ZIONISM NEWS

February 12, 2008 at 10:10 pm | Posted in Globalization, Israel, Judaica, Middle East, Palestine, USA, Zionism | Leave a comment

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ZOA Announces Opening of New

Jerusalem/Israel Office

Zionist Organization of America (ZOA)

Tue 2/12/08

NEWS RELEASE

Zionist Organization of America Jacob & Libby Goodman ZOA House

4 East 34th Street, New York, N.Y. 10016

(212) 481-1500 Fax: (212) 481-1515 email@zoa.org www.zoa.org

February 11, 2008

Contact: Morton A. Klein – 917-974-8795; Jeff Daube – 011-972-538-0840

Attn: NEWS EDITOR

Amb. Dore Gold will speak at opening

ZOA ANNOUNCES OPENING OF NEW JERUSALEM/ISRAEL OFFICE

The Zionist Organization of America (ZOA) is pleased to announce the opening of its new Jerusalem office in Israel. On February 24, 2008 at 9AM there will be a press conference at the Begin Center in Jerusalem to formally open the ZOA/Israel office.

We are pleased to announce that Ambassador Dore Gold, former Israeli ambassador to the United Nations, and President of the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, will be addressing the media and friends at this event. Joining Amb. Gold will be Mr. Morton Klein, President of the ZOA and Mr. Jeff Daube, the new Director of ZOA’s Israel office.

Included among the objectives of the ZOA office are: Develop relationships with members of Knesset, Cabinet Ministers, and media elites to educate them on ZOA’s view of the important issues facing Israel. Promote legislation calling for the development and implementation of educational policy and curricula to strengthen Zionist/Jewish identity. Meet with birthright Israel and other mission visitors to Israel. Meet with US government officials visiting Israel; assist in ZOA meetings with Israeli government officials. Meet with and offer activist training to MASA participants and volunteers in Israel, including college and pre-college students spending a year or semester in Israel. Monitor, report on and combat anti-Israel and anti-Jewish bias on Israeli campuses. Develop programs, projects and materials with Israeli students; engage them in the political process off-campus. Get American expatriates more involved in Israel-US crossover politics (e.g. Jerusalem Birthplace Act). Assist in the development of a robust, vocal, and active Anglo-Israeli nationalist presence. Provide first person reports to ZOA leadership on political/ideological climate and events in Israel through a publication called “The View From Here – ZOA Israel Report”. Build coalitions with like-minded organizations and think tanks. Maintain (pre-existing) database as a resource for US and Israeli interested parties. Track the activities of ISM, hostile NGOs and other like-minded anti-Israel agitators. Develop proactive measures to mitigate their impact. Engage in humanitarian-political projects drawing attention to most pressing needs especially those neglected by government institutions. Address the misinformation and misconceptions among government representatives, on both sides of the Atlantic, one towards the other. Publish letters and essays in the Hebrew and English local outlets. Mr. Jeffrey Daube’s extensive experience on Capitol Hill advocating for pro-Israel legislation over 14 years gives him a unique ability to communicate an accurate sense of Congress to the Israeli people. His noteworthy contributions to the passing of the Jerusalem Birthplace Act (October 2002) and the US-Israel Energy Cooperation Act (December 2007) further demonstrate the efficacy of citizen involvement in the political process, a political advocacy culture which the ZOA would like to see promoted more in Israel. In particular, with well over 200,000 North Americans living in Israel currently, the ZOA plans to help empower this often politically underrepresented group of steadfast Zionists. Daube comments: “In my brief tenure here thus far, I have been gratified by the response of this community to the opening of the ZOA office. Expatriate North Americans desperately want to do their part to support and strengthen Zionism, and are just looking for the appropriate means. ZOA in Israel hopes to offer one such mechanism, working with like-minded organizations wherever possible, to help this group attain a robust and respected nationalist voice.”

