“THE CONQUEST OF TIME”: H.G. WELLS

May 31, 2010 at 10:53 pm | Posted in Books, Literary, Philosophy, Research, Science & Technology, United Kingdom | Leave a comment

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The Conquest Of Time

A non fiction book by H G Wells

(1942)

The Conquest of Time: Time is the one thing that governs our very being – whether young or old, at the end of our days or just starting out in life, time is a fixed quantity. Measurable and exact, it orders our days and instructs our activity with a rigid and monotonous regularity. But what if time were to become fluid? If the hands on the sundial could be altered to speed on to the next day, or to revert to our yesterdays? Wouldn’t this have immeasurable implications on every aspect of our lives? And if time becomes transient, the concept of death must surely take on a very different flavour. Once the controlling force of time has been usurped, a whole host of philosophical questions come into play – questions that H G Wells ponders with remarkable dexterity.

The Happy Turning: A Dream of Life ‘The fantasies of dreamland go an immeasurable way beyond what is now conceivable and practical.’ As an escape from the horrors of the final days of the Second World War, H G Wells turns his thoughts to the dream world – a world unbound by the logic and reason of earthly matter and a world where he can come face to face with deities and supernatural beings. The fantasy he conceives is intelligent, exotic and thoroughly entertaining.

Product Description

In this superb little book, written during World War II, historian, sociologist, and novelist H G Wells (1866-1946) contemplates the belief systems, prejudices, and institutions that have brought humankind to a dreadful impasse, where it stands at the brink of destruction – or of a new beginning. In his lucid summary of modern ideas concerning the fundamentals and ultimates of existence, Wells points out how absurd and outmoded religious beliefs, marked by intolerance, hatred, and exclusion, have poisoned human beings’ relations with the world and each other. These need to be replaced by a new social morality and a heightened sense of humankind’s proper place in a dynamic universe.

If humans are so smart, why do they behave so stupidly? Why are the talking monkeys so greedy and hateful? Where did civilization go wrong? The author of “The Time Machine” tries to figure it all out in this oft-overlooked and slim volume of original, non-fiction essays.

Product Details:

· Paperback: 101 pages

· Publisher: Prometheus Books

· December 1994

· Language: English

· ISBN-10: 0879759208

· ISBN-13: 978-0879759209

The Conquest Of Time

A non fiction book by H G Wells

(1942)

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CHURCHILL AND THE LANDSHIPS COMMITTEE: TANKS AND ARMORED CARS IN WW I

May 31, 2010 at 10:37 pm | Posted in History, Military, Research, Science & Technology, United Kingdom | Leave a comment

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Churchill and the Landships Committee:

Tanks in WW I

The Landships Committee was a small British war cabinet committee established in February 1915 to deal with the design and construction of what would turn out to be tanks during the First World War. Headed by First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill, the Landships Committee was composed mainly of naval officers, politicians and engineers.

The committee came about when Colonel Maurice Hankey took Colonel Ernest Swinton‘s proposals for an armoured trench-crossing vehicle to Churchill after they had been discounted by General French and other senior staff in the British Army.

The committee was chaired by Eustace Tennyson d’Eyncourt, the Director of Naval Construction (and also responsible for airships) at the Admiralty. Among those who attended were Thomas Hetherington, Robert Francis Macfie and Colonel Rookes Evelyn Bell Crompton.

Many had been inspired by early ideas for from pre-war years. Among these would be the armoured “war car” built in the early 1890s in Eastern Europe. The armoured car was already in use with the Royal Naval Air Service on the continent. Another inspiration was a 1903 short story by HG Wells, The Land Ironclads, and all but Winston Churchill were willing to borrow Wells’ creation despite it being restricted under copyright law.

The Landships Committee was effectively responsible for creating the first tank corps. A small battery of the Motor Machine Gun Corps in Surrey was used as a cover before the Tank Corps was established in 1916. Both battalions were replaced by the Royal Armoured Corps and the Royal Artillery after the war. Today, the tank’s naval lineage can be traced directly back to its naval designers by some of its past and present terminology: the hull, deck, sponsons, bow, turret, and hatches. Prior to the tank, armies used horses and field guns (cannon), and possessed no gun designed to fire within a confined space. Consequently, the first army tank guns were borrowed from the navy.

