PALE OF SETTLEMENT: JEWISH HISTORY

March 21, 2008 at 3:33 am | Posted in History, Judaica, Middle East, Palestine, Russia | Leave a comment

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Pale of Settlement

Czar Cathrine II (“The Great”) established the Pale of Settlement in 1791 as a territory for Russian Jews to live. Created under pressure to rid Moscow of Jewish business competition and “evil” influence on the Russian masses, the Pale of Settlement included the territory of present-day Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine and Belorussia. More than 90% of Russian Jews were forced to live in the poor conditions of the Pale, which made up only 4% of imperial Russia. Still, the Jewish population in Russia grew from 1.6 million in 1820 to 5.6 million in 1910. Even within the Pale, Jews were discriminated against; they paid double taxes, were forbidden to lease land, run taverns or receive higher education.

A liberalization period in the 1860s, which granted Jews some privileges was reversed under the May Laws of 1882. These laws restricted Jews in the Pale to urban areas, which were often overcrowded and offered limited economic opportunities. In addition thousands of Jews fell victim to devastating pogroms in the 1870s and 1880s. The pogroms, boycotts and other anti-Semitic depredations Jews faced in the Pale led to mass immigration to the United States (two million between 1881 and 1914) as well as a string of other developments, such as the controversial Haskalah movement, which sought to modernize Jewish culture. Zionism also took hold in the Pale. Only after the overthrow of the Czarist regime in 1917 was the Pale of Settlement abolished.

Sources: The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia, The Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia, The Jewish World. 

Map from The Routledge Atlas of Jewish History Ed. 7 by Martin Gilbert. ISBN: 9780415399661.

The tribulations of Jewish life in the Pale of Settlement were immortalized in the writings of Yiddish authors such as humorist Sholom Aleichem, whose stories of Tevye der Milchiger (Tevye the Milkman) in the fictional shtetl of Anatevka form the basis of Fiddler on the Roof. Because of the harsh conditions of day-to-day life in the Pale, some 2 million Jews emigrated from there between 1881 and 1914, mainly to the United States. However, this exodus did not affect the stability of the Jewish population of the Pale, which remained at 5 million people due to the high birthrate.

During World War I, the Pale lost its rigid hold on the Jewish population when large numbers of Jews fled into the Russian interior to escape the invading German army. On March 20 (April 2), 1917, the Pale was abolished by the Provisional Government decree, On abolition of confessional and national restrictions A large portion of the Pale, together with its Jewish population, became part of Poland. The Bolshevik Revolution and the wars of 1918-1920 also resulted in many pogroms and military excesses—over 1,236 of them in the Ukraine alone during which, conservatively, 31,000 Jews were killed (Abramson, Henry).

The concentration of Jews in the Pale made them an easy target for pogroms and massive (and often government-sponsored), anti-Jewish riots. These, along with the repressive May Laws, often devastated whole communities. Though pogroms were staged throughout the existence of the Pale, particularly devastating attacks occurred from 18811883 and from 19031906, targeting hundreds of communities, killing thousands of Jews, and causing tens of thousands of rubles in property damage.

Pale of Settlement

CHINA MALAYSIA SOUTH KOREA: DRESDNER REGIONAL FOCUS

March 21, 2008 at 12:18 am | Posted in Asia, China, Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research | Leave a comment

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Newsletter Dresdner Bank

“Economy & Markets”

Economic research (makro@dresdner-bank.com)

Thu 3/20/08

HIGHLIGHTS

This month’s “Regional Focus” takes a look at Asia, highlighting China, Malaysia and South Korea. In 2007 China notched up growth of 11.4 %, the highest since 1994.

In China, as well as in Malaysia and South Korea, private consumption is playing an increasingly important role, whereas exports will fade as a driver of growth in 2008.

Our “Special Focus” examines China’s long-term economic outlook. Economic momentum will gradually taper off in the next 14 years, nonetheless by 2022 China will become the third largest economic region in the world, almost pulling level with the euro area. This development will be accompanied by a host of structural changes.

And, of course, you will also find our regular reports on the USA, the euro area, Germany and Japan.

Enjoy!

The following Working Papers have also been released recently:

March 4, 2008

European Growth and Jobs Monitor: Indicators for Success in the Knowledge Economy

February 29, 2008

Enhancing an economy’s innovative strength – a crusade on several fronts

The Working Papers can be downloaded from the internet at:

www.group-economics.allianz.com

under Publications

Economic research (makro@dresdner-bank.com)

DOWNLOAD

You can find the publication under

http://www.dresdner-bank.com/economy-and-markets

Overview and download of all publications in 2008

http://www.dresdner-bank.com/economy-and-markets

Economic research (makro@dresdner-bank.com)

Contact

Michael Machauer

Dresdner Bank AG

Economics

Jürgen-Ponto-Platz 1

60301 Frankfurt am Main

Phone: + 49 69 263-7079

Fax: + 49 69 263-3725

E-Mail: Makro@Dresdner-Bank.com

Newsletter Dresdner Bank “Economy & Markets”

Economic research (makro@dresdner-bank.com)

Thu 3/20/08


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