WORLD POPULATION PROSPECTS

March 11, 2009 at 10:59 pm | Posted in Development, Globalization, History, Research, Third World, World-system | Leave a comment

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2008 Revision of World Population

Prospects now out‏

United Nations Population Division covering the period 1950-2050

Wed 3/11/09

The United Nations Population Division is pleased to announce the publication of the 2008 Revision of World Population Prospects, the official United Nations estimations and projections of population for all countries of the world, covering the period 1950-2050.

The results of the 2008 Revision incorporate the findings of the most recent national population censuses and of numerous specialized population surveys carried out around the world. The 2008 Revision provides the demographic data and indicators to assess trends at the global, regional and national levels and to calculate many other key indicators commonly used by the United Nations system.

A press release summarizing key findings of the new revision, a set of selected tables and an interactive database can all be accessed on the website of the Population Division http://www.unpopulation.org

Several hardcopy and electronic publications based on the 2008 Revision (three volumes in book form, CD-ROMs and a wall chart) are currently under preparation and will be announced as they become available.

2008 Revision of World Population Prospects now out‏

United Nations Population Division

http://www.unpopulation.org

Wed 3/11/09

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AGROFORESTRY TANZANIA & AFRICA

March 11, 2009 at 10:33 pm | Posted in Africa, Development, Earth, Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research, Third World | Leave a comment

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New Policy Brief from the World

Agroforestry Centre

on behalf of j.kimwaki@cgiar.org

Climate Change Info

Wed 3/11/09

A new Policy Brief –‘Agroforestry Option for Tazania’ has been published by the World Agroforestry Centre. The full text of the brief along with other related ones is available at the links given below.

Other publications done by the centre are available at http://www.worldagroforestry.org

1. Agroforestry options for Tanzania. 2009. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre Policy Brief no. 03, 6p.

Tanzania is listed among the thirteen African countries worst affected by climate change impacts and vulnerability, and having the least adaptive capacities. The country faces the challenge of revitalizing her agricultural sector by improving the natural resource base. The brief explains how agroforestry could offer robust options to improve productivity and achieve environmental sustainability and outlines policy recommendations – both technical and institutional – that will go along way in mitigating the effects of climate change and reduce farmers’vulnerability.

http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af1/downloads/publications/PDFs/BR09007.PDF

2. Villamor, G.B.; Lasco RD. 2008. Biodiversity and Climate Change: restoring the connectivity for globally threatened species requiring landscape level conservation. Laguna, Philippines: World Agroforestry Centre 4p.
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/downloads/publications/PDFs/BR08096.PDF

3. Minang, P.A.; Meadu, V.; Dewi, S.; Swallow, B. (eds.). 2008. The opportunity costs of avoiding emissions from deforestation. — Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) ASB Policy Brief no. 10, 2p
http://www.asb.cgiar.org/publications/view.asp?Pub_ID=1029

4. Verchot, L.V.; Swallow, B.M.; van Noordwijk, M. 2007. Reducing emissions from landscape-wide land use change in developing countries. Bogor, Indonesia: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)

http://www.climate-l.org – A knowledgebase of International Climate Change Activities, provided by IISD in cooperation with the United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB) Secretariat

New Policy Brief from the World Agroforestry Centre

on behalf of j.kimwaki@cgiar.org

http://www.worldagroforestry.org

Nairobi Kenya World Agroforestry Centre

Climate Change Info

Wed 3/11/09

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CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: COMMENT ON PROFESSOR JEFFREY FRIEDEN’S ANALYSIS “WILL GLOBAL CAPITALISM FAIL AGAIN?”

March 11, 2009 at 12:05 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, History, Research, USA, World-system | Leave a comment

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CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP COMMENT ON:

BRUEGEL ESSAY AND LECTURE SERIES

WILL GLOBAL CAPITALISM FALL AGAIN?

By Jeffrey Frieden 2006

Professor Jeffrey Frieden’s 2006 “Bruegel” (Brussels) analysis of global imbalances, capital inflows and housing prices and how their unwinding would lead to a crisis is far-seeing.

