invitation to Join Derivatives Leaders Forum 2010 on July 22nd

Edgar Perez (eperezs@optonline.net)

Wed 6/16/10

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INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE SUPERVISORS

June 16, 2010 at 3:12 pm | Posted in Economics, Eurozone, Financial, Globalization, Research, World-system | Leave a comment

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International Association of Insurance Supervisors

(IAIS)

IAIS press release:

Monitoring Group issues public consultation paper on its

assessment of the effectiveness of IFAC governance

reforms

International Federation of Accountants (IFAC)

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Fri 6/11/10

The Monitoring Group has today issued for public comment a Consultation Paper on its assessment of the effectiveness of the reforms to the governance of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) which were agreed upon in 2003 (the Reforms).[1] This assessment, which was foreseen as part of those reforms, should be completed by November 2010.

The purpose of the Consultation Paper is to seek input from any interested party to the Monitoring Group’s preliminary conclusions resulting from its assessment of the implementation of the Reforms. Input is sought on the merit of the preliminary conclusions as well as practical suggestions on how to implement them. The Monitoring Group welcomes responses to this Paper by 15 August 2010. Responses should be submitted electronically to MonitoringGroup@iosco.org. The Monitoring Group anticipates making the responses publicly available unless the commenter requests confidentiality and that is appropriate in the view of the Monitoring Group.

The Reforms provided for changes to the standard-setting, implementation, oversight and monitoring processes associated with producing International Standards on Auditing, the international Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants and International Education Standards. These changes were born out of the erosion of user confidence that arose from the financial reporting problems reported by some issuers in and around 2002 and 2003. The changes were aimed at supporting user confidence by increasing the quality of financial statement audits. It is timely that the Monitoring Group performs its assessment at this time when user confidence is negatively affected by the financial reporting problems that have come to light during the credit crisis. Thus, the Monitoring Group members are again focused on the importance of high quality financial statement audits.

As part of conducting its assessment of the implementation of the Reforms (the Effectiveness Review) the Monitoring Group has reviewed whether the provisions of the Reforms have been implemented, as well as identified some associated recommendations for additional changes; both are contained in this Paper.

Via this Consultation Paper the Monitoring Group seeks input on:

(i) Its assessment of the implementation of the Reforms, including any other matters which the Monitoring Group might take into account.

(ii) Its eighteen recommendations for further improvements which are set out in the body of this Paper along with the analysis underpinning them, as well as other opportunities for further improvements that the Monitoring Group might identify.

(iii) Its conclusion that the Monitoring Group initiate a future effectiveness review approximately three years after its completion of this one, unless circumstances indicate that the Monitoring Group should initiate such a review sooner.

The Monitoring Group may modify its preliminary conclusions or add practical implementation ideas to them in light of the comments received. The Monitoring Group expects to draw its final conclusions and issue an associated report in November 2010. Immediately thereafter the Monitoring Group expects to carry out the commitments that it will undertake as an outcome of this Effectiveness Review, including assessing its own role and approach to monitoring.

About the Monitoring Group

The Monitoring Group is a consensus-based group that brings together the regulatory and international public interest organizations responsible, inter alia, for monitoring the implementation of the Reforms. The Monitoring Group is composed of six members and one observer. The members are the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (the Basel Committee), the European Commission, the Financial Stability Board, the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS), the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) and the World Bank. The International Forum of Independent Audit Regulators (IFIAR) is an observer. The Monitoring Group is chaired by IOSCO. The Chair is currently the Vice Chairman of IOSCO’s Technical Committee, who is Mr. Hans Hoogervoorst. He is Chairman of the Executive Board of the Netherlands Authority for the Financial Markets.[2]

About the IAIS

Established in 1994, the IAIS represents insurance regulators and supervisors of some 190 jurisdictions in nearly 140 countries and has also more than 120 insurance professionals, insurers, reinsurers and trade associations as observers. The IAIS issues global insurance principles, standards and guidance papers, provides training and support on issues related to insurance supervision,

and organises meetings and seminars for insurance supervisors. The IAIS works closely with other international institutions to promote financial stability.

The Monitoring Group’s consultative paper entitled Review of the IFAC Reforms – Consultation Paper, 10 June 2010, can be found on the IAIS website at www.iaisweb.org.

Contact

Mr. Gert Luiting

Manager International Affairs

Netherlands Authority for the Financial Markets
Tel: +31 (0)20 797 2502

Mobile: +31 (0)6 2278 1475

E-mail: gert.luiting@afm.nl

[1] The text of the Reforms, including a diagram of the resulting relationships, is available at http://www.ifac.org/MediaCenter/?q=node/view/339.

[2] Information about the Monitoring Group, including its Charter, is available at www.iosco.org/news/pdf/IOSCONEWS144.pdf.

International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS)

IAIS press release:

Monitoring Group issues public consultation paper on its assessment of the

effectiveness of IFAC governance reforms

International Federation of Accountants (IFAC)

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Fri 6/11/10

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