May 23, 2010 at 2:15 am | Posted in Books, Economics, Germany, History, Military | Leave a comment









Economy of force

Economy of force is the principle of employing all available combat power in the most effective way possible, in an attempt to allocate a minimum of essential combat power to any secondary efforts. It is the judicious employment and distribution of forces towards the primary objective of any person’s conflict.

No part of a force should ever be left without purpose. The allocation of available combat power to such tasks, like limited attacks, defense, delays, deception or even retrograde operations is measured, in order to achieve mass at decisive points elsewhere on the battlefield.

It is one of the nine Principles of War, based upon Carl von Clausewitz‘s approach to warfare. He once said that “Every unnecessary expenditure of time, every unnecessary detour, is a waste of power, and therefore contrary to the principles of strategy.”[1]

The Principles of War are a part of US Army doctrine. The current doctrinal manual for Army Operations is FM (Field Manual) 3-0, which defines, and describes, Economy of Force as follows: Allocate minimum essential combat power to secondary efforts. Economy of force is the reciprocal of mass. It requires accepting prudent risk in selected areas to achieve superiority — overwhelming effects — in the decisive operation. Economy of force involves the discriminating employment and distribution of forces. Commanders never leave any element without a purpose. When the time comes to execute, all elements should have tasks to perform.

Recommended reading

1. Clausewitz on using forces efficiently

Principles of War

The Principles of War were tenets originally proposed by Carl von Clausewitz in his essay Principles of War[1], and later enlarged in his book, On War. Additionally, Napoléon Bonaparte had pioneered the “Principles of War,” and “The armies of today are based on the organization created by Napoleon [sic] for his Grand Army and it has been used ever since.” (Weider, par. 12)[2]. Since the mid-19th century, due to the influence of the Prussian Army, they have become a guide for many military organizations to focus the thinking of military commanders and political leaders toward concepts and methods of successful prosecution of wars and smaller military operations. Although originally concerned with strategy, grand tactics and tactics, due to the changing nature of warfare and military technology, since the interwar period, the principles are largely applied to the strategic decision-making, and in some cases, to operational mobility of forces.


The initial essay dealt with the tactics of combat, and suggested the following general principles:

· discover how we may gain a preponderance of physical forces and material advantages at the decisive point

· to calculate moral factors

· make the best use of the few means at our disposal

· never lack calmness and firmness…without this firm resolution, no great results can be achieved in the most successful war

· always have the choice between the most audacious and the most careful solution…no military leader has ever become great without audacity

Based on the above, Clausewitz went on to suggest principles for tactics, the scale of combat that dominated European warfare at the time:

· The Defence

· The Offense

· The Use of Troops

· The Use Of Terrain

· forces are more effective in a concentric rather than in a parallel attack; attack concentrically without having decisive superiority in an engagement

· always seek to envelop that part of the enemy against which we direct our main attack

· cut off the enemy from his line of retreat

Clausewitz also included in the essay general principles of strategy by saying that Warfare has three main objects:

· (a) To conquer and destroy the armed power of the enemy; always direct our principal operation against the main body of the enemy army or at least against an important portion of his forces

· (b) To take possession of his material and other sources of strength, and to direct our operations against the places where most of these resources are concentrated

· (c) To gain public opinion, won through great victories and the occupation of the enemy’s capital

· use our entire force with the utmost energy

· the decisive point of attack

· never to waste time

· surprise plays a much greater role in strategy than in tactics

· pursuit

· forces concentrated at the main point

· an attack on the lines of communication takes effect only very slowly, while victory on the field of battle bears fruit immediately

· In strategy, therefore, the side that is surrounded by the enemy is better off than the side which surrounds its opponent, especially with equal or even weaker forces

· To cut the enemy’s line of retreat, however, strategic envelopment or a turning movement is very effective

· be physically and morally superior

· stores of supplies, on whose preservation operations absolutely depend

· The provisioning of troops is a necessary condition of warfare and thus has great influence on the operations

· independent action

Strategic Defense

· Politically speaking defensive war is a war which we wage for our independence

Strategic Offense

· The strategic offensive pursues the aim of the war directly, aiming straight at the destruction of the enemy’s forces

20th century theory

Applied to specific forms of warfare, such as naval warfare, Corbett argued that

By maritime strategy we mean the principles which govern a war in which the sea is a substantial factor.[3]

National variations

Variations exist and differences are minor and semantic or reflect a cultural persuasion for a particular approach. A closer examination of the values and culture of origin reveals its war priorities.

British principles of war

The UK uses 10 principles of war, as taught to all officers of the Royal Navy, British Army, and Royal Air Force:

The British Army’s principles of war were first published after the First World War based on the work of JFC Fuller. The definition of each principle has been refined over the following decades and adopted throughout the British armed forces. The tenth principle, added later, was originally called Administration. The first principle has always been stated as pre-eminent and the second is usually considered more important than the remainder, which are not listed in any order of importance.

The 2008 edition of British Defence Doctrine (BDD)[4] states and explains the principles with the following preface: “Principles of War guide commanders and their staffs in the planning and conduct of warfare. They are enduring, but not immutable, absolute or prescriptive, and provide an appropriate foundation for all military activity. The relative importance of each may vary according to context; their application requires judgement, common sense and intelligent interpretation. Commanders also need to take into account the legitimacy of their actions, based on the legal, moral, political, diplomatic and ethical propriety of the conduct of military forces, once committed.”

The ten principles as listed and defined in the 2008 edition of BDD (which also provides explanation) are:

Selection and Maintenance of the Aim

A single, unambiguous aim is the keystone of successful military operations. Selection and maintenance of the aim is regarded as the master principle of war.

Maintenance of Morale

Morale is a positive state of mind derived from inspired political and military leadership, a shared sense of purpose and values, well-being, perceptions of worth and group cohesion.

Offensive Action

Offensive action is the practical way in which a commander seeks to gain advantage, sustain momentum and seize the initiative.


Security is the provision and maintenance of an operating environment that affords the necessary freedom of action, when and where required, to achieve objectives.


Surprise is the consequence of shock and confusion induced by the deliberate or incidental introduction of the unexpected.

Concentration of Force

Concentration of force involves the decisive, synchronized application of superior fighting power (conceptual, physical, and moral) to realize intended effects, when and where required.

Economy of Effort

Economy of effort is the judicious exploitation of manpower, materiel and time in relation to the achievement of objectives.