Formation

The committee was formed at Churchill’s request in February 1915. It started with only three: d’Eyncourt, as President, Thomas Hetherington and Col Wilfred Dumble of the Naval Brigade. Heatherington had proposed a large wheeled landship (some 300 tons) and this was Churchill’s initial interest. A former Royal Engineer, Dumble had managed the London Omnibus Co. and brought back to service in response to the urgent need for transport by the Brigade in Antwerp – he had been an adjutant to Colonel Crompton who was trying to develop cross-country vehicles for the Army. Dumble recommended Crompton to the committee as an expert on heavy traction. The committee’s activities were concealed from Kitchener at the War Office, the Board of the Admiralty and the Treasury – all of whom were expected to block the project. The committee was introduced to tracked designs and Crompton was made technical adviser. Tritton of Foster’s was introduced to the committee. Heatherington, accompanied by his assistant Albert Stern, travelled to the front to inspect German trench design. Ironically they missed meeting Swinton. The committee considered numerous designs including articulated and wheeled. A display of the Killen Strait tractor before the Ministry of Munitions and others in mid 1915 led to an Army specification for a fighting machine based on Swinton’s earlier memorandum.

Churchill and the Landships Committee: Tanks

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GCC EQUITY MARKETS AS OF MAY 30 2010: MIDDLE EAST

May 30, 2010 at 10:29 pm | Posted in Arabs, Economics, Financial, Middle East, Research | Leave a comment

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GCC Equity Markets Daily Briefing as of 30.05.2010

KAMCO Research (research@kamconline.com)

Sun 5/30/10

Dear Investors,

GCC Equity Markets Daily Report

At KAMCO Research, we strive to keep you updated with insightful research reports to support you in making an informed investment decision. Please find below links to each of the five markets comprising our GCC Equity Markets Daily Report.

Please note that the P/E & P/B multiples for the GCC equity markets have been adjusted to reflect net profit for the trailing 12 month period ending Q1-10 as well as for shareholders’ equity as of 31-March-10. Dividend yield is based on FY-2009 cash dividends that have been announced so far this year.

Saudi Stock Exchange

Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange

Dubai Financial Market

Qatar Exchange

Bahrain Stock Exchange

Muscat Securities Market

Please note that the P/E & P/B multiples for the GCC equity markets are based on the net profit for the trailing 12 month period ending Q1-10 as well as for shareholders’ equity as of 31-March-10. Dividend yield is based on FY-2009 cash dividends that have been announced so far this year.

Valuation multiples for companies that have not yet disclosed their financials for Q1-10 are based on net profit for FY-09 and shareholders’ equity as of 31 December 2009.

Kind Regards,

Investment Research Department

Investment Advisory & Research Division

KIPCO Asset Management Co (KAMCO)
Tel: +965 1 805 885 Ext.1146, 1153
Fax:+965 2 2492395
Kamconline.com

GCC Equity Markets Daily Briefing as of 30.05.2010

KAMCO Research (research@kamconline.com)

KIPCO Asset Management Co (KAMCO)
Tel: +965 1 805 885 Ext.1146, 1153
Fax:+965 2 2492395
Kamconline.com

Sun 5/30/10

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AMMAN STOCK EXCHANGE: MARKET NEWS MAY 30 2010

May 30, 2010 at 7:56 pm | Posted in Arabs, Economics, Financial, History, Middle East, Research | Leave a comment

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ASE Market News Briefcase Round 1

Capital Investments (Research@CapitalInv.jo)

For further information, please contact us at:
Research & Studies Department

Capital Investments

Tel (962 6) 520 -0330 ext. 285

Fax (962 6) 569-2872

Sun 5/30/10

ASE Market News Briefcase

Round 1

30 May 2010

Corporate News

· Global Finance, the international financial publication, has awarded the Arab Bank (ARBK) with Best Investment Bank in Jordan for the year 2010.

Economic News

· King Abdullah II of Jordan and UAE Deputy Prime Minister General Shaikh Saif Bin Zayed Al Nahyan on Thursday launched the first phase of the $10 billion Marsa Zayed project, a realty venture developed by Al Maabar Investments. Al Maabar will develop a mega mixed-use waterfront project, including high-rise residential towers, retail, recreational, entertainment, business and financial districts and several branded hotels. This 3.2-square kilometre development, including two km of waterfront, is the biggest mixed-use project of its kind in Jordan and will be implemented in several phases over 30 years with construction of the first phase scheduled to start in the third quarter of this year.

· Remittances of Jordanian expatriates grew by 2.4% during the first four months of 2010 to reach JD798.0 million. Moreover, remittances amounted to JD209.0 million in April 2010 compared to JD196.0 million in the same month last year, a growth of 6.7%.

