WAALER CURVES: PROFESSOR ROBERT FOGEL ON NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGY ECONOMICS

January 28, 2010 at 4:29 pm | Posted in Books, Economics, History, Research, Science & Technology | Leave a comment

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“Waaler Curves”

Hans Waaler

Waaler HT:

“Height, weight, and mortality: the

Norwegian experience. Acta Medica

Scand suppl. 1984; 679:1–51.”

Not only the overweight status generates health problems, being underweight is also liked to poor health.5 In an influential 1984 study of a very large sample of Norwegians, Hans Waaler outlined the U-shaped relationship between BMI body mass index and morbidity and mortality, such that extreme BMIs are riskier than those at the center of the distribution.

The graphical depiction of these relationships has been called “Waaler curves,” an analytical instrument that has served to indicate optimal anthropometrics from a health standpoint.6

Several follow-up studies have further supported Waaler’s findings and support the U-shape relationship between BMI and mortality for other populations in different regions and historical periods.

The Nobel economist Robert Fogel uses Waaler curves as a central econometric and statistical tool.

Additional:

· Changes in the distribution of body mass index of white US men, 1890-2000.

Ann Hum Biol. 2004 Mar-Apr; 31(2):174-81.

[Ann Hum Biol. 2004]

· From the tallest to (one of) the fattest: the enigmatic fate of the American population in the 20th century.

Econ Hum Biol. 2004 Mar; 2(1):57-74.

[Econ Hum Biol. 2004]

· ReviewAn overview on the nutrition transition and its health implications: the Bellagio meeting.

Public Health Nutr. 2002 Feb; 5(1A):93-103.

[Public Health Nutr. 2002]

See more articles cited in this paragraph

· The relationship between body weight and mortality: a quantitative analysis of combined information from existing studies.

Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996 Jan; 20(1):63-75.

[Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996]

· Underweight and overweight in relation to mortality among men aged 40-59 and 50-69 years: the Seven Countries Study.

Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Apr 1; 151(7):660-6.

[Am J Epidemiol. 2000]See more articles cited in this paragraph

· A comparison of the skinfold method with extent of ‘overweight’ and various weight-height relationships in the assessment of obesity.

Br J Nutr. 1977 Sep; 38(2):271-84.

[Br J Nutr. 1977]See more articles cited in this paragraph

· ReviewAn overview on the nutrition transition and its health implications: the Bellagio meeting.

Public Health Nutr. 2002 Feb; 5(1A):93-103.

[Public Health Nutr. 2002]See more articles cited in this paragraph

· Health implications of obesity. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement.

Ann Intern Med. 1985 Dec; 103(6 ( Pt 2)):1073-77.

[Ann Intern Med. 1985]See more articles cited in this paragraph

· On estimating the minima of BMI-mortality curves.

Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996 May; 20(5):496-8.

[Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996]

· Height, body mass index and mortality: do social factors explain the association?

Public Health. 1992 Sep; 106(5):375-82.

[Public Health. 1992]

· Height, body mass index, and prostate cancer: a follow-up of 950000 Norwegian men.

Br J Cancer. 2003 Oct 6; 89(7):1237-42.

[Br J Cancer. 2003]

· Adult height and cause-specific mortality: a large prospective study of South Korean men.

Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Sep 1; 158(5):479-85.

[Am J Epidemiol. 2003]

· Inverse relation between height and cardiovascular mortality in men during 30-year follow-up.

Am J Cardiol. 1997 Aug 1; 80(3):349-50.

[Am J Cardiol. 1997]

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4. Alter, G. 2003. Stature, survival, and the standard of living: a model of the effects of diet and disease on declining mortality and increasing stature. Unpublished working paper. Indiana University, Bloomington.

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23. Fogel, R.W., 1999. Public Use Tape on the Aging of the Veterans of the Union Army: Surgeon’s Certificates, 1860–1940, Version S-1 Unstandardized (Center for Population Economics, University of Chicago, Graduate School of Business, and Department of Economics, Brigham Young University).

24. Fogel, R.W., 2000a. Public Use Tape on the Aging of the Veterans of the Union Army: Military, Pension, and Medical Records, 1860–1940, Version M-5 (Center for Population Economics, University of Chicago, Graduate School of Business, and Department of Economics, Brigham Young University).

25. Fogel, R.W., 2000b. The Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of Egalitarianism. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

26. Fogel, R.W., 2001. Early indicators of Later Work Levels, Disease, and Death. Unpublished typescript. Center for Population Economics, University of Chicago.

27. Fogel, R.W., 2004. The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1700–2100.

28. Fogel, R.W. and Canavese P., 2004. Arthritis: Changes in Its Prevalence during the 19th and 20th Centuries. Unpublished working paper, Center for Population Economics, University of Chicago.

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46. Jonsson S, Hedblad B, Engtstrom G, Nilsson P, Berglund G, Janzon I. Influence of Obesity on Cardiovascular Risk. Twenty-three-year follow-up of 22 025 men from an urban Swedish. Population. 2002;26:1046–1053.

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50. Komlos J. Anomalies in Economic History: Toward a Resolution of the “Antebellum Puzzle” J Econ Hist. 1996;56:202–214.

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52. Lagiou P, Hsieh CC, Trichopoulos D, Xu B, Wuu J, Mucci L, Tamimi R, Adami HO, Cnattingius S. Birthweight differences between USA and China and their relevance to breast cancer Aetiology. Int J Epidemiol. 2003;32:193–198. [PubMed]

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Robert Fogel Works:

· The Union Pacific Railroad: A Case in Premature Enterprise, 1960.

· Railroads and American Economic Growth: Essays in Econometric History, 1964.

· Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery, 2 volumes, 1974. (co-written with Stanley Engerman)

· Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery, 2 volumes, 1989.

· Economic Growth, Population Theory and Physiology: The Bearings of Long-Term Processes on the Making of Economic Policy, 1994.

· The Slavery Debates, 1952-1990: A Retrospective . Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003. 106 pp. ISBN 0-8071-2881-3.

· The Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of Egalitarianism Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002

· The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700-2100: Europe, America, and the Third World. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. 189pp. ISBN 0-521-80878-2.

· The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700 (co-written with Roderick Floud, Bernard Harris, and Sok Chul Hong), forthcoming.

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