Flexibility – the ability to change readily to meet new circumstances – comprises agility, responsiveness, resilience, acuity and adaptability.


Cooperation entails the incorporation of teamwork and a sharing of dangers, burdens, risks and opportunities in every aspect of warfare.


To sustain a force is to generate the means by which its fighting power and freedom of action are maintained.

These principles of war are commonly used by the armed forces of Commonwealth countries such as Australia.

Other uses: Principles of War was also a book published in 1969 for the Japan Self-Defense Forces.[5] It outlines the basic military principles and strategies by which the Japanese army was to operate. The book was used for most military exams in Japan. The book backs up all military principles with historical examples.

Principles of war in the Soviet Union and Russia

Soviet adoption of the principles of war is considered a part of Military Art, and is therefore a system of knowledge that is

the theory and practice of preparing and conducting military operations on the land, at sea, and in the air.[6]

A such it includes the following principles[7]

· High combat readiness

· surprise, decisiveness and active seeking to secure the initiative

· full use of all means of combat

· coordination and interaction of all types and branches

· decisive concentration

· simultaneous attack in depth

· full use of morale-political factor

· firm and continuous command and control

· inexorability and decisiveness during the mission

· security of combat operations

· timely restoration of troop combat readiness

The Soviet principles of military science, from Soviet Air Land Battle Tactics ISBN 0-89141-160-7. Similar principles continue to be followed in CIS countries.

· Preparedness – The ability to fulfill missions under any conditions for starting or the conduct of war.

· Initiative – Utilizing surprise, decisiveness, and aggressiveness to continuously strive to achieve and retain the initiative. Initiative, in this sense describes efforts to fulfill the plan in spite of difficulties. This is in contrast to the western usage of the term which means attacking (or threatening to attack) to force enemy reaction, thus denying his ability to act.

· Capability – Full use of the various means and capabilities of battle to achieve victory.

· Cooperation – Coordinated application of and close cooperation between major units of the armed forces.

· Concentration – Decisive concentration of the essential force at the needed moment and in the most important direction to achieve the main mission.

· Depth – Destruction of the enemy throughout the entire depth of their deployment.

· Morale – Use of political and psychological factors to demoralize opponents and break their will to resist.

· Obedience – Strict and uninterrupted obedience. Orders are to be followed exactly and without question. Commanders are expected to directly supervise subordinates in a detailed manner in order to ensure compliance.

· Steadfastness – Subordinate commanders are to carry out the spirit and the letter of the plan.

· Security – Security complements surprise. All aspects of security, from deception and secrecy, to severe discipline of subordinates who through action or inaction allow information to fall into the hands of the enemy are to be vigorously carried out.

· Logistics – Restoration of reserves and restoration of combat capability is of paramount concern of the modern, fast paced battlefield.

Thus it can be seen that in Military art, the Soviet and Western systems are similar, but place their emphasis in wildly differing places. Western systems allow more control and decision-making at lower levels of command, and with this empowerment comes a consistent emphasis. Offensive, mass, and maneuver principles for the western commander all place a sense of personal responsibility and authority to ensure these principles are followed by appropriate action. In contrast the Soviet system stresses preparedness, initiative, and obedience. This places more responsibility at the better prepared and informed centers of command, and provide more overall control of the battle.

The Russian principles of military art, as interpreted by the US Army in the Field Manual 100-61, 1998 emphasise:

· High combat readiness

· Surprise

· Aggressiveness and decisiveness

· Persistence and initiative

· Combined arms coordination and joint operations

· Decisive concentration of forces

· Deep battle or deep operations

· Information warfare

· Exploitation of moral-political factors

· Firm and continuous command and control

· Comprehensive combat support

· Timely restoration of reserves and combat potential

United States principles of war

(Refer to US Army Field Manual FM 3-0)

The United States Armed Forces use the following nine principles of war in training their officers:

· Objective – Direct every military operation toward a clearly defined, decisive and attainable objective. The ultimate military purpose of war is the destruction of the enemy’s ability to fight and will to fight.

· Offensive – Seize, retain, and exploit the initiative. Offensive action is the most effective and decisive way to attain a clearly defined common objective. Offensive operations are the means by which a military force seizes and holds the initiative while maintaining freedom of action and achieving decisive results. This is fundamentally true across all levels of war.

· Mass – Mass the effects of overwhelming combat power at the decisive place and time. Synchronizing all the elements of combat power where they will have decisive effect on an enemy force in a short period of time is to achieve mass. Massing effects, rather than concentrating forces, can enable numerically inferior forces to achieve decisive results, while limiting exposure to enemy fire.

· Economy of Force – Employ all combat power available in the most effective way possible; allocate minimum essential combat power to secondary efforts. Economy of force is the judicious employment and distribution of forces. No part of the force should ever be left without purpose. The allocation of available combat power to such tasks as limited attacks, defense, delays, deception, or even retrograde operations is measured in order to achieve mass elsewhere at the decisive point and time on the battlefield. …

· Maneuver – Place the enemy in a position of disadvantage through the flexible application of combat power. Maneuver is the movement of forces in relation to the enemy to gain positional advantage. Effective maneuver keeps the enemy off balance and protects the force. It is used to exploit successes, to preserve freedom of action, and to reduce vulnerability. It continually poses new problems for the enemy by rendering his actions ineffective, eventually leading to defeat. …

· Unity of Command – For every objective, seek unity of command and unity of effort. At all levels of war, employment of military forces in a manner that masses combat power toward a common objective requires unity of command and unity of effort. Unity of command means that all the forces are under one responsible commander. It requires a single commander with the requisite authority to direct all forces in pursuit of a unified purpose.

· Security – Never permit the enemy to acquire unexpected advantage. Security enhances freedom of action by reducing vulnerability to hostile acts, influence, or surprise. Security results from the measures taken by a commander to protect his forces. Knowledge and understanding of enemy strategy, tactics, doctrine, and staff planning improve the detailed planning of adequate security measures.

· Surprise – Strike the enemy at a time or place or in a manner for which he is unprepared. Surprise can decisively shift the balance of combat power. By seeking surprise, forces can achieve success well out of proportion to the effort expended. Surprise can be in tempo, size of force, direction or location of main effort, and timing. Deception can aid the probability of achieving surprise. …

· Simple – Prepare clear, uncomplicated plans and concise orders to ensure thorough understanding. Everything in war is very simple, but the simple thing is difficult. To the uninitiated, military operations are not difficult. Simplicity contributes to successful operations. Simple plans and clear, concise orders minimize misunderstanding and confusion. Other factors being equal, parsimony is to be preferred.