· The European Union and the government of Jordan will sign on Monday a memorandum of understanding regarding a three-year aid package to Jordan with a total value of 223.0 million Euros in addition to 13.0 million Euros financing deals as part of the 2009-2010 aid program to the Kingdom.

For further information, please contact us at:
Research & Studies Department
Capital Investments

Tel (962 6) 520 -0330 ext. 285

Fax (962 6) 569-2872

ASE Market News Briefcase- Round 1

30 May 2010

Capital Investments (Research@CapitalInv.jo)

For further information, please contact us at:
Research & Studies Department

Capital Investments

Tel (962 6) 520 -0330 ext. 285

Fax (962 6) 569-2872

Sun 5/30/10

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MIDDLE EAST REAL ESTATE: QUARTERLY RESULT UPDATE

May 30, 2010 at 5:18 pm | Posted in Arabs, Development, Economics, Financial, Middle East, Research | Leave a comment

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Dar Al-Arkan Real Estate Development Company –

Quarterly Result Update

TAIB Research (Research@taib.com)

Sun 5/30/10

In order to view our Equity Research Report on Dar Al-Arkan Real Estate Development Company (4300.SE),

please click on the hyperlink below:

http://www.taib.com/reports/E01025053010/GCCUPDATE4300SEMAY10.pdf

For any further information or clarification, please contact us at:

Tel: + 973 17549499

Fax: + 973 17531213

Email: research@taib.com

Best Regards

Research Team

TAIB Securities W.L.L

Post Box 20485 Manama

Kingdom of Bahrain

Dar Al-Arkan Real Estate Development Company –

Quarterly Result Update

Equity Research Report on Dar Al-Arkan Real Estate

Development Company (4300.SE)

TAIB Research (Research@taib.com)

TAIB Securities W.L.L

Post Box 20485 Manama

Kingdom of Bahrain

Sun 5/30/10

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UAE: GDP GROWTH IN 2010

May 30, 2010 at 2:19 pm | Posted in Arabs, Development, Economics, Financial, Middle East, Oil & Gas, Research | Leave a comment

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UAE set to achieve 3.2% growth in GDP in 2010

AMEinfo.com – Weekly News

AMEinfo.com FZ LLC
Dubai Media City, Al Thuraya Tower 1, 20th Floor
United Arab Emirates
Phone: +971(4)3902700
FAX: +971(4)3908015

Sun 5/30/10

His Excellency Sultan Bin Saeed Al Mansoori, UAE Minister of Economy, unveiled the ‘UAE Economic Report 2009’ which highlighted a growth in GDP of 1.3% last year, with the non-oil sector contributing to 71.6% of the GDP, underscoring the success of the nation’s economic diversification initiatives.

Basics:

• 2009 GDP growth rate of 1.3%
• Non-oil sector contributes to 71.6% of GDP
• Highlights success of UAE‘s economic diversification, says Al Mansoori

The economy is set to achieve a growth in GDP of 3.2% in 2010 led by a focus on adopting industrial policies that will drive sustainable development across the UAE. The real GDP growth for year 2010 is projected at 2.5%.

The GDP at current prices for 2009 is Dhs914bn and the GDP at constant prices was Dhs514.5bn. The rate of inflation was 1.56%, compared to 12.3% in 2007-08, and has declined by 0.01% at the end of the first quarter of 2010, compared to the same period in 2009.

The rate of inflation is projected to be managed at 1.1% by end-2010 and at 2 to 2.5% by end-2011 as global economic recovery gains momentum.

Mr Al Mansoori said the Economic Report is a key reference for decision makers in the UAE and the world. “The report provides a clear outlook and perspective of the UAE economy and how the nation has successfully addressed the challenges of the global financial crisis. Our emphasis on economic diversification and openness has contributed to an increase in the share of the non-oil sector to 71% of the GDP compared to 66.5% in 2008.”

He added: “The Report further highlights the contribution of the various non-oil sectors with manufacturing, construction, retail, real estate, financial services and tourism, among others, being significant contributors. The global economic recovery will further strengthen the performance of the non-oil sectors, and our expected growth rate will be higher than that of other high-income industrialised nations.”

Mr Al Mansoori said the UAE leadership is committed to strengthening the economic performance and enhance the integration of all key components in line with the UAE Vision 2021 – to make the UAE among the best countries in the world by 2021 – and its key components, namely, an ambitious and confident people who adhere to their heritage; a strong Union with common destiny; a competitive economy that is led by innovative and knowledgeable UAE nationals; and high quality life endowed with sustainable environment.

