SIMON DUBNOW: JEWISH HISTORY BOOKS

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History of the Jews in Russia and Poland

by Simon Dubnow

born Sept. 10, 1860, Mstislavl, Russia —

died December 1941, Riga, Latvia, U.S.S.R.

Russian Jewish historian.

September 10, 1860December 8, 1941

Largely self-educated, he gained notice as a scholar of Jewish history before the Bolshevik Revolution prompted him to leave his native Russia for Germany in 1922. He emphasized the cultural autonomy of the Jewish people throughout history, rejecting assimilation but also opposing Zionism as unrealistic. His best-known works were History of the Jews (10 vol., 1925 – 30) and History of Hasidism (1931). He fled Nazi Germany in 1933 for Riga, Latvia, where he was eventually killed by the Germans.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland

One of the great histories of the Jews of Eastern Europe is Simon Dubnow’s History of the Jews in Russia and Poland. This three-volume work, which was published in 1918, has been republished as a single 600-page volume.

Dubnow was considered to be one of the greatest Jewish historians of the 20th century, and History of the Jews in Russia and Poland was one of his most important works. It details the history of the Jews of Eastern Europe from their earliest presence in Greek times to about 1910. Discussed are the Khazars, the Crusades, the rise of Polish Jewry under the early kings of Poland, the Cossack rebellion of 1648, the rise of Hasidism, the false Messiahs, the creation of the Pale of Settlement, and Jewish life under the laws created by the czars, and the pogroms of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Contents

CHAPTER I: THE JEWISH DIASPORA IN EASTERN EUROPE

1. The Jewish Settlements on the Shores of the Black Sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2. The Kingdom of the Khazars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

3. The Jews in the Early Russian Principalities and in the Tataric Khanate of the Crimea . . . . . . . 9

CHAPTER II: THE JEWISH COLONIES IN POLAND AND LITHUANIA

1. The Immigration from Western Europe During the Period of the Crusades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2. The Charter of Prince Boleslav and the Canons of the Church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

3. Rise of Polish Jewry Under Casimir The Great . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4. Polish Jewry during the Reign of Yaghello. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

5. The Jews of Lithuania during the Reign of Vitovt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

6. The Conflict between Royalty and Clergy Under Casimir IV. and His Sons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

CHAPTER III: THE AUTONOMOUS CENTER IN POLAND AT ITS ZENITH (1501-1648)

1. Social and Economic Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

2. The Liberal Regime of Sigismund I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3. Liberalism and Reaction in the Reigns of Sigismund Augustus and Stephen Batory . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4. Shlakhta and Royalty in the Reigns of Sigismund III and Vladislav IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

CHAPTER IV: THE INNER LIFE OF POLISH JEWRY AT ITS ZENITH

1. Kahal Autonomy and the Jewish Diets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

2. The Instruction of the Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

3. The High-Water Mark of Rabbinic Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4. Secular Sciences, Philosophy, Cabala, and Apologetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

CHAPTER V: THE AUTONOMOUS CENTER IN POLAND DURING ITS DECLINE (1648-1772)

1. Economic and National Antagonism in the Ukraina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

2. The Pogroms and Massacres of 1648-1649 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

3. The Russian and Swedish Invasions (1654-1658). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

4. The Restoration (1658-1697). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

5. Social and Political Dissolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

6. A Frenzy of Blood Accusations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

7. The Massacre of Uman and the First Partition of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

CHAPTER VI: THE INNER LIFE OF POLISH JEWRY DURING THE PERIOD OF DECLINE

1. Jewish Self-Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

2. Rabbinical and Mystical Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

3. The Sabbatian Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

4. The Frankist Sect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

5. The Rise of Hasidism and Israel Baal-Shem-Tob. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

6. The Hasidic Propaganda and the Growth of Tzaddikism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

7. Rabbinism, Hasidism, and the Forerunners of Enlightenment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

CHAPTER VII: THE RUSSIAN QUARANTINE AGAINST JEWS (TILL 1772)