What Frieden does not see is that the final resolution would involve a redesign of the global economy at the system-level and not just a mechanical rebalancing of accounts and flows.

BRUEGEL ESSAY AND LECTURE SERIES  Jeffrey Frieden

The second important feature of the contemporary American political economy is what the rest of the world thinks of as global macroeconomic imbalances. Here my focus is not on the very important implications for the world economy in general, but rather on the narrow and parochial implications of these global imbalances for the United States.

For the global imbalances have been, and will continue to be, a very important part of how the United States interacts with the world economy.

Two component parts of these imbalances – America’s fiscal stance and the capital inflow from abroad – have been central to the American economic expansion. This capital inflow has, among other things, tended to keep the U. S. dollar stronger than it otherwise would be.

The relatively strong dollar has, over the past ten years, been associated with increased non-tradables prices, especially housing prices. The housing market expansion in turn has contributed to the generalised feeling of prosperity that has mitigated some of the latent dissatisfaction with trends in income distribution. For the booming housing market has had a significant wealth effect, allowing many middle-class Americans to borrow against the rising value of their real estate. These interrelationships could be developed on many dimensions, such as with how the availability of foreign funds made substantial tax cuts possible.

The general point is that the current state of the American economy and of its political economy is related to the massive capital inflows.

The current imbalances are unsustainable. I do not pretend to know when they will come to an end, or how; but eventually the United States will have to reduce its fiscal deficit, and eventually the capital inflow will have to be reduced and even reversed as external liabilities are serviced. And this in turn implies a reduction in consumption, an increase in savings, and a decline in

the real exchange rate of the dollar – an unwinding of what has happened in the past ten years. Any number of scenarios might follow from this; almost all the realistic ones involve a decline in the relative price of housing (as the real exchange rate declines). The resulting pressure on the mortgage market is likely to cause financial distress, which will exacerbate the general macroeconomic pressures on the middle classes.

Whatever the preferred scenario one chooses for an end to the current imbalances, the process will create strains in the American macroeconomy – and in American politics. For the mass public support for – or at least lack of open opposition to – America’s current integration into the world economy is largely due to the current boom. When the expansion comes to an end, and when many of the factors that have sustained it, turn around – when the United States goes from living beyond its means to living within its means…

BRUEGEL ESSAY AND LECTURE SERIES

WILL GLOBAL CAPITALISM FALL AGAIN?

By Jeffrey Frieden

CFG Commentary

See also:

CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: GLOBALIZATION’S FUTURE LOCOMOTIVE

https://cambridgeforecast.wordpress.com/2009/01/18/cambridge-forecast-group-globalizations-future/

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BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS BIS REVIEW NO. 27: THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

March 11, 2009 at 4:04 am | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research, Third World, World-system | Leave a comment

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BIS Review

Bank for International Settlements

BIS Review No 27 available‏

Press, Service (Press.Service@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Tue 3/10/09

Please find BIS Review No 27 attached as an Adobe Acrobat (PDF) file.

Alternatively, you can access this BIS Review on the Bank for International Settlements’ website by clicking on http://www.bis.org/review/index.htm.

What’s included?

BIS Review No 27 (10 March 2009)

Nout Wellink: Crisis intervention and policies – effectiveness and the need for coordinated action

Marion Williams: The global financial crisis – can we withstand the shock

Njuguna Ndung’u: Kenya’s Ksh.18.5 billion infrastructure bond

Pierre Duguay: Bank of Canada’s perspective on the stability of the Canadian financial system

Lorenzo Bini Smaghi: Three questions on monetary policy easing

please e-mail press.service@bis.org.

BIS Review

Bank for International Settlements

BIS Review No 27 available

Press, Service (Press.Service@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

http://www.bis.org/review/index.htm

Tue 3/10/09

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PAKISTAN AND DANIYAL MUEENUDDIN’S BOOK “IN OTHER ROOMS OTHER WONDERS”

March 11, 2009 at 3:26 am | Posted in Asia, Books, Economics, Financial, History, Islam, Literary, Third World | Leave a comment

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Daniyal Mueenuddin, the Pakistan-based author of the current book In Other Rooms, Other Wonders, mentions various aspects of Pakistani life such as “qabzi” land grab mafias, “qom” or lineages, and the “Arian” caste (also Aryian).