The ZOA presence in Israel will also provide opportunities for post-high school, collegiate, and graduate students studying in Israel to increase their appreciation for and pride in the State of Israel, especially in anticipation of their returning to campuses that are often fraught with anti-Israel rhetoric. The already active ZOA presence on these campuses will bolster the impact of awareness-building activities begun in Israel. Daube comes to this position with a wealth of experience in the pro-Israel advocacy world. Besides being very actively engaged with many Zionist organizations, including ZOA, NORPAC (board member), AIPAC, Tehilla (steering committee member), One Israel Fund, Palestinian Media Watch, and Peace for Generations, Daube has also authored various educational materials, including Israel Between The Lines, a weekly newsletter; Dubious Allies: The Arab Media’s War of Words Against America, an exhaustive compilation exposing anti-US sentiment; and many other in-depth reports on Palestinian incitement, Palestinian terrorism, Palestinian abuse of civil and human rights, anti-Semitism in the Egyptian press, Saudi Arabian sponsorship of terrorism, the Hebron Accords, the future of Jerusalem, energy independence, and the Iranian/Russian nuclear threat. In addition, Daube prepared much of the background material for NORPAC’s annual missions to Washington. He has also had numerous letters to the editor published in major Anglo-Jewish and community newspapers. Serving as co-chair for his synagogue’s Israel Emergency Fund, Daube managed the collection and distribution of many hundreds of thousands of dollars, mainly on behalf of victims of terror and their families, IDF soldiers, and paramedical groups, since the Palestinian Arab terror war began in late 2000. He also initiated and coordinated numerous pro-Israel community events in his former home of Riverdale, NY, and plans to use those organizational skills to arrange ZOA activities in Israel, including programs for visiting leaders and missions. Daube, who received a B.A. and two M.A. degrees from Columbia University, including one in Instructional Technology and Computing from its Teachers College, had been an educator for 31 years prior to his aliyah at the end of December. As such, he had made the pervasive destructive messages to children found in Palestinian textbooks and media one of his signature issues; also a major focus of his lectures and seminars delivered to community and university groups throughout the US.

In his new capacity at ZOA, Daube will continue to highlight this phenomenon as a paramount threat to lasting peace in the Middle East. Daube, who has devoted his entire life to the Zionist cause, sees his Israel appointment “as a tremendous opportunity and responsibility” stating, “I am sure that, with the guidance of the National ZOA Office in New York, and the help of numerous committed Zionists both here and in America, the ZOA in Israel can make a difference.” ZOA President Morton A. Klein said, “We are pleased to open our new ZOA office in Jerusalem.

We look forward to giving a stronger voice to a majority of Israelis who are opposed to supporting consideration of any Israeli concessions before there is full Palestinian Arab compliance to their Oslo/Hebron/Wye/RoadMap obligations to end terror, arrest terrorists, confiscate illegal weapons, and end incitement. We will also be fighting to take Jerusalem and the so-called Palestinian refugee issue off the table. ZOA also opposes any discussion of a Palestinian Arab state before there is a total transformation of the Palestinian Arab culture to one that promotes peace and conciliation. We are also pleased to have such a talented and committed individual as Jeff Daube to be our director in Israel. Many Israelis have repeatedly asked us over the years to open a ZOA Office in Israel. I am glad we have now fulfilled that dream.”

ZOA Announces Opening of New

Jerusalem/Israel Office

NEWS RELEASE

Zionist Organization of America Jacob & Libby Goodman ZOA House

4 East 34th Street, New York, N.Y. 10016

Tue 2/12/08

BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS BIS REVIEW NO. 15 2008: EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK

February 12, 2008 at 3:35 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research, Third World | Leave a comment

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BIS Review

Bank for International Settlements

BIS Review No 15 available

Press, Service (Press.Service@bis.org)

Tue 2/12/08

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Please find BIS Review No 15 attached as an Adobe Acrobat (PDF) file.

Alternatively, you can access this BIS Review on the Bank for International Settlements’ website by clicking on http://www.bis.org/review/index.htm.

What’s included?

BIS Review No 15 (12 February 2008)

Christian Noyer: Challenges of financial innovation for the conduct of monetary policy

Jean-Claude Trichet: Interview with Kyodo News, Nikkei, Nippon Hoso Kyokai and Yomiuri Shimbun

European Central Bank: Press conference – introductory statement

Radovan Jelašić: Promoting achievements, inventiveness and commitment in Serbia

Victor Mbewe: Committee of SADC Stock Exchanges

Caleb M Fundanga: How the Bank of Zambia’s policies are impacting Eastern Province developments

Ranee Jayamaha: Governance, risk management and compliance

________________________________

please e-mail press.service@bis.org.

BIS Review

Bank for International Settlements

BIS Review No 15 available

Press, Service (Press.Service@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Tue 2/12/08

BALANCE OF POWER THEORY & SYSTEMS: HISTORICAL ORIGINS

February 12, 2008 at 6:41 am | Posted in Globalization, History, Military, Philosophy | Leave a comment

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TREATY OF UTRECHT 1713

Balance of power in international

relations

The term gained significance after

the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713,where

it was specifically mentioned.