Officers in the U.S. Military sometimes use the acronyms “MOSS MOUSE”, “MOOSE MUSS”, “MOUSE MOSS”, “MOM USE SOS”, or “SUMO MOSES” to remember the first letters of these nine principles.

There is a debate within the American military establishment to adopt flexibility as the tenth principle of war. Frost[8] argues that the concept of flexibility should be integrated with America‘s warfighting doctrine. Americans soundly retort that flexibility is a given that pervades all aspects of each principle.

Many, however, hold that the principle of Simplicity implicitly includes flexibility. One of the oldest dictum states that the simple plan is the flexible plan.

In 2007, Armed Forces Journal published a proposal by van Avery, 12 New Principles of War[9], to completely overhaul and expand the U.S. principles of war from nine to thirteen. The article was subsequently forwarded to the Joint Chiefs of Staff by Air Force Chief of Staff General Moseley and an effort to overhaul current U.S. doctrine was initiated using van Avery’s framework.

Canadian Forces

The Canadian Forces principles of war/military science are defined by the Royal Military College of Canada or Canadian Forces College Web Site to focus on principles of command, principles of war, operational art and campaign planning, and scientific principles.

· principles of command – Lead By Example; Know Your subordinates And Promote Their Welfare; Develop Leadership Potential; Make Sound And Timely Decisions; Train subordinates As A Team; Communicate Ideas Clearly; Keep subordinates Informed Of All Activities And New Developments; Take Initiatives; Know Yourself And Pursue Self-Improvement; Treat subordinates As You Wish To Be Treated

· principles of war – Selection and maintenance of the aim; maintenance of morale; offensive action; surprise; security; concentration of force; economy of effort; flexibility; co-operation; and administration.

· operational art and campaign planning – the organization and synchronization of the planning process and maritime, land and air forces.

· scientific principles – involved in military reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition in the context of military operations.

People’s Republic of China

The military principles of war of the People’s Liberation Army were loosely based on those of the Soviet Union until the 1980s when a significant shift begun to be seen in a more regionally-aware, and geographically-specific strategic, operational and tactical thinking in all services. The PLA is currently influenced by three doctrinal schools which both conflict and complement each other: the People’s war, the Regional war, and the Revolution in military affairs that led to substantial increase in the defence spending and rate of technological modernisation of the forces.

· People’s war – which is derived from the Maoist notion of warfare as a war in which the entire society is mobilized

· Regional war – which envisions future wars to be limited in scope and confined to the Chinese border

· Revolution in military affairs – which is a school of thought which believes that technology is transforming the basis of warfare and that these technological changes present both extreme dangers and possibilities for the Chinese military.

In recent years, ‘Local war under high-tech conditions’ has been promoted.

Other uses

These principles can be applied to non-military uses when Unity of command is separated into coordination and reality, Economy of Force is redefined as use of resources, Mass is separated into renewable and non-renewable resources, and relationships are separated from unity of command.

In 1913 Harrington Emerson proposed 12 principles of efficiency[10], the first three of which could be related to principles of war: Clearly defined ideals – Objective, Common sense – Simplicity, Competent counsel – Unity of Command.

The some of the twelve non-military principles of efficiency have been formulated by Henry Ford at the turn of the 20th century[11], and are suggested to be objective, coordination, action, reality, knowledge, locations (space and time),things, obtaining, using, protecting, and losing. Nine, ten, or twelve principles all provide a framework for efficient development of any objective

Principles of War was also a book published in 1969 for the Japan Self-Defense Forces.[5] It outlines the basic military principles and strategies by which the Japanese army was to operate. The book was used for most military exams in Japan. The book backs up all military principles with historical examples.

Citations and notes

1. [1], Gatzke

2. [2], The International Napoleonic Society. “Napoleon and the Jews” The International Napoleonic Society. Florida State University, 1998. Web. 15 March 2010 <>

3. p.15, Corbett

4. Joint Doctrine Publication 0-01 (JDP 0-01) (3rd Edition) dated August 2008

5. a b [3], West

6. p.7, Glantz

7. pp.7-8, Glantz

8. p.iii, Frost

9. [4], van Avery

10. p.3, Emerson

11. pp.122-123, Storper, Scott


· von Clausewitz, Carl, The most important principles of the art of war to complete my course of instruction for his Royal Highness the Crown Prince (German: Die wichtigsten Grundsätze des Kriegführens zur Ergänzung meines Unterrichts bei Sr. Königlichen Hoheit dem Kronprinzen), 1812 Translated and edited by Hans W. Gatzke as “Principles of War, September 1942, The Military Service Publishing Company

· Emerson, Harrington, Twelve Principles of Efficiency, Kessinger Publishing, 2003

· van Avery, Chris, 12 New Principles of War, Armed Force Journal, The Defense News Media Group, July 2007 [5].

· West, Joseph, Dr., Principles of War: A Translation from the Japanese, U.S. ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE, FORT LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS, 1969 [6]

· Frost, Robert S., Lt.Col. (USAF), The growing imperative to adopt “flexibility” as an American Principle of War, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle, PA, October 15, 1999 [7]

· Storper, Michael & Scott, Allen John, Pathways to industrialization and regional development, Routledge, 1992

· Corbett, Julian Stafford, Sir, Some Principles of Maritime Strategy, London, 1911, US Naval Institute Press, 1988 (The Project Gutenberg eBook [8])

· Glantz, David, Soviet Military Operational Art: In pursuit of deep battle, Frank Cass, London, 1991

Economy of force

Economy of force is the principle of employing all available combat power in the most effective way possible, in an attempt to allocate a minimum of essential combat power to any secondary efforts. It is the judicious employment and distribution of forces towards the primary objective of any person’s conflict.