1. The Anti-Jewish Attitude of Muscovy During the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. . . . . .. . . . 117

2. The Jews under Peter I and His Successors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

3. Elizabeth Petrovna and the First Years of Catherine II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

CHAPTER VIII: POLISH JEWRY DURING THE PERIOD OF THE PARTITIONS
1. The Jews of Poland after the First Partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
2. The Period of the Quadrennial Diet (1788-1791) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
3. The Last Two Partitions and Berek Yoselovich . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4. The Duchy of Warsaw and the Reaction under Napoleon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

CHAPTER IX: THE BEGINNINGS OF THE RUSSIAN REGIME
1. The Jewish Policy of Catherine II (1772-1796). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
2. Jewish Legislative Schemes during the Reign of Paul I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
3. Dyerzhavin’s “Opinion” on the Jewish Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

CHAPTER X: THE “ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM” OF ALEXANDER I
1. “The Committee for the Amelioration of the Jews.”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
2. The “Jewish Constitution” of 1804. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
3. The Projected Expulsion from the Villages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
4. The Patriotic Attitude of Russian Jewry during the War of 1812 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
5. Economic and Agricultural Experiments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

CHAPTER XI: THE INNER LIFE OF RUSSIAN JEWRY DURING THE PERIOD OF “ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM”
1. Kahal Autonomy and City Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
2. The Hasidic Schism and the Intervention of the Government. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
3. Rabbinism, Hasidism, and Enlightened “Berlinerdom” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

CHAPTER XII: THE LAST YEARS OF ALEXANDER I
1. “The Deputation of the Jewish People”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
2. Christianizing Endeavors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
3. “Judaizing” Sects in Russia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
4. Recrudescence of Anti-Jewish Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
5. The Russian Revolutionaries and the Jews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

TRANSLATOR’S PREFACE-VOLUME II

CHAPTER XIII: THE MILITARY DESPOTISM OF NICHOLAS I
1. Military Service as a Means of De-Judaization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
2. The Recruiting Ukase of 1827 and Juvenile Conscription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
3. Military Martyrdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
4. The Policy of Expulsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
5. The Codification of Jewish Disabilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
6. The Russian Censorship and Conversionist Endeavors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

CHAPTER XIV: COMPULSORY ENLIGHTENMENT AND INCREASED OPPRESSION
1. Enlightenment as a Means of Assimilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
2. Uvarov and Lilienthal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
3. The Abolition of Jewish Autonomy and Renewed Persecutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
4. Intercession of Western European Jewry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
5. The Economic Plight of Russian Jewry and Agricultural Experiments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
6. The Ritual Murder Trial of Velizh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
7. The Mstislavl Affair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

CHAPTER XV: THE JEWS IN THE KINGDOM OF POLAND
1. Plans of Jewish Emancipation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
2. Political Reaction And Literary Anti-Semitism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
3. Assimilationist Tendencies Among the Jews of Poland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
4. The Jews and the Polish Insurrection Of 1831 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

CHAPTER XVI: THE INNER LIFE OF RUSSIAN JEWRY DURING THE PERIOD OF MILITARY DESPOTISM
1. The Uncompromising Attitude of Rabbinism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
2. The Stagnation of Hasidism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
3. The Russian Mendelssohn (Isaac Baer Levinsohn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
4. The Rise of Neo-Hebraic Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
5. The Jews and the Russian People. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

CHAPTER XVII: THE LAST YEARS OF NICHOLAS I
1. The “Assortment” of the Jews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
2. Compulsory Assimilation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
3. New Conscription Horrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
4. The Ritual Murder Trial of Saratov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

CHAPTER XVIII: THE ERA OF REFORMS UNDER ALEXANDER II
1. The Abolition of Juvenile Conscription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
2. “Hom”opathic” Emancipation and the Policy of “Fusion”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
3. The Extension of the Right of Residence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
4. Further Alleviations and Attempts at Russification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
5. The Jews and the Polish Insurrection of 1863 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

