CHANDRA OBSERVATORY

November 5, 2006 at 8:16 pm | Posted in Asia, Globalization, History, Science & Technology | Leave a comment

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Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Indian-American physicist

October 19, 1910August 21, 1995

The Chandra
X-ray Observatory
was launched and deployed by Space
Shuttle Columbia
on July 23, 1999.

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (October 19,
1910, (Lahore, India,
(now Pakistan), – August 21,
1995, Chicago, Illinois, United States) was an IndianAmerican physicist, astrophysicist and mathematician,
known to the world as Chandra, who was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics (shared with William Alfred Fowler).

He was one of the more distinguished of the ten children of CS Iyer who was a senior
Railway official in pre-Independence India, an accomplished Carnatic
music
violinist from the Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu who authored several authentic books on South
Indian musicology. He was posted in Lahore at the time of
Chandra’s birth. Chandrasekhar was the nephew of Nobel-prize winning physicist C. V. Raman, whose father (Chandra’s
paternal grandfather) was Chandrasekhara Iyer, the name Chandrasekhara repeating itself in
alternate generations on the paternal side, according to Hindu
custom.

He served on the University of Chicago
faculty from 1937 until his death in 1995
at the age of 84. He became a naturalized citizen
of the United States in 1953.

Early life

Chandrasekhar had most of his school career and his entire college career in Madras
(now Chennai), having attended the PS High School and then the
Presidency College from which he graduated
with a degree in physics. He received his doctorate (1933) from,
and was also a research fellow at, Trinity
College
, Cambridge in the United Kingdom.

In addition to mathematics, Chandrasekhar, as a youth,
also mastered German, devoured everything from Shakespeare to Hardy, and
could read up to 100 pages in an hour "quite easily".

During World War II, Chandrashekhar was called on to
work on the top-secret atomic weapons research going on
at the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, where he collaborated
with many prominent physicists including Enrico Fermi.

Nobel prize

He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983 for his studies on the physical processes important to the structure and evolution
of stars
, though he was upset that the citation mentioned only his earliest work,
seeing this as a denigration of a lifetime’s achievement. It is not certain if the Nobel
selection committee was at least remotely influenced in formulating this citation by the
early criticisms of Sir Arthur Stanley
Eddington
, another distinguished astrophysicst of his time and a senior to him. His
lifetime’s achievement may be glimpsed in the footnotes to his Nobel
lecture
.

Legacy

Chandrasekhar’s most famous success was the astrophysical
Chandrasekhar limit. The limit describes the
maximum mass (~1.44 solar masses) of a white dwarf star, or equivalently, the minimum mass for which
a star will ultimately collapse into a neutron star or black hole (following a supernova).
The limit was first calculated by Chandrasekhar while on a ship from India to Cambridge, England, where he was to study under the
eminent astrophysicist, Sir Ralph Howard Fowler. When
Chandrasekhar first proposed his ideas, he was opposed by the British physicist Arthur Eddington, and this may have played a
part in his decision to move to the University of Chicago in the United States.

In 1999, NASA named the third of its four "Great
Observatories’" after Chandrasekhar. This followed a naming contest which attracted
6,000 entries from fifty states and sixty-one countries. The Chandra X-ray Observatory was launched and
deployed by Space Shuttle Columbia on July 23, 1999.

The asteroid 1958 Chandra
is also named after Chandrasekhar.

Awards

References

  • Empire of the Stars: Friendship, Obsession and Betrayal in the Quest for Black Holes,
    Arthur I. Miller, Little Brown, 2005
  • The Mathematical Theory of Black Holes, Subramanyan Chandrasekhar, Clarendon, 1998
  • Chandra – A Biography of S.Chandrasekhar, Kameshwar C. Wali, University of Chicago
    Press, 1992

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Subrahmanyan
Chandrasekhar

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subrahmanyan_Chandrasekhar

NATIONAL BANK OF KUWAIT

November 5, 2006 at 5:22 pm | Posted in Arabs, Economics, Financial, Globalization, Middle East, Oil & Gas, Research | Leave a comment