May 23, 2010 at 12:26 am | Posted in Economics, Financial, History, USA, World-system | Leave a comment









Global Financial and Economic Events in 1933

Chronology 1933

Date Event Historical Background
January 1933 Italo-German Cooperation The rise of the Nationalist Socialist government in Germany raised the prospect of greater Italian-German cooperation which strengthened Italy‘s position vis-a-vis France and Britain.
January 1933 Arms Shipment from Italy to Hungary Another shipment of arms from Italy to Hungary was intercepted leading the Little Entente powers to take a strong stand against Hungarian rearmament.
January 1933 Arrest of Croat and Slovene Leaders The Yugoslav government arrested Slovene and Croat leaders in an attempt to undermine nationalist agitation.
January 1933 League Supervision of Romanian Finances The League of Nations began a four-year program to supervise Romanian finances as a result of economic problems in Romania.
January-March 1933 Japanese Occupation of Jehol Japanese military forces continued their advance into Manchuria, occupying the province of Jehol.
January 2, 1933 U.S. Marines Departure from Nicaragua The last American troops evacuated from Nicaragua, ending a U.S. occupation of the republic since 1912.
January 8, 1933 Great Radical Uprising in Barcelona Anarchists and Syndicalists in Barcelona led a large uprising in Barcelona, Spain, which reflected the impatience of the lower classes of the government’s social reform movement. The Spanish army quelled the revolt.
January 13, 1933 Howes-Cutting Bill on Philippine Commonwealth Congress passed the Howes-Cutting Bill over President Herbert Hoover’s veto, which called for a twelve-year transitional period for the Philippine Commonwealth under a Filipino executive. The U.S. retained the right to military and naval bases while the U.S. Supreme Court could review decisions by the Philippine courts. During a probationary period, the U.S. could impose tariffs on Philippine sugar, coconut oil, and fibers in excess of specified quotas. Finally, the Philippine legislature had one year to accept the independence measure.
January 24, 1933 Call for National Government in South Africa Jan Smuts called on the South African government to resign and be replaced by a national government which would support empire coordination on non-racial lines.
January 24-February 3, 1933 Seventieth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its seventieth session in Geneva.
January 30, 1933 Hitler Appointed Chancellor of Germany With the collapse of Kurt von Schleicher’s government two-days earlier, Adolf Hitler emerged as the new Chancellor of Germany, leading a government composed of National Socialists and Nationalists. After refusing to reach a compromise with the Center Party, Chancellor Hitler called for new elections in March 1933.
February 1-April 19, 1933 Twenty-Seventh Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice The Permanent Court of International Justice held its twenty-seventh session in the Hague.
February 2-October 14, 1933 Geneva Disarmament Conference Delegates from 60 countries met to consider plans to reduce the likelihood of war through general disarmament conference in Geneva. The new German government, under Adolf Hitler, opposed the French disarmament plan presented by President Edouard Herriot. Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald of Britain introduced a plan in March by which European armies would be reduced by almost 500,000 men with France and Germany enjoying military equality. While the United States supported Prime Minister MacDonald’s proposal, the plan collapsed when the Germans insisted that Storm Troopers should not be counted as soldiers. The conference adjourned between June and October and during the interval desperate attempts were made to reach an agreement. In the final negotiations, Britain, France, Italy, and the United States offered not to increase their armaments for four years and at the end of that time Germany would be allowed to rearm to the same level as the other four powers. In response, the Germans demanded immediate equality in “defensive weapons” and the negotiations collapsed.
February 3, 1933 Anglo-Persian Oil Controversy Settled The British and Persian governments came to an agreement over the Persian decision to nationalize foreign oil holdings in their country. The Anglo-Persian Oil Company resumed operations in exchange for tax and revenue concessions to the Persian government.
February 7, 1933 Mutiny on Dutch Ship Sailors on the Dutch training ship “Zeven Provincien” mutinied in East Indian waters in response to a reduction in pay. The Dutch recaptured the ship and ended the mutiny after some loss of life.
February 14-16, 1933 Little Entente Pact of Organization In response to the rise of fascism in Germany and growing irredentism in Hungary, the members of the Little Entente met in Geneva to reorganize their alliance system. The members established a standing council and permanent secretariat and moved to coordinate economic policies. In addition, the treaties establishing the Little Entente became indefinite in duration. These decisions resulted in greater solidarity among the members of the Little Entente.
February 21-24, 1933 Special League Assembly Session The League of Nations Assembly held its fourth special session, under Paul Hymans (Belgium), to discuss the deteriorating situation in Manchuria and Japanese aggression.
February 21-March 18, 1933 Seventy-First Council Session The League of Nations Council held its seventy-first (extraordinary) session in Geneva.
February 23-March 12, 1933 Japanese Occupation of Manchuria Japanese forces completed the occupation of all Chinese territory north of the Great Wall.
February 24, 1933 League Adoption of Stimson Formula in Manchukuo The League of Nations Assembly approved the Lytton Report and adopted the Stimson formula of non-recognition of the Manchukuo government. The League also called on the Japanese to end their military presence in Manchuria.
February 25, 1933 Adoption of Lytton Report The League of Nations delegates adopted most of the findings of the Lytton Report, which found that Japan had violated Chinese sovereignty in their military occupation of Manchuria. The Japanese government the rejected the report in its entirety.
February 25, 1933 Arab Boycott of British Goods in Palestine The British High Commissioner for Palestine rejected an Arab demand that the British forbid the sale of Arab lands and Jewish immigration be restricted. In response, the Arab executive announced a policy of non-cooperation with the British and the boycott of British goods.
February 27, 1933 Burning of the Reichstag in Berlin The National Socialists burned down the Reichstag and blamed the attack on the Communists marking the pinnacle of a violent election campaign. President Paul von Hindenburg responded by issuing emergency decrees which suspended the constitutional guaranties of free speech and a free press. National Socialist Storm Troops took to the streets and intimidated their opponents. In response to the fire, the Reichstag outlawed the German Communist Party.
March 1933 Royal Commission on Newfoundland In response to the economic crisis in Newfoundland, the British government appointed a Royal Commission to investigate the commonwealth’s financial situation.
March 4, 1933 Austrian Suspension of Government In light of the expected National Socialist victory in Germany and growing anti-government agitation in Austria, the Austrian premier, Engelbert Dollfuss, suspended parliamentary government and prohibited political parades and assemblies in Austria.
March 4, 1933 Roosevelt‘s Good Neighbor Policy President Franklin Roosevelt, in his first inaugural address, outlined his Good Neighbor Policy with Latin America, a radical departure from earlier administrations who advocated intervention in Latin American affairs. President Roosevelt declared that his administration would respect the rights and sovereignty of other republics in the hemisphere. This policy resulted in a marked improvement in U.S.-Latin American relations.