CHAPTER XIX: THE REACTION UNDER ALEXANDER II
1. Change of Attitude Toward the Jewish Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
2. The Informer Jacob Brafman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
3. The Fight Against Jewish “Separatism”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
4. The Drift Toward Oppression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

CHAPTER XX: THE INNER LIFE OF RUSSIAN JEWRY DURING THE REIGN OF ALEXANDER II
1. The Russification of the Jewish Intelligenzia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
2. The Society for the Diffusion of Enlightenment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
3. The Jewish Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
4. The Jews and the Revolutionary Movement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
5. The Neo-Hebraic Renaissance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
6. The Harbinger of Jewish Nationalism (Perez Smolenskin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
7. Jewish Literature in the Russian Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

CHAPTER XXI: THE ACCESSION OF ALEXANDER III AND THE INAUGURATION OF POGROMS
1. The Triumph of Autocracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
2. The Initiation of the Pogrom Policy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
3. The Pogrom at Kiev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
4. Further Outbreaks in South Russia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

CHAPTER XXII: THE ANTI-JEWISH POLICIES OF IGNATYEV
1. The Vacillating Attitude of the Authorities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
2. The Pogrom Panic and the Beginning of the Exodus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
3. The Gubernatorial Commissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
4. The Spread of Anti-Semitism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
5. The Pogrom at Warsaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

CHAPTER XXIII: NEW MEASURES OF OPPRESSION AND PUBLIC PRO- TESTS
1. The Despair of Russian Jewry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
2. The Voice of England and America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
3. The Problem of Emigration and the Pogrom at Balta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
4. The Conference of Jewish Notables at St. Petersburg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

CHAPTER XXIV: LEGISLATIVE POGROMS
1. The “Temporary Rules” of May 3, 1882 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
2. Abandonment of the Pogrom Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
3. Disabilities and Emigration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

CHAPTER XXV: INNER UPHEAVALS
1. Disillusionment of the Intelligenzia and the National Revival. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
2. Pinsker’s “Autoemancipation” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
3. Miscarried Religious Reforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

CHAPTER XXVI: INCREASED JEWISH DISABILITIES
1. The Pahlen Commission and New Schemes of Oppression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
2. Jewish Disabilities Outside the Pale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
3. Restrictions in Education and in the Legal Profession. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
4. Discrimination in Military Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

CHAPTER XXVII: RUSSIAN REACTION AND JEWISH EMIGRATION
1. Aftermath of the Pogrom Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
2. The Conclusions of the Pahlen Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
3. The Triumph of Reaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
4. American and Palestinian Emigration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

CHAPTER XXVIII: JUDAEOPHOBIA TRIUMPHANT
1. Intensified Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
2. Continued Harassing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
3. The Guildhall Meeting in London. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
4. The Protest of America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402

CHAPTER XXIX: THE EXPULSION FROM MOSCOW
1. Preparing the Blow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
2. The Horrors of Expulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
3. Effect of Protests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
4. Pogrom Interludes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411

CHAPTER XXX: BARON HIRSCH’S EMIGRATION SCHEME AND UNRELIEVED SUFFERING
1. Negotiations with the Russian Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
2. The Jewish Colonization Association and Collapse of the Argentinian Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
3. Continued Humiliations and Death of Alexander III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417

CHAPTER XXXI: THE ACCESSION OF NICHOLAS II
1. Continued Policy of Oppression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
2. The Martyrdom of the Moscow Community. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
3. Restrictions in the Right of Residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
4. The Economic Collapse of Russian Jewry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
5. Professional and Educational Restrictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
6. Anti-Semitic Propaganda and Pogroms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