The contributions of the various non-oil sectors to GDP are listed below:
16.2 % Manufacturing
10.7 % Construction
9.0 % Wholesale and retail trade, and repairing services
8.2 % Real estate
8.0 % Government services
7.1 % Transportation, storage, and communication
5.8 % Financial services
1.8 % Hotels and restaurants
1.7 % Agriculture, livestock, and fishing
1.6 % Electricity, gas, and water
0.5 % Household services

Total exports and re-exports for the year 2009 was valued at Dhs769.2bn ($209.6bn); and export and re-export of oil products accounting for Dhs256.5bn ($69.9bn). The total imports were valued at Dhs710.1bn ($193.5bn).

Non-oil exports were primarily to India, Switzerland, Qatar, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Oman, Pakistan, Nigeria, Kuwait, and Iraq, representing about 73.4% of the total. Re-exports were primarily to Iran, India, Iraq, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Switzerland, Bahrain, Afghanistan, Hong-Kong, and Oman, representing about 64.5% of the total.

The Central Bank continued to strengthen confidence in the domestic financial market. The Central Bank established an Dhs70bn ($19bn) liquidity facility. Bank deposits reached Dhs950bn ($259bn) at the end of Q1 2009 compared to Dhs840bn ($229bn) at the end of June 2009.

The UAE will continue to pursue a free and open trade regime having signed Free Trade Agreements within the framework of agreements with the GCC countries. The country was ranked 14 out of 181 countries in the World Bank report on trade across borders. The UAE also ranked ahead in terms of technological readiness and innovation.

The report ranked the UAE 6th, 9th, 10th, 21st and 25th in terms of infrastructure, institutions, market efficiency, competence and innovation respectively. The Index of Economic Freedom ranks the UAE as the 46th most economically free country higher than countries like France, Italy, Saudi Arabia, and China.

UAE Ministry of Economy RSS feed

· Al Mansouri: Professional arbitration key to strengthen UAE’s investment environment

· Algeria is a strategic investment destination for UAE entrepreneurs, says UAE Minister of Economy

· UAE and Algeria discuss measures to strengthen bilateral trade relations

· UAE-Algeria Joint Economic Committee meeting discusses opportunities to strengthen bilateral trade and investments

· Draft Federal Arbitration Law Conference on May 24 to bring together arbitration specialists

· » more UAE Ministry of Economy

UAE set to achieve 3.2% growth in GDP in 2010

AMEinfo.com – Weekly News

AMEinfo.com FZ LLC
Dubai
Media City

Al Thuraya Tower 1 20th Floor
United Ar
ab Emirates
Phone: +971(4)3902700

FAX: +971(4)3908015

Sun 5/30/10

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GCC REPORT: MIDDLE EAST ECONOMY

May 30, 2010 at 1:54 pm | Posted in Africa, Economics, Financial, Middle East, Oil & Gas, Research | Leave a comment

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GCC Daily Report (30 May 2010)

TAIB Research (Research@taib.com)

GCC Daily Report

Sun 5/30/10

In order to view our GCC Daily Report, please click on the hyperlink below:

For English Version:

http://www.taib.com/reports/M01025053010/GCC30May10.pdf

For Arabic Version:

http://www.taib.com/reports/M01025053010/GCC30May10AR.pdf

For any further information or clarifications, please contact us at:

Tel: + 973 17549499

Fax: + 973 17531213

Email: research@taib.com

Best Regards,

Research Team

TAIB Securities W.L.L

Post Box 20485, Manama

Kingdom of Bahrain

GCC Daily Report (30 May 2010)

TAIB Research (Research@taib.com)

GCC Daily Report

Sun 5/30/10

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KUWAIT STOCK EXCHANGE BRIEFING: MAY 30 2010

May 30, 2010 at 8:54 am | Posted in Arabs, Economics, Financial, Middle East, Research | Leave a comment

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KSE Daily Market Report

Kuwait Stock Exchange Daily Briefing as of 30.05.2010

KAMCO Research (research@kamconline.com)

KAMCO Research

KIPCO Asset Management Co (KAMCO)
Tel: +965 1 805 885 Ext.1146, 1153
Fax:+965 2 2492395
Kamconline.com

Sun 5/30/10

Dear Investors,

At KAMCO Research, we strive to keep you updated with insightful research reports to support you in making an informed investment decision. Please find below the links of KSE Daily Market Report reviewing the performance of the Kuwait Stock Exchange and its different sectors and listed stocks.