March 5, 1933 Reichstag Elections in Germany The National Socialists and their allies, the Nationalists, captured 52 percent of the vote giving the coalition a majority in the Reichstag.
March 6, 1933 U.S. Ban on Gold Exports In the face of a looming banking crisis, newly-installed President Franklin D. Roosevelt closed American banks for four days and forbid the exportation of gold to protect the American gold reserve.
March 6-16, 1933 Polish Occupation of Danzig The Polish government occupied the port of Danzig for ten days in an effort to reassert Polish prestige in the Free City. In the May 1933 elections, the National Socialists would win a clear majority in Danzig.
March 8, 1933 Austrian Suspension of Free Press Engelbert Dollfuss, in an effort to suppress German nationalism in Austria, suspended the freedom of the press.
March 9, 1933 Emergency Banking Relief Act in U.S. In an effort to stem a national banking crisis, Congress passed the Emergency Banking Relief Act which gave the president power to regulate transactions in credit, currency, gold, silver, and foreign exchange. The act also required the delivery of all gold and gold certificates to the Department of the Treasury.
March 16, 1933 Belgian Increase in Military Expenditures As a result of the rise of the National Socialists in Germany, the Belgian government devoted 150 million Belgian francs to improve the fortifications along the Meuse river. The Belgians continued to increase defense expenditures on an annual basis.
March 16, 1933 British Disarmament Plan The British government introduced a new disarmament plan to help reduce international tensions and reduce military expenditures in light of the global depression.
March 19, 1933 Mussolini’s Four-Power Pact Italian Premier Benito Mussolini called for the creation of a Four-Power Pact, composed of the British, French, Germans, and Italians, as a better means of insuring international security. Under this plan, smaller nations would have less of a voice in Great Power politics.
March 23, 1933 Passage of the Enabling Law in Germany With control of the Reichstag, Adolf Hitler introduced a range of political and legal reforms through the Enabling Law which gave the new government dictatorial powers until April 1, 1937 (the only party to oppose the act were the Social Democrats). The Enabling Act marked the beginning of constitutional, administrative, judicial, political, racial, religious, economic, and military reforms across Germany.
March 27, 1933 Japanese Withdrawal from the League In response to the adoption of the Lytton Report, the Japanese government gave the League of Nations a formal notice of withdrawal. At the same time, the Japanese government made it clear that it had no intention of abandoning their mandates in the Pacific. The Manchurian episode marked the first serious blow to the viability of the League and the members’ failure to take effective action against Japanese aggression encouraged revisionist foreign policies in other parts of the world.
March 29, 1933 Nazi Demonstration in Vienna Despite attempts by the Austrian government to suppress German nationalism, Austrian National Socialists staged a major demonstration in Vienna and the Heimwehr in Styria became a National Socialist organization.
April 1933 National Socialist Agitation in Hungary The rise of National Socialism in Germany soon spread to Hungary, which resulted in large-scale National Socialist demonstrations in Budapest.
April 1933 Trans-Persian Railway The Persian government awarded contracts to Swedish and Danish firms to complete the construction of the Trans-Persian Railway.
April 1, 1933 National German Boycott of Jews The German government began its persecution of the Jews by launching a national boycott of Jewish businesses and professionals. In a short time, the majority of Jewish businesses were liquidated and most Jewish lawyers and doctors were barred from practice.
April 5, 1933 East Greenland Arbitration The Permanent Court of International Justice found against the Norwegian claim to the east coast of Greenland, which the Norwegian government annexed in July 1931 and July 1932. The Norwegian government accepted the court’s decision without protest.
April 8, 1933 Western Australia Secession Vote Western Australia voted by a two-to-one margin to secede from the Commonwealth of Australia. Together with South Australia and Tasmania, Western Australia had long protested against the federation system which discriminated against the agricultural states. These states demanded tax abatements and other forms of federal relief from the federal government. The Australian government created a Grants Commission to investigate these claims and to decide on appropriate compensation.
April 11-19, 1933 German State Visit to Rome Hermann Goering and Franz von Papen conducted an official visit to Rome and the major result of this rapprochement was Germany‘s agreement to join the Four-Power Pact.
April 16-July 1, 1933 British Trade Embargo on Soviet Union When the Soviet government placed a number of British engineers on trial for sabotage, the British government protested the arrests and ordered an embargo on Russian goods. Although the engineers were found guilty, the Soviet government permitted them to return to Britain. This issue undermined Anglo-Soviet relations.
April 22, 1933 Ottoman Debt Revision The Turkish government succeeded in negotiating a new debt repayment plan for the Ottoman debt. The Turkish debt of 107 million Turkish pounds was reduced to 8 million Turkish pounds under the agreement.
April 25, 1933 Canadian Withdrawal from the Gold Standard The Canadian government decided to take the Canadian dollar off the gold standard in light of worsening international financial conditions.
April 27, 1933 Anglo-German Trade Agreement The British and German governments negotiated a trade agreement designed to stimulate economic relations between the two countries.
April 29, 1933 Croat Leader Jailed A Yugoslav court found Dr. Vladko Machek, leader of the Croat national movement, guilty of treasonable activity and sent him to prison for three years.
April 30, 1933 U.S. Withdrawal from the Gold Standard The Roosevelt administration took the U.S. dollar off the gold standard to give the government greater control over monetary policy to spur the American economy.
May 4, 1933 Austrian Prohibition of Political Uniforms To retain political control, the Austrian government outlawed the wearing of uniforms by all political parties and instituted a policy of forcing National Socialist agitators out of Austria, a policy which embittered relations with Germany.
May 4, 1933 Finnish Prohibition of Political-Military Organizations The Finnish government forbade the organization of military units associated with political parties in an effort to avoid the rise of fascist organizations in the republic.
May 5, 1933 Russo-German Treaties Renewed The Soviet and German governments decided to renew the Treaty of 1926 and the Treaty of 1929.
May 10, 1933 Paraguayan Declaration of War on Bolivia The dispute over the Chaco region resulted in intense fighting as the Paraguayan government declared war on Bolivia to gain control over the territory.
May 10-16, 1933 Twenty-Eighth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice The Permanent Court of International Justice held its twenty-eighth (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
May 12, 1933 Swiss Prohibition of Political Uniforms In response to political developments in Central Europe, the Swiss government forbid the wearing of party uniforms.
May 12, 1933 Franco-Canadian Trade Agreement The Canadian and French governments signed a trade agreement which went into effect on June 10, 1933. The agreement provided for reciprocal tariff preference on 1148 items and was designed to stimulate trade between the two countries.