In Other Rooms, Other Wonders

by Daniyal Mueenuddin (Author)

Editorial Reviews

From The Washington Post

Because of Salman Rushdie, Arundhati Roy and Rohinton Mistry, to mention just a few of the most prominent authors, American readers have long been able to enjoy one terrific Indian novel after another. But Daniyal Mueenuddin’s In Other Rooms, Other Wonders is likely to be the first widely read book by a Pakistani writer. Mueenuddin spent his early childhood in Pakistan, then lived in the United States — he attended Dartmouth and Yale — and has since returned to his father’s homeland, where he and his wife now manage a farm in Khanpur. These connected stories show us what life is like for both the rich and the desperately poor in Mueenuddin’s country, and the result is a kind of miniaturized Pakistani “human comedy.” In the original Comédie humaine, Balzac had the ingenious notion of tying his various novels together by using recurrent characters. Eugène de Rastignac is the protagonist of Le Père Goriot but is subsequently glimpsed in passing or sometimes just referred to in several other books. In like fashion, Mueenuddin interlaces eight stories, while also linking them to the household of a wealthy and self-satisfied landowner named K.K. Harouni. In “Saleema,” for instance, Harouni’s elderly valet, Rafik, falls into a heartbreaking affair with a young maidservant, and we remember this, with a catch in our throat, when in another story we see him bring in two glasses of whiskey on a silver tray. In “Our Lady of Paris,” we discover that Harouni’s nephew is madly in love with a young American woman named Helen; later on, we discover that he is married — to an American named Sonya. Many of Mueenuddin’s stories conform to a common dynamic: We learn about a character’s past, then zero in on the central crisis of his or her life and, even while we expect more development, suddenly find everything wound up in a paragraph or two: “The next day two men loaded the trunks onto a horse-drawn cart and carried them away to the Old City.” (Flaubert or Chekhov might have written that.) In other instances, even so minimal a resolution remains cloudy: Mueenuddin just stops, having given us all that we need to know about the future or lack of future in a love affair or a marriage. The epigraph to In Other Rooms, Other Wonders is a Punjabi proverb: “Three things for which we kill — Land, women and gold.” Throughout the book the Harounis are gradually selling off their ancestral lands to pay for business losses and a Eurotrash lifestyle. (Two of the patriarch’s three daughters reside in Paris and London.) Nearly everyone in the book is more or less corrupt. In “Provide, Provide” we learn of the machinations of Jaglani, the manager of K.K. Harouni’s estates in the Southern Punjab. When Jaglani “would receive a brief telegram, NEED FIFTY THOUSAND IMMEDIATELY,” he would “sell the land at half price, the choice pieces to himself, putting it in the names of his servants and relatives. He sold to the other managers, to his friends, to political allies. Everyone got a piece of the quick dispersion. He took a commission on each sale.” But even the immensely shrewd and politically powerful Jaglani has his weakness. He begins to sleep with his driver’s sister, a young woman he employs to cook and clean for him: “Finally he could not deny to himself that he had fallen in love, for the first time in his life. He even acknowledged her aloof coldness, the possibility that she would mar his life. And yet he felt that he had risen so far, had become invulnerable to the judgments of those around him, had become preeminent in this area by the river Indus, and now he deserved to make this mistake, for once not to make a calculated choice, but to surrender to his desire.” In Mueenuddin’s Pakistan, happiness is usually short-lived. Jaglani’s beloved develops a urinary-tract infection, then discovers she cannot bear children. A man finally achieves success, only to be diagnosed with cancer. When a party girl resolves to change her life, she discovers how hard it is to be virtuous. On every page there are wonderful, surprising observations and details: A judge says of his wife that “you need only see her disjoint a roast chicken to know the depths or heights of her carnality.” The rich young Sohail Harouni suddenly recites from memory some poetry by James Merrill. An old caretaker builds a wooden cubicle that can be dismantled and simply carted away whenever he needs to move. In every instance, Mueenuddin convincingly captures the mindset or speech of any class, from the hardworking Nawab, a roustabout electrician with 11 daughters, to the flamboyantly decadent Mino, who imports tons of sand to his country estate for a “Night of the Tsunami” party. But my favorite character is the mysterious judicial clerk Mian Sarkar: “There is nothing connected with the courts of Lahore that he has not absorbed, for knowledge in this degree of detail can only be obtained by osmosis. Everything about the private lives of the judges, and of the staff, down to the lowest sweeper, is to him incidental knowledge. He knows the verdicts of the cases before they have been written, before they even have been conceived. He sees the city panoptically, simultaneously, and if he does not disclose the method and the motive and the culprit responsible for each crime, it is only because he is more powerful if he does not do so.” Mian Sarkar — half Sherlock Holmes, half Jeeves — actually functions as a detective in “About a Burning Girl,” and the result is the most light-hearted of Mueenuddin’s stories. I was only sorry that he didn’t include more about this “man of secret powers.” Maybe he will in his next book. As should be clear, In Other Rooms, Other Wonders is a collection full of pleasures. I saw only a single improbability in it: At one point, a gorgeous young wife grows dissatisfied with her hard-working and high-minded husband’s routine love-making. So she dons a pair of stockings and a garter belt and, otherwise naked, lies fetchingly in their candle-lit bedroom. The husband comes in, glances at her and says, “So that’s how you wear those!” and then begins to trim a broken fingernail and talk about a problem on the farm. Not even a Princeton graduate, which he is, could be quite such a moron. .