Note: The P/E & P/B Multiples for the KSE listed companies have been adjusted to reflect FY-09 earnings and shareholders’ equity as of 31-Dec-09. Dividend Yield has also been updated to account for FY-09 cash dividends announced so far this year.

Valuation multiples (P/E, P/B and Dividend Yield) for companies that have not yet disclosed their financials for FY-09 are still based on the TTM earnings for the period ending Sep-09 and equity figures as of 30 Sep-09, while Dividend Yield is calculated based on FY-08 cash dividends.

In order to view the full reports please click on the link below:

KSE Daily Briefing (English Version)

KSE Daily Briefing (Arabic Version)

Due to the massive losses incurred during FY-2008 & FY-2009 by several listed companies which were mainly due to the mark-to-market losses from investments as well as the non-recurring losses, we have excluded TTM financial results of the 30 companies that reported the highest losses while calculating the Price-to-Earning Multiple (P/E) for the aggregate market and their respective sectors. The total losses incurred by the 30 companies amounted to KD 1.58 billion.

Kind Regards,

KIPCO Asset Management Co (KAMCO)
Tel: +965 1 805 885 Ext.1146, 1153
Fax:+965 2 2492395

Kamco
nline.com

KSE Daily Market Report

Kuwait Stock Exchange Daily Briefing as of 30.05.2010

KAMCO Research (research@kamconline.com)

KAMCO Research

KIPCO Asset Management Co (KAMCO)
Tel: +965 1 805 885 Ext.1146, 1153
Fax:+965 2 2492395
Kamconline.com

Sun 5/30/10

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SAUDI STOCK EXCHANGE BRIEFING: MAY 29 2010

May 30, 2010 at 8:32 am | Posted in Arabs, Economics, Financial, Middle East, Research | Leave a comment

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Saudi Stock Exchange Daily Report

KIPCO Asset Management Co (KAMCO)
Tel: +965 1 805 885 Ext.1146, 1153
Fax:+965 2 2492395
Kamconline.com

Saudi Stock Exchange Daily Briefing as of 29.05.2010

KAMCO Research (research@kamconline.com)

Sun 5/30/10

Dear Investors,

At KAMCO Research, we strive to keep you updated with insightful research reports to support you in making an informed investment decision. Please find below link of the Saudi Stock Exchange Daily Report.

Saudi Stock Exchange

Please note that the P/E & P/B multiples for the Saudi Stock Exchange have been adjusted to reflect net profit for the FY 2009 and shareholders’ equity as of 31 December 2009. Dividend yield is based on FY09 cash dividends that have been announced so far this year. Valuation multiples for companies that have not yet disclosed their financials for FY-09 are based on net profit for the Trailing Twelve Month (TTM) period ending 30 September 2009 and shareholders’ equity as of 30 September 2009.

Kind Regards,

KIPCO Asset Management Co (KAMCO)
Tel: +965 1 805 885 Ext.1146, 1153
Fax:+965 2 2492395
Kamconline.com

Saudi Stock Exchange Daily Report

KIPCO Asset Management Co (KAMCO)
Tel: +965 1 805 885 Ext.1146, 1153
Fax:+965 2 2492395
Kamconline.com

Saudi Stock Exchange Daily Briefing as of 29.05.2010

Saudi Stock Exchange

KAMCO Research (research@kamconline.com)

Sun 5/30/10

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CLIMATE CHANGE: OCEAN FEEDBACKS VOLCANIC ASH AND OXYGEN

May 28, 2010 at 10:30 pm | Posted in Earth, History, Research, Science & Technology, World-system | Leave a comment

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CLAW hypothesis

The CLAW hypothesis proposes a feedback loop that operates between ocean ecosystems and the Earth‘s climate.[1] The hypothesis specifically proposes that particular phytoplankton that produce dimethyl sulfide are responsive to variations in climate forcing, and that these responses lead to a negative feedback loop that acts to stabilise the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere. The CLAW hypothesis was originally proposed by Robert Charlson, James Lovelock, Meinrat Andreae and Stephen Warren, and takes its acronym from the first letter of their surnames.[2]

The CLAW hypothesis

The hypothesis describes a feedback loop that begins with an increase in the available energy from the sun acting to increase the growth rates of phytoplankton by either a physiological effect (due to elevated temperature) or enhanced photosynthesis (due to increased irradiance). Certain phytoplankton, such as coccolithophorids, synthesise dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), and their enhanced growth increases the production of this osmolyte. In turn, this leads to an increase in the concentration of its breakdown product, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), in first seawater, and then the atmosphere. DMS is oxidised in the atmosphere to form sulfur dioxide, and this leads to the production of sulfate aerosols. These aerosols act as cloud condensation nuclei and increase cloud droplet number, which in turn elevate the liquid water content of clouds and cloud area. This acts to increase cloud albedo, leading to greater reflection of incident sunlight, and a decrease in the forcing that initiated this chain of events. Note that the feedback loop can operate in reverse, such that a decline in solar energy leads to reduced cloud cover and thus to an increase in the amount of solar energy reaching the Earth’s surface.