May 15-20, 1933 Seventy-Second League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its seventy-second (extraordinary) session in Geneva.
May 17, 1933 Spanish Associations Law The Spanish government passed the Associations Law which required the heads of all religious orders in Spain be Spanish. The legislation forbid members of religious orders to engage in industry or trade. Church schools were abolished and secular education by religious orders was prohibited. The government also nationalized church property which remained in the custody of the clergy. The Pope energetically protested against this law through the encyclical Delectissimi noblis.
May 17, 1933 German Labor Laws The German government outlawed strikes and lock-outs in Germany and changes in the constitution gave greater powers to employers as leaders in industry. The new regime succeeded in a remarkably short time to eliminate unemployment in Germany through the establishment of labor camps, public works, and rearmament.
May 22-June 6, 1933 Seventy-Third League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its seventy-third session in Geneva.
May 26, 1933 Australian Claim in Antarctica The Australian government assumed authority over one-third of Antarctica, an area larger than the Dominion of Australia.
May 28, 1933 Danzig Elections Led by Albert Forster, the National Socialists won a majority of the seats in the Danzig Senate.
May 29, 1933 New Anglo-Persian Oil Company Concession After referring the issue to the League of Nations Council, the Persian government granted the Anglo-Persian Oil Company a new oil production concession. The new contract extended the end of the original contract from 1961 to 1993, but restricted the company’s survey area from 500,000 square miles to 250,000 square miles, and after 1938, Anglo-Persian access would be limited to 100,000 square miles. Anglo-Persian agreed to increase tax payments to 225,000 pounds annually for 15 years and then increase payments to 300,000 pounds for the next 15 years, as well as provide a minimum royalty of 750,000 pounds annually. The new concession significantly increased the Persian government’s control of the oil industry in Persia.
May 29-June 2, 1933 International Studies Conference To improve the science of international relations, the League of Nations sponsored a conference in London of academicians.
May 31, 1933 T’ang-ku Truce in Manchuria With the Japanese military occupation of all of Manchuria, the Nationalist government accepted the T’ang-ku Truce, which included the establishment of a demilitarized zone in eastern Hebei (Hopei) under Japanese control and the evacuation of Nationalist Chinese troops from the Tianjin (Tienstin) area.
June 1933 Token Allied War Debt Payments The governments of Britain, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, and Romania were unable to make full war debt payments to the United States and offered symbolic token payments instead. The global depression undermined these countries’ ability to meet their debt obligation. Congress planned action to punish governments which reneged on their war debts to the U.S.
June 1933 Committee for the Defense of Islam Established in Egypt Waves of anti-missionary and anti-Christian rioting erupted in Egypt, which led to the formation of the Committee for the Defense of Islam.
June 1933 Hungarian State Visit to Berlin Julius Goemboes conducted a state visit to Berlin, seeking German support for Hungary‘s irredentist claims in Central Europe.
June 1933 Albanian-Italian Friction Continued friction between the Italian and Albanian governments led Albania to close Italian schools in the kingdom.
June 1, 1933 German Tourist Fees on Visits to Austria The German government imposed a fee of 1000 marks Germans visiting Austria, a move which ruined the Austrian tourist business.
June 1, 1933 U.S. Arbitration in Cuba The new U.S. ambassador to Havana, Sumner Welles, served as a mediator between the Cuban government, led by Gerardo Machado, and various opposition groups, which had rebelled against the Cuban government in August 1931.
June 5, 1933 Gold Repeal Joint Resolution Congress cancelled the gold clause in all federal and private obligations and made such debts payable in legal tender.
June 8-30, 1933 Seventeenth Session of the International Labor Conference The International Labor Organization (BIT) held its seventeenth session in Geneva, under the chairmanship of Giuseppe de Michelis (Italy). The delegates considered a wide range of issues including fee-charging employment agencies, old age insurance, invalidity insurance, and survivors’ insurance for industrial and agricultural workers.
June 12-July 27, 1933 International Economic Conference Authorized by the League of Nations at the request of the Lausanne Conference, delegates met in London to negotiate an agreement on currency stabilization while ignoring the problems of war debts and reparations payments. Although President Herbert Hoover had committed the United States to participation in the conference, newly elected President Franklin D. Roosevelt instructed American delegates to limit negotiations to bilateral tariff treaties. Since FDR had taken the U.S. off the gold standard, he was not inclined to support a currency stabilizing program promoted by the gold-bloc nations (Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Switzerland). After FDR condemned the conference in a radio address, the conference collapsed and the United States adopted a unilateral policy towards the global depression. With the failure of this conference, the British government extended its neo-mercantilist policy of economic nationalism which included a “Buy British” campaign, paper currency management, foreign exchange controls, and the complete abandonment of free trade and laissez faire economics (these policies led to a slow but gradual recovery of the British economy).
June 14, 1933 Austrian Expulsion of Habicht The Austrian government expelled Theodor Habicht, Hitler’s “Inspector of Austria,” which led to German retaliation and the outbreak of terrorist activity in Austria.
June 19, 1933 National Socialist Party Dissolved in Austria To rein in terrorism, the Austrian government outlawed the National Socialist Party in Austria, although agitation and terrorism continued, supported by German radio propaganda.
June 20, 1933 National Socialist Government in Danzig The National Socialists took control of the government of the Free City of Danzig and conformed the city’s policies to mirror developments in Germany, although the Polish government and the Commissioner of the League of Nations temporarily served as brakes on government policy.
June 24, 1933 Arrest of Communists in Bulgaria The Bulgarian government arrested over a thousand Communists and Macedonians in an attempt to undermine further political disorder.
July 1933 Hungarian State Visit to Rome After conducting a state visit to Berlin in June 1933, Julius Goemboes visited Rome seeking Italian government support for Hungarian irredentist claims in Central Europe.
July 1933 Soviet-Romanian Non-Aggression Pact The Romanian and Soviet governments signed a Pact of Non-Aggression after lengthy negotiations. The Russians recognized Romania‘s claim to Bessarabia and the World War I border agreements. The pact reflected East European fears of a resurgent Germany and Russia‘s pre-occupation with events in the Far East.
July 3, 1933 Seventy-Fourth League Council Session The League of Nations held its seventy-four (extraordinary) session in Geneva.
July 3, 1933 Roosevelt‘s Repudiation of the International Economic Conference In a radio address, President Franklin Roosevelt condemned the negotiators at the International Economic Conference in London for focusing on currency stabilization. Since delegates refused to consider tariff reductions until currency stabilization had been achieved, the conference ended without achieving any meaningful agreements.