Review

A stunning achievement….Such is its the page. —Mohsin Hamid, author of The Reluctant Fundamentalist

Daniyal Mueenuddin takes us into a sumptuously created world, peopled with characters who are both irresistible and compellingly human. His stories unfold with the authenticity and resolute momentum of timeless classics. —Manil Suri

Under Daniyal Mueenuddin’s gaze, Pakistan is lit up as though by a lightning flash, clear, sharp-edged. This is a debut as auspicious as something arresting, beautiful, or wise (as opposed to clever) on every single page. I can remarkable, I admire it so deeply. –Nadeem Aslam

Under Daniyal Mueenuddin’s gaze, Pakistan is lit up as though by a lightning flash, clear, sharp-edged. This is a debut as auspicious as something arresting, beautiful, or wise (as opposed to clever) on every single page. I can remarkable, I admire it so deeply. –Nadeem Aslam

Product Details:

  • Hardcover: 256 pages

  • Publisher: W.W. Norton & Co.; 1 edition

  • February 1, 2009

  • Language: English

  • ISBN-10: 0393068005

  • ISBN-13: 978-0393068009

Arain

The Arain, are an agricultural[1] caste[2] settled mainly in the Punjab[3][4] (India andPakistan), with significant numbers also in the Sindh[5] (Pakistan). They are chiefly associated with farming,[6][7] traditionally being small landowners or zamindars.[8][9]

Origin

Arains are arguably descendants of Arab invaders to the sub-continent, though some people believe that the Arains are native to the northern areas of the Sub-Continent. They purport to have come from Areeha (Jericho, Syria) which is now in Palestine. Reference to their linage is made by Akbar Shah Khan Najeebabadi who declared that they entered India through Debal, Sindh with Muhammad Bin Qasim. He declared that they are Areehai Ummayad Arabs from Areha which was a Punjabized nasal sound to Arain and the claim Arab descent[10] is doubtless based upon the demographic that nearly all Arains are Muslims, and of these, almost all have been Sunni Muslim, as were the early Arabs of Muhammad bin Qasim‘s expedition.[11]

In the Punjab Census Report (1911), Harikishan Kaul points out that members of the Arain tribe are “mostly Muhammadans,” (as opposed to the tribe being entirely made up of Muslims), and as a corollary, reference is also made to Hindu and Sikh sections of the tribe. In the Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province, Denzil Ibbetson refers to the Arains as, “Almost to a man Muhammadans.”