A significant feature of the chain of interactions described above is that it creates a negative feedback loop, whereby a change to the climate system (increased/decreased solar input) is ultimately counteracted and damped by the loop. As such, the CLAW hypothesis posits an example of planetary-scale homeostasis or complex adaptive system, consistent with the Gaia hypothesis framed by one of the original authors of the CLAW hypothesis, James Lovelock.[3]

Some subsequent studies of the CLAW hypothesis have uncovered some evidence to support its mechanism,[2][4] although this is not unequivocal.[5] Other researchers have suggested that a CLAW-like mechanism may operate in the Earth’s sulfur cycle without the requirement of an active biological component.[6]

The Anti-CLAW hypothesis

In his 2007 book, The Revenge of Gaia, Lovelock proposed that instead of providing negative feedback in the climate system, the components of the CLAW hypothesis may act to create a positive feedback loop.[7]

Under future global warming, increasing temperature may stratify the world ocean, decreasing the supply of nutrients from the deep ocean to its productive euphotic zone. Consequently, phytoplankton activity will decline with a concommitant fall in the production of DMS. In a reverse of the CLAW hypothesis, this decline in DMS production will lead to a decrease in cloud condensation nuclei and a fall in cloud albedo. The consequence of this will be further climate warming which may lead to even less DMS production (and further climate warming …). The figure to the right shows a summarising schematic diagram.

Evidence for the anti-CLAW hypothesis is constrained by similar uncertainties as those of the sulfur cycle feedback loop of the CLAW hypothesis. However, researchers simulating future oceanic primary production have found evidence of declining production with increasing ocean stratification.[8]

References

1. a b Charlson, R. J., Lovelock, J. E., Andreae, M. O. and Warren, S. G. (1987). Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate. Nature 326, 655-661.

2. a b Andreae, M. O., Elbert, W. and Demora, S. J. (1995). Biogenic sulfur emissions and aerosols over the tropical South Atlantic, 3. Atmospheric dimethylsulfide, aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11335-11356.

3. Lovelock, J.E. (2000) [1979]. Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth (3rd ed. ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-286218-9.

4. Cropp, R.A., Gabric, A.J., McTainsh, G.H., Braddock, R.D. and Tindale, N. (2005). Coupling between ocean biota and atmospheric aerosols: Dust, dimethylsulphide, or artifact? Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19, GB4002.

5. Vallina, S. M., Simo, R., Gasso, S., De Boyer-Montegut, C., del Rio, E., Jurado, E. and Dachs, J. (2007). Analysis of a potential “solar radiation dose-dimethylsulfide-cloud condensation nuclei” link from globally mapped seasonal correlations. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21, GB2004.

6. Shaw, G.E., Benner, R.L., Cantrell, W. and Clarke, A.D. (1998). The regulation of climate: A sulfate particle feedback loop involving deep convection – An editorial essay. Climate Change 39, 23-33.

7. a b Lovelock, James (2007). The Revenge of Gaia. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0141025972.

8. Cox, P. M., Betts, R. A., Jones, C. D., Spall, S. A. and Totterdell, I. J. (2000). Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature, 408, 184-187.

External links

· Gaia and CLAW, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz

· DMS and climate, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle

Tephrochronology

Tephrochronology is a geochronological technique that uses discrete layers of tephra—volcanic ash from a single eruption—to create a chronological framework in which paleoenvironmental or archaeological records can be placed. Such an established event provides a “tephra horizon”. The premise of the technique is that each volcanic event produces ash with a unique chemical “fingerprint” that allows the deposit to be identified across the area affected by fallout. Thus, once the volcanic event has been independently dated, the tephra horizon will act as time marker.

The main advantages of the technique are that the volcanic ash layers can be relatively easily identified in many sediments and that the tephra layers are deposited relatively instantaneously over a wide spatial area. This means they provide accurate temporal marker layers which can be used to verify or corroborate other dating techniques, linking sequences widely separated by location into a unified chronology that correlates climatic sequences and events.