July 3, 1933 London Convention Delegates from Afghanistan, Estonia, Latvia, Persia, Poland, Romania, Russia, and Turkey signed the London Convention, which defined an aggressor nation under international law. Two days later, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia signed the convention.
July 5, 1933 Catholic Parties Dissolved in Germany Religious political parties in Germany, including the Catholic parties, were dissolved in Germany, which followed the dissolution of the Nationalist Party in June 1933.
July 10-29, 1933 Twenty-Ninth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice The Permanent Court of International Justice held its twenty-ninth (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
July 14, 1933 One Party GermanState The National Socialist Party became the only legal political party in Germany as a result of the dissolution or outlawing of opposition parties, making Germany a one-party, totalitarian state.
July 15, 1933 Four-Power Pact Signed Representatives of Britain, France, Germany, and Italy signed a diluted version of Premier Benito Mussolini’s Four-Power Pact proposal. The treaty reaffirmed each country’s adherence to the Covenant of the League, the Locarno Treaties, and the Kellogg-Briand Pact. Premier Mussolini’s goal was to reduce the power of the small states in the League of Nations with a bloc of major powers. In practice, the Four-Power Pact proved of little significance in international affairs.
July 15, 1933 All-India Congress Meeting The All-India Congress met in Poona under the leadership of Mohandas K. Gandhi. The Congress decided to resume a policy of civil disobedience beginning on August 1, 1933.
July 20, 1933 German-Vatican Concordat The Vatican and the National Socialist government signed a concordat carefully defined the position of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany. However, the rise of atheism and neo-paganism in Germany was very strong and tensions between the Catholic Church and National Socialist government were inevitable. Catholic clergy could no longer participate in German politics and future diocesan appointments by the Holy See were made only after consultation with the German government. The German government permitted Catholic schools and societies to remain open as long as they did not interfere in German politics. The Vatican viewed National Socialism as great a threat to the church as Communism, while the German government made every effort to discredit the Catholic Church and persuade parents not to send their children to parochial schools.
July 27, 1933 Saudi-Transjordanian Treaty of Friendship The Saudi and Transjordanian governments signed a Treaty of Friendship, which ended years of tensions and border conflicts between the two countries.
August 1933 Southwest African Political Instability The victory of the National Socialists in Germany emboldened the German nationalist movement in Southwest Africa. British settlers, by a narrow majority, adopted a measure forbidding the organization of National Socialist cells and the wearing of uniforms. The British and Dutch majority pushed for the incorporation of Southwest Africa into the Union of South Africa, while German settlers opposed integration.
August 1933 Massacre of Christian Assyrians in Iraq Christian Assyrians, crossing the border from Syria, were massacred by Iraqi troops. The Assyrians had previously fled Iraq but were forced to return by the Syrians. The League of Nations investigated the situation and attempted to arrange for the resettlement of the Assyrians, without success.
August 1, 1933 Indian Civil Disobedience Campaign The All-India Congress resumed its civil disobedience campaign and the British government again arrested Mohandas K. Gandhi and sentenced him to twelve-months imprisonment. The British released Gandhi after only a few days for health reasons as Gandhi resumed his hunger strike.
August 3, 1933 Seventy-Fifth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its seventy-fifth (extraordinary) session in Geneva.
August 5, 1933 Polish-Danzig Agreement The Free State of Danzig, which had come under the political control of the National Socialists, and Poland came to an agreement which guaranteed Poles in Danzig fair treatment while maintaining a percentage of Poland‘s seaborne trade. By this time, the new Polish port of Gdynia, which the Poles began constructing in 1920 after tensions with Danzig began, had surpassed Danzig in carrying Polish exports.
August 12, 1933 Army Revolt in Cuba The Cuban army forced Gerardo Machado out of power and Carlos Manuel de Cespedes became the new president of Cuba. Continued disorder forced the United States to send warships to the island.
August 21-26, 1933 International Wheat Conference To help the suffering agricultural economy, the League of Nations hosted a conference on wheat production in London. The governments of Argentina, Australia, Canada, the Soviet Union, and the United States signed an International Wheat Agreement which limited wheat exports and planted acreage. Each country agreed to limit exports at a maximum of 560 million bushels for 1933-1934 and, with the exception of the USSR and the Danubian countries, to reduce either acreage planted or exports by 15 percent. The goal of the agreement was to establish a floor for world wheat prices.
September 10, 1933 Political Instability in Cuba Another army coup, led by Fulgencio Batista, drove Carlos Manuel de Cespedes from power. Batista eschewed political office but became the dictator over Cuba. Grau San Martin became the new president and formed a radical government which the United States refused to recognize.
September 15, 1933 Greco-Turkish Non-Aggression Pact The Greek and Turkish governments signed a ten-year Non-Aggression Pact and agreed to close coordination in foreign policy formulation.
September 22-29, 1933 Seventy-Sixth League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its seventy-sixth session in Geneva.
September 23-October 11, 1933 Fourteenth League Assembly Session The League of Nations Assembly held its fourteenth session, under C.T. te Water (Union of South Africa), in Geneva.
October 1933 Philippine Legislature Rejection of the Howes-Cutting Plan The Philippine Legislature rejected the Howes-Cutting Plan for Philippine independence on the grounds that the legislation was a tariff against Philippine products and an immigration bill against Philippine labor and not a credible independence plan.
October 1933 Conference for Facilitating the Distribution of Educational Films The League of Nations promoted education around the world by calling a conference in Geneva to plan for the global distribution of educational films.
October 3-November 1933 Yugoslav Royal Visit to Bulgaria King Alexander of Yugoslavia conducted state visits to Sofia, arriving on October 3, 1933, and Istanbul, as part of a series of visits by Balkan rulers seeking to establish a Balkan Pact in response to the rise of National Socialism in Germany.
October 3, 1933 Attempted Assassination of Dollfuss An assassination attempt on Austrian premier Engelbert Dollfuss failed.
October 4, 1933 Dissolution of the Sudeten National Socialist Party The depression and National Socialist agitation spread swiftly among the three million Sudeten Germans living in Czechoslovakia. Many lived in industrial areas and were hit hard by the economic downturn. Konrad Henlein, leader of the Sudeten National Socialist Party dissolved the party before the Czechoslovak government could prohibit it. However, the movement soon reemerged as the Sudetendeutsche Partei which had a National Socialist base but was not officially directed at the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia.
October 4-26, 1933 Seventy-Seventh League Council Session The League of Nations Council held its seventy-seventh session in Geneva.