Kaul also states that the term ‘Arain’ is, “derived probably from Rain or Rahin, equivalent to Rahak (tiller of soil).” This is consistent with the Arains traditionally being chiefly associated with market-gardening. As Alison Shaw states in Kinship and Continuity, “Jats and Rajputs from Jhelum consider that the Arain are a service caste, ranked ‘lower’ than the zamindars and refer to the Arain by the term Maliar, which is apparently used in Jhelum to refer to people who traditionally grow vegetables around wells.”

The Arain during the British Raj

The Arain land holders should not be confused with the more gentrified zamindars such as the feudal Rajput landlords of vast holdings. Polo, partridge shoots and tea parties were therefore not associated attributes. Neither were the more negative and profligate practises such as “…dancing girls, drunken evenings listening to poetry, or numerous marriages..”.[12] When the British wanted land developed in the Punjab after its annexation, Arain were brought in to cultivate lands around the cities, forming irrigated colonies.[13] The Arain were so favoured for their “hard work, frugality and sense of discipline”.[14] Subsequent development of towns and cities and increasing urbanisation resulted in the value of the land settled by Arain to rise significantly, and Arain families thus flourished.[15] Education was prioritised with the new found wealth[16] and the Arain came to dominate the legal profession amongst urban Punjabi Muslims. Many used law to enter politics.[17]

The Arain were classified as a “non-martial race” by the British,[18] a classification deemed arbitrary and based on prejudices prevalent at the time (see martial race).

Prominent Arain

General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, the sixth President of Pakistan (and Chief of Staff of the Pakistani Army) was an Arain from Jalandhar.[19]

Mian Sir Muhammad Shah Nawaz, an influential politician of the Punjab in the 1920s.[20]

Mian Iftikharuddin,[21] a politician,[22] landlord and founder of the Imroze and Pakistan Times newspapers (later to be nationalized by the Ayub government). He was to play an important role in turning the Muslim community of urban Punjab towards favouring an independent Pakistan.[23]

References

  1. “…but also among the so-called agriculturist castes, so designated by the British… …Chauhan, Arain, Gaud…”, An Alternative to the “Sati” Model: Perceptions of a Social Reality in Folklore, Prem Chowdhry, pp. 259-274, Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 49, No. 2, 1990, http://www.jstor.org/view/03852342/ap040052/04a00070/0.

  2. “Behind them an angry farmer brandished a bamboo pole. He was a market-gardener, Arain by caste, growing vegetables and flowers for Umballa city, and well Kim knew the breed.”, Kim, Rudyard Kipling.

  3. “…communities: 1. Acharaj. 2. Ad-Dharmi. 3. Aheri. 4. Ahir. 5. Ahluwalia. 6. Arain. 7. Arora. 8. Bahurupia…”, “The land of the five rivers was known as panchanad in the ancient period, and as Punjab in the medieval period.”, People of India: Punjab: Volume XXXVII, edited I J S. Bansal and Swaran Singh, New Delhi, ISBN 81-7304-123-7, https://www.vedamsbooks.com/no34962.htm.

  4. http://ncbc.nic.in/backward-classes/punjab.html

  5. See Arain population distribution on http://www.joshuaproject.net/index.php.

  6. “The Arain were small peasant-proprietors…”, Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988, Shahid Javed Burki.

  7. Behind them an angry farmer brandished a bamboo pole. He was a market-gardener, Arain by caste, growing vegetables and flowers for Umballa city, and well Kim knew the breed.” (Kim, Rudyard Kipling).

  8. “…from other zamindar (landowning) categories: Arain (5), Jat (2), Gujar (2), …”, Kinship, cultural preference and immigration: consanguineous marriage among British Pakistanis, Alison Shaw, Brunel University (http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1111/1467-9655.00065).