Tephrochronology requires accurate geochemical fingerprinting (usually via an electron microprobe).[1] An important recent advance is the use of LA-ICP-MS (i.e. laser ablation ICP-MS) to measure trace-element abundances in individual tephra shards.[2] One problem in tephrochronology is that tephra chemistry can become altered over time, at least for basaltic tephras.[3]

Early tephra horizons were identified with the Saksunarvatn tephra (Icelandic origin, ca 10.2 cal. ka BP), forming a horizon in the late Pre-Boreal of Northern Europe, the Vedde ash (also Icelandic in origin, ca 12.0 cal. ka BP) and the Laacher See tephra (in the Eifel volcanic field, ca 12.9 cal. ka BP). Major volcanoes which have been used in tephrochronological studies include Vesuvius, Hekla and Santorini. Minor volcanic events may also leave their fingerprint in the geological record: Hayes Volcano is responsible for a series of six major tephra layers in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska. Tephra horizons provide a synchronous check against which to correlate the palaeoclimatic reconstructions that are obtained from terrestrial records, like fossil pollen studies (palynology), from varves in lake sediments or from marine deposits and ice-core records, and to extend the limits of carbon-14 dating.

A pioneer in the use of tephra layers as marker horizons to establish chronology was Sigurdur Thorarinsson, who began by studying the layers he found in his native Iceland.[4] Since the late 1990s, techniques developed by Chris S. M. Turney (QUB, Belfast; now University of Exeter) and others for extracting tephra horizons invisible to the naked eye (“cryptotephra”)[5] have revolutionised the application of tephrochronology. This technique relies upon the difference between the specific gravity of the microtephra shards and the host sediment matrix. It has led to the first discovery of the Vedde ash on the mainland of Britain, in Sweden, in the Netherlands, in the Swiss Lake Soppensee and in two sites on the Karelian Isthmus of Baltic Russia. It has also revealed previously undetected ash layers, such as the Borrobol Tephra first discovered in northern Scotland, dated to ca. 14.4 cal. ka BP,[6] the microtephra horizons of equivalent geochemistry from southern Sweden, dated at 13,900 Cariaco varve yrs BP[7] and from northwest Scotland, dated at 13.6 cal. ka BP.[8]

Notes

1. Smith & Westgate (1969)

2. Pearce et al. (2002)

3. Pollard et al. (2003)

4. Alloway et al. (2007)

5. Turney et al. (1997)

6. Turney et al. (1997)

7. Davies (2004)

8. Ranner et al. (2005)

Sources

· Alloway B.V., Larsen G., Lowe D.J., Shane P.A.R., Westgate J.A. (2007). “Tephrochronology”, Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science (editor—Elias S.A.) 2869–2869 (Elsevier).

· Davies S.M., Wastegård S., Wohlfarth B. (2003). “Extending the limits of the Borrobol Tephra to Scandinavia and detection of new early Holocene tephras”, Quaternary Research, 59: 345–352.

· Davies, S. M., Wohlfarth, B., Wastegård, S., Andersson, M., Blockley, S., & Possnert, G.,(2004). “Were there two Borrobol Tephras during the early Late-glacial period: implications for tephrochronology?”, Quaternary Science Reviews, 23, 581–589.

· Dugmore A., Buckland P.C. (1991). “Tephrochronology and Late Holocene soil erosion in South Iceland”, Environmental Change in Iceland: Past and Present (eds. J.K. Maizels and C. Caseldine) 147–159 (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers).

· Keenan D.J. (2003). “Volcanic ash retrieved from the GRIP ice core is not from Thera“, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 4, doi: 10.1029/2003GC000608.

· Pearce N.J.G., Eastwood W.J., Westgate J.A., Perkins W.T. (2002). “Trace-element composition of single glass shards in distal Minoan tephra from SW Turkey”, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 159: 545–556. doi:10.1029/2003GC000672

· Pollard A.M., Blockley S.P.E., Ward K.R. (2003). “Chemical alteration of tephra in the depositional environment”, Journal of Quaternary Science, 18: 385–394. doi:10.1002/jqs.760

· Ranner, P. H., Allen, J. R. M. & Huntley, B. (2005). A new early Holocene cryptotephra from northwest Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science, 20, 201–208.

· Smith D.G.W., Westgate J.A. (1969). “Electron probe technique for characterizing pyroclastic deposits”, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 5: 313–319.