October 9-11, 1933 Diplomatic Conference for the Repression of the Traffic in Women In an attempt to end white slavery, the League of Nations hosted a conference in Geneva to suppress prostitution around the world.
October 11, 1933 South American Non-Aggression Pact A number of South American governments met in Rio de Janeiro to sign a Non-Aggression Pact to promote pacific relations on the continent.
October 17, 1933 Panama Canal Declaration President Harmodio Arias of Panama met with President Franklin Roosevelt in Washington to discuss relations between the two countries. The two governments released a declaration whereby Panama would control all of the commercial rights within the Canal Zone and the U.S. agreed that there should not be any American enterprise which was detrimental to Panama. This agreement marked increasing Panamanian nationalism in relation to the question of sovereignty over the Panama Canal.
October 20-December 15, 1933 Thirtieth Session of the Permanent Court of International Justice The Permanent Court of International Justice held its thirtieth (extraordinary) session in the Hague.
October 23, 1933 German Withdrawal from the League The German government announced that Germany withdrew from the Disarmament Conference and the League of Nations in light of the failure of the Germans to gain military parity with the Western powers.
October 26-28, 1933 Intergovernmental Conference on Refugees The League of Nations held a conference in Geneva on the plight of refugees around the world.
October 26-November 1, 1933 Conference of Experts on Public Health Standards To continue to improve global health standards, the League of Nations hosted a conference in Geneva to address public health concerns.
November 7-11, 1933 Conference of Government Press Bureaus To promote the dissemination of international news, the League of Nations sponsored a conference in Madrid for government press bureaus.
November 12, 1933 New Reichstag Election in Germany Approximately 93 percent of German voters approved the German government’s decision to withdraw from the League of Nations and 92 percent voted in support of National Socialist candidates. While there were no official opposition candidates, three million voters submitted invalid ballots to protest the regime. As a result of this election, the Reichstag lost all of its political significance.
November 16, 1933 Franco-Syrian Treaty The French and Syrian governments signed a treaty whereby France agreed to support Syria‘s admission into the League of Nations within four years. In return, Syria agreed to maintain an alliance with France for 25 years during which time the French would exercise extensive control over Syria‘s foreign relations, military, and financial affairs. The treaty did not apply to the other Syrian states and the agreement reflected the terms of the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
November 17, 1933 U.S. Recognition of the Soviet Government The Roosevelt administration formally recognized the Soviet government ending a long period of estrangement. The Soviet Commissar of Foreign Affairs, Maxim Litvinov, arrived in Washington, DC on November 7th to begin negotiations. In a formal exchange of notes, the Soviets promised not to interfere in the domestic affairs of the United States, including propaganda; to extend religious freedom to Americans living in the Soviet Union; to negotiate an agreement to guarantee a fair trial for American citizens accused of crimes in the USSR; and to negotiate a settlement of mutual claims (an agreement on tsarist debts to the U.S. was never negotiated). Official recognition restored trade relations between the two countries, although the volume did not reach anticipated levels.
November 28, 1933 Opening of Moroccan-Tunisian Railway The French opened the Moroccan-Tunisian Railway which united the French North African colonies economically. Strategically, this railroad line allowed the French to move troops from Tunisia to the Atlantic coast of Morocco, reducing the French military’s dependence on Mediterranean maritime security.
November 29, 1933 Newfoundland Government Reform The Royal Commission issued a report and recommendations regarding Newfoundland‘s financial crisis. The commission found that the dominion’s huge debt was due to government incompetence and corruption. The Royal Commission recommended government reform (which included the creation of a special commission composed of three British and three Newfoundland representatives with the governor as president), the readjustment and lowering of tariffs, and assumption by the British government of Newfoundland finances until the colony again became self-supporting. The Newfoundland Parliament accepted the report and approved the recommendations.
December 1933 Stavisky Fraud Case in France A Russian promoter, Alexandre Stavisky, attempted to flee arrest after floating a fraudulent bond issue through the municipal pawnshop of Bayonne. He was cornered by police and alleged committed suicide. Royalists and fascists stirred up agitation in the case, accusing important politicians and government officials of involvement in the cover-up.
December 1933 Hungarian Rejection of the Danubian Plan In response to growing fascism in Hungary, the premier, Julius Goemboes rejected the Franco-Czech plan for a Danubian Federation which would have checked Hungarian irredentist plans in Central Europe.
December 1933 Jewish Riots against Immigration Restrictions In light of German persecution of Jews, Jewish protests in Palestine against British immigration restrictions resulted in rioting.
December 9-19, 1933 Syndicalist-Anarchist Uprising in Barcelona Following on the political uprising in January 1933, the Syndicalists and Anarchists launched another uprising in Barcelona, which took the Spanish army ten days to quell.
December 10-13, 1933 Bulgarian Royal Visit to Belgrade Tsar Boris of Bulgaria conducted a state visit to Belgrade and received a tumultuous reception. This visit marked the beginning of the Bulgarian-Yugoslavian reconciliation which had undermined relations between the two countries since the end of World War I.
December 15-27, 1933 Seventh Pan-American Conference This conference was held in Montevideo, Uruguay and reflected the Roosevelt’s administration’s goal of increasing Latin American trust in the United States and impressing upon the delegates the need for confidence and collaboration between countries in the Western Hemisphere. U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull supported a treaty which declared that no state had the right to interfere in the internal or external affairs of another state. This policy reflected an abandonment of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine and the implementation of President Franklin Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy. The delegates at the conference adopted the pact unanimously. The representatives also called on the Bolivian and Paraguayan governments to accept League of Nations mediation to end the Chaco War.
December 18, 1933 Suspension of Newfoundland Constitution In light of the Royal Commission report on the dominion’s economic mismanagement, the Newfoundland government suspended the dominion’s constitution.
December 21, 1933 Newfoundland Reversion to Crown Colony King George V of Britain assented to the Royal Commission’s recommendation for government and economic reform for Newfoundland. As a result, Newfoundland lost its status as a Dominion and reverted to Crown Colony status.
December 29, 1933 Romanian Premier Assassinated Ion Duca, leader of the Liberal Party and Prime Minister of Romania since November 1933, was assassinated by members of the Iron Guard, a fascist organization led by Corneliu Codreanu. The new government, under George Tartarescu, proclaimed martial law and arrested the leadership of the Iron Guard.


Entries and comments feeds.