  9. “The Arain were small peasant-proprietors…”, Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988, Shahid Javed Burki (http://www.jstor.org/view/00044687/di014466/01p0206e/2?frame=noframe&userID=a301f288@ox.ac.uk/01cce4405f00501b38b9c&dpi=3&config=jstor).

  10. “Additionally, the Arain group, to which I belong, claims Arab extraction.”, There is many a slip betwixt cup and lip, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Daily Times, Pakistan, 18/04/2006 (http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006%5C04%5C18%5Cstory_18-4-2006_pg3_2).

  11. “. One of the arguments in favour of this claim is that Arains are nearly always Muslims and almost entirely Sunnis as were the early Arabs who came with Muhammad bin Qasim.”, There is many a slip betwixt cup and lip, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Daily Times, Pakistan, 18/04/2006.

  12. Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988, Shahid Javed Burki.

  13. “When the British opened new lands in Punjab, they brought in the Arains to cultivate…”, Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988, Shahid Javed Burki.

  14. Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988, Shahid Javed Burki.

  15. Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988, Shahid Javed Burki.

  16. “…the Arain families put their money into education and reaped quick rewards.”, Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988, Shahid Javed Burki.

  17. “Soon they came to dominate the legal profession… …and… …spring into politics.”, Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988, Shahid Javed Burki.

  18. “The army was an unusual career for an Arain youngster; the British had not regarded the community as one of India’s “martial races”…”, Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988, Shahid Javed Burki.

  19. Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988, Shahid Javed Burki.

  20. “Mian Sir Muhammad Shah Nawaz, a prominent and influential politician of Punjab in the 1920s, was an Arain as was Mian Iftikharuddin…”, Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988, Shahid Javed Burki (http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&docId=98917428)

  21. “Mian Sir Muhammad Shah Nawaz, a prominent and influential politician of Punjab in the 1920s, was an Arain as was Mian Iftikharuddin…”, Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988, Shahid Javed Burki.

  22. http://www.chowk.com/show_article.cgi?aid=00003445&channel=civic%20center&start=0&end=9&chapter=1&page=1

  23. “…who was to play an…”, Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988, Shahid Javed Burki.

Bibliography

  • Punjab Census Report, 1911, Pandit Harikishan Kaul

  • A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, H. A. Rose

  • Kinship and Continuity: Pakistani Families in Britain, Alison Shaw

qom (ranked lineage)

land grabber or Qabzi group

The Arain land holders

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SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYMENT

March 11, 2009 at 12:28 am | Posted in Development, Earth, Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research | Leave a comment

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SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT

COULD NET 10 MILLION NEW JOBS

UN AGENCY SAYS

on behalf of UNNews (UNNews@un.org)

Tue 3/10/09

New York, Mar 10 2009

SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT COULD NET 10 MILLION NEW JOBS UN AGENCY SAYS‏

Ten million new “green jobs” can be created by national investments in sustainable forest management, the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (“http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/10442/icode/“FAO) said today.

“As more jobs are lost due to the current economic downturn, sustainable forest management could become a means of creating millions of green jobs, thus helping to reduce poverty and improve the environment,” said Jan Heino, Assistant Director-General of FAO’s Forestry Department.

Since forests and trees are vital storehouses of carbon, such an investment would also make a major contribution to climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts, he said.

Jobs in forest management include agro-forestry and farm forestry, improved fire management, development and management of trails and recreation sites, expansion of urban green spaces, restoring degraded forests and planting new ones.

A number of countries, including the United States and the Republic of Korea, have included forestry in their economic stimulus plans, and it is an important component of India’s rural employment guarantee programme, FAO said.

Employment in sustainable forest management will be a major topic of World Forest Week, to be held in conjunction with FAO’s Committee on Forestry, 16 to 20 March in Rome.

Mar 10 2009

For more details go to UN News Centre at http://www.un.org/news

SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT COULD NET 10 MILLION NEW JOBS UN AGENCY SAYS

on behalf of UNNews (UNNews@un.org)

UN News Centre

http://www.un.org/news

Tue 3/10/09

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