In international relations, a balance of power exists when there is parity or stability between competing forces. As a term in international law for a ‘just equilibrium’ between the members of the family of nations, it expresses the doctrine intended to prevent any one nation from becoming sufficiently strong so as to enable it to enforce its will upon the rest.

“BoP” is a central concept in neorealist theory. Within a balance of power system, a state may choose to engage in either balancing or bandwagoning behavior. In a time of war, the decision to balance or to bandwagon may well determine the survival of the state.

Preserving the balance of power as a conscious goal of foreign policy, though certainly known in the ancient world, resurfaced in post-medieval Europe among the Italian city states in the 15th century. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, was the first ruler to actively pursue such a policy, though historians have generally (and incorrectly) attributed the innovation to the Medici rulers of Florence whose praises were sung by the well-known Florentine writers Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini.

Universalism, which was the dominant direction of European international relations prior to the Peace of Westphalia, gave way to the doctrine of the balance of power. The term gained significance after the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, where it was specifically mentioned.

It was not until the beginning of the 17th century, when the science of international law assumed the discipline of structure, in the hands of Grotius and his successors, that the theory of the balance of power was formulated as a fundamental principle of diplomacy. In accordance with this new discipline, the European states formed a sort of federal community, the fundamental condition of which was the preservation of a ‘balance of power, i.e. such a disposition of things that no one state, or potentate, should be able absolutely to predominate and prescribe laws to the rest. And, since all were equally interested in this settlement, it was held to be the interest, the right, and the duty of every power to interfere, even by force of arms, when any of the conditions of this settlement were infringed upon, or assailed by, any other member of the community.

This ‘balance of power’ principle, once formulated, became an axiom of political science. Fénelon, in his Instructions, impressed the axiom upon the young Louis, duc de Bourgogne. Frederick the Great, in his Anti-Machiavel, proclaimed the ‘balance of power’ principle to the world. In 1806, Friedrich von Gentz re-stated it with admirable clarity, in Fragments on the Balance of Power.

The principle formed the basis of the coalitions against Louis XIV and Napoleon, and the occasion, or the excuse, for most of the wars which Europe experienced between the Peace of Westphalia (1648) and the Congress of Vienna (1814), especially from the British vantage point (including, in part, World War I).

During the greater part of the 19th century, the series of national upheavals which remodelled the map of Europe obscured the balance of power. Yet, it underlay all the efforts of diplomacy to stay, or to direct, the elemental forces let loose by the French Revolution. In the revolution’s aftermath, with the restoration of comparative calm, the principle once more emerged as the operative motive for the various political alliances, of which the ostensible object was the preservation of peace.

Balance of power

Balance of power in international

relations

The European concept of the balance of power, first mentioned in 1701 by Charles Davenant in Essays on the Balance of Power, became a common topic of debate during the war (War of the Spanish Succession) and the conferences that led to signing of the treaties. Boosted by the April 19, 1709 issue of Daniel Defoe’s A Review of the Affairs of France, a periodical which supported the Harley ministry, the concept was a key factor in British negotiations, and was reflected in the final treaties.

This theme would continue to be a significant factor in European politics until the time of the French Revolution (and was to resurface in the nineteenth century).

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), which included Queen Anne’s War in North America, was a major European conflict about the succession to the Spanish throne and the resulting shift in the European balance of power.

The war was fought not only in Europe, but also in North America, where the conflict became known to the English colonists as Queen Anne’s War, and by corsairs and privateers along the Spanish Main. Over the course of the fighting, some 400,000 people were killed.

The war was concluded by the treaties of Utrecht (1713) and Rastatt (1714). As a result, Philip V remained King of Spain but was removed from the French line of succession, thereby averting a union of the two kingdoms. The Austrians gained most of the Spanish territories in Italy and the Netherlands.

As a consequence, France’s hegemony over continental Europe was ended, and the idea of a balance of power became a part of the international order due to its mention in the Treaty of Utrecht.

War of the Spanish Succession:

Date: 1702–1713

Location: Europe and North America

Result: Treaty of Utrecht 1713

Treaty of Rastatt 1714

Balance of power in international relations:

The term gained significance after the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, where it was specifically mentioned.


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