CHAPTER XXXII: THE NATIONAL AWAKENING
1. The Rise of Political Zionism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
2. Spiritual Zionism, or Ahad-Ha’amism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
3. Spiritual Nationalism, or National-Cultural Autonomism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
4. The Jewish Socialistic Movement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
5. The Revival of Jewish Letters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

CHAPTER XXXIII: THE KISHINEV MASSACRE
1. Pogroms as a Counter-Revolutionary Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
2. The Organized Kishinev Butchery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
4. Doctor Herzl’s Visit to Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457

CHAPTER XXXIV: CONTINUED POGROMS AND THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR
1. The Pogrom at Homel and the Jewish Self-Defence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
2. The Kishinev Massacre at the Bar of Russian Justice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
3. The Jews in the Russo-Japanese War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
4. The “Political Spring” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
5. The Homel Pogrom before the Russian Courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466

CHAPTER XXXV: THE REVOLUTION OF 1905 AND THE FIGHT FOR EMANCIPATION
1. The Jews in the Revolutionary Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
2. The Struggle for Equal Rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
3. The “Black Hundred” and the “Patriotic” Pogroms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
4. The Jewish Franchise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476

CHAPTER XXXVI: THE COUNTER-REVOLUTION AND THE OCTOBER MASSACRES
1. The Fiendish Designs of the “Black Hundred”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
2. The Russian St. Bartholomew Night. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
3. The Undaunted Struggle for Equal Rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
4. The Jewish Question before the First Duma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
5. The Spread of Anarchy and the Second Duma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485

CHAPTER XXXVII: EXTERNAL OPPRESSION AND INTERNAL CONSOLIDA- TION
1. The New Alignments within Russian Jewry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
2. The Triumph of the “Black Hundred” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
3. The Third, or Black, Duma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
4. New Jewish Disabilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
5. The Spiritual Revival of Russian Jewry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495

RUSSIAN JEWRY SINCE 1911 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500

INDEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Simon Dubnow

Simon Dubnow (alternatively spelled Dubnov, September 10, 1860December 8, 1941) was a Jewish historian, writer and activist.

Born Shimon Meyerovich Dubnow to a large poor family in the Belarusian town of Mstislavl (Mahilyow region), after receiving a traditional Jewish education in a heder and a yeshiva, he entered into a kazyonnoe yevreyskoe uchilishche (state Jewish school) where he learned the Russian language. Dubnow was unable to graduate because these institutions were soon eliminated by a Tsarist ukase (see May Laws), and he had to pursue his interests in history, philosophy, and linguistics by educating himself. He was particularly fascinated by Heinrich Graetz and the Wissenschaft des Judentums movement.

In 1880 he used forged documents to move to St Petersburg, which was officially out of reach: a rare exception to the obligation to settle in the small town in the Pale of Settlement was made only to those who were discharged from the military, ‘cantonists‘, doctors, dentists, university graduates and the merchants belonging to the two upper guilds.

Soon Dubnow’s publications appeared in the press, including the leading Russian–Jewish magazine Voskhod. In 1890, during the expulsion of Jews from the capital city, Dubnow was forced to leave. He settled in Odessa and continued to publish studies of Jewish life and history, coming to be regarded as an authority in these areas.

Dubnow actively participated in contemporary social and political life in the Russian Empire. He called for modernizing Jewish education, organizing Jewish self-defense and for equal rights, including the right to vote.

In 1906 he was allowed back to St Petersburg, where he founded and directed the Jewish Literature and Historical-Ethnographic Society and edited the Jewish Encyclopedia. In the same year, he founded the Folkspartei (Jewish People’s Party), which successfully worked for the election of MPs and municipal councillors in interwar Lithuania and Poland. After 1917 Dubnow became Professor of Jewish history in Petrograd University.

In 1922 he emigrated to Kaunas (Kovno) and later to Berlin. His magnum opus was the ten volume History of the Jewish People, first published in German in 1925-1929.

Simon Dubnow

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