· Þórarinsson S. (1970). “Tephrochronology in medieval Iceland“, Scientific Methods in Medieval Archaeology (ed. R. Berger) 295–328 (Berkeley: University of California Press).

· Turney C.S.M., Harkness D.D., Lowe J.J. (1997). “The use of microtephra horizons to correlate late-glacial lake sediment successions in Scotland“, Journal of Quaternary Science, 12: 525–531.

External links

· USGS tephrochronology technique

· Tephra and Tephrochronology, The University of Edinburgh

· Antarctic Research Group

· TEPHROCHRONOLOGY AND HIGH-PRECISION ANALYSIS

· TephraBase

· International Arctic Workshop, 2004. Stefan Wastegård et al., “Towards a tephrochronology framework for the last glacial/interglacial transition in Scandinavia and the Faroe Islands”: (Abstract)

Oxygen isotope ratio cycle and Climate Change

Oxygen isotope ratio cycles are cyclical variations in the ratio of the abundance of oxygen with an atomic mass of 18 to the abundance of oxygen with an atomic mass of 16 present in some substance, such as polar ice or calcite in ocean core samples. The ratio is linked to water temperature of ancient oceans, which in turn reflects ancient climates. Cycles in the ratio mirror climate changes in geologic history.

Isotopes of oxygen

Oxygen (chemical symbol O) has three naturally occurring isotopes: 16O, 17O, and 18O, where the 16, 17 and 18 refer to the atomic mass. The most abundant is 16O, with a small percentage of 18O and an even smaller percentage of 17O. Oxygen isotope analysis considers only the ratio of 18O to 16O present in a sample.

References

1. Miller, Dana L.; Mora, Claudia I.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.; Mock, Cary J.; Uhle, Maria E.; Sharp, Zachary (July 31, 2006/September 19, 2006). “Tree-ring isotope records of tropical cyclone activity”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2006 – National Acad Sciences. 103 no. 39. National Acad Sciences. pp. 14294–14297. doi:10.1073/pnas.0606549103. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/39/14294.full. Retrieved 2009-11-11.

· Encyclopædia Britannica under Climate and Weather, Pleistocene Climatic Change

· Harmon Craig. 1961. “Isotopic variations in meteoric waters”. Science. 133. pp 1702

· S. Epstein, T. Mayeda. 1953. “Variation of O18 content of waters from natural sources”, Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta. 4. pp 213

The calculated ratio of the masses of each present in the sample is then compared to a standard, which can yield information about the temperature at which the sample was formed – see Proxy (climate) for details.

Connection between isotopes and temperature/weather

18O is two neutrons heavier than 16O and causes the water molecule in which it occurs to be heavier by that amount. The addition of more energy is required to vaporize H218O than H216O, and H218O liberates more energy when it condenses. In addition, H216O tends to diffuse more rapidly.

Because H216O requires less energy to vaporize, and is more likely to diffuse to the liquid surface, the first water vapor formed during evaporation of liquid water is enriched in H216O, and the residual liquid is enriched in H218O. When water vapor condenses into liquid, H218O preferentially enters the liquid, while H216O is concentrated in the remaining vapor.

As an air mass moves from a warm region to a cold region, water vapor condenses and is removed as precipitation. The precipitation removes H218O, leaving progressively more H216O-rich water vapor. This distillation process causes precipitation to have lower 18O/16O as the temperature decreases. Additional factors can affect the efficiency of the distillation, such as the direct precipitation of ice crystals, rather than liquid water, at low temperatures.

Due to the intense precipitation that occurs in hurricanes, the H218O is exhausted relative to the H216O, resulting in relatively low 18O/16O ratios. The subsequent uptake of hurricane rainfall in trees, creates a record of the passing of hurricanes that can be used to create a historical record in the absence of human records.[1]

Connection between temperature and climate

The 18O/16O ratio provides a record of ancient water temperature. Water 10 to 15 degrees Celsius (18 to 27 degrees Fahrenheit) cooler than present represents glaciation. Precipitation and therefore glacial ice contain water with a low 18O content. Since large amounts of 16O water are being stored as glacial ice, the 18O content of oceanic water is high. Water up to 5 degrees Celsius (9 °F) warmer than today represents an interglacial, when the 18O content is lower. A plot of ancient water temperature over time indicates that climate has varied cyclically, with large cycles and harmonics, or smaller cycles, superimposed on the large ones. This technique has been especially valuable for identifying glacial maxima and minima in the Pleistocene.

Earth‘s climate.

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