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<b>NBK’s latest Weekly Money Markets Report</b>

National Bank of Kuwait

NBK’s latest Weekly Money Markets Report

Economic Research

National Bank of Kuwait

P.O. Box 95, Safat 13001, Kuwait

Tel: +(965) 259-5354

Fax: +(965) 224-6973

Email: econ@nbk.com

Sun, 5 Nov 2006

NBK’s latest Weekly Money Markets Report provides you with the latest on economic
trends in major industrial economies. Read about the following:

· US: Strong Job Report

· Europe: Interest Rates Unchanged

· UK: Quiet Week

· Japan: Interest Rates Unchanged

NBK has always strived to provide you with the accurate and timely information you need
to make your activities and business decisions a success. We are happy to inform you that
NBK’s latest issue of
Weekly Money Markets Report
prepared by NBK’s Treasury analysts is now available on our
web site.

To read more, you can view the report in either Arabic or English by clicking on the
following links:

Click
here for the report in Arabic.

Click
here for the report in English.

http://www.nbk.com/

NR/rdonlyres/18782A53-C905-4910-A680-889FB206688A/440997/05Nov2006.pdf

You can always find NBK’s latest economic publications including our weekly "Money
Markets Report", monthly "Economic Brief", the semi-annual "Economic
& Financial Review" and our guide on "Doing Business in Kuwait" on the
internet.

Click
here for the Arabic web site
.

Click
here for the English web site
.

Should you wish NOT to receive similar emails in the future, please reply to this email
with "Remove from mailing list" in the subject field.

Economic Research

National Bank of Kuwait

P.O. Box 95, Safat 13001, Kuwait

Tel: +(965) 259-5354

Fax: +(965) 224-6973

Email: econ@nbk.com

NBK: Weekly Money Markets Report 05-11-06

NBK-Economic Research econ@nbk.com

Sun, 5 Nov 2006

GLOBAL INVESTMENT HOUSE: KUWAIT

November 5, 2006 at 4:59 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, History, Middle East, Oil & Gas | Leave a comment

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Global’s Jordan Weekly Report dated – November 2, 2006

Global Investment House – Kuwait

research@research.global.com.kw

Sat, 4 Nov 2006

Dear Sir/Madam,

In our effort to provide the investment community, economists and researchers with an
array of market reviews, we at
Global Investment
House
are proud to present "The
Weekly report on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE)".
The report views
the latest developments in the
ASE, trading activity, indices performance and economic and corporate news.

In order to view the full reports kindly click on the link below:

http://www.globalinv.net/research/Jordan/02112006.pdf

For more information about "Global" and other market reports please feel free
to visit our website:

http://www.globalinv.net

If you do not wish to receive global emails, kindly click on the below link to
unsubscribe:

http://www.globalinv.net/Unsubscribe.asp

Regards,

Research Unit

Global Investment House – Jordan

Tel: +962 6 5828739 Ext: 121

Fax: +962 6 5828769

Global’s Jordan Weekly Report dated – November 2, 2006

Global Investment House – Kuwait research@research.global.com.kw

Sat, 4 Nov 2006

ALHEWAR & AMERICA’S MIDEAST FREEFALL

November 5, 2006 at 6:31 am | Posted in Arabs, Globalization, History, Islam, Israel, Middle East, Military, Zionism | Leave a comment

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<b>US freefall in the MidEast</b>

US freefall in the MidEast

Al-Hewar

http://www.alhewar.com

www.breakdownfilm.tv

Watch 3 new (& one earlier, posted in September) clips from the new political
documentary, BREAKDOWN, about the rise & freefall of US Foreign Policy in the Middle
East. Why the long war? How did we get here, what’s next and how to get out?

If we don’t learn from the past and present we will always inflict on ourselves
and others the tragedies of past and present. With this US Administration, as with
previous US Democratic and Republic Administrations, history has repeated itself vis a vis
one of the world’s most important and strategic regions, but now the policy is in
freefall resulting in mass Terror that we are supposed to be combating.

There is hope and policy correction – regardless of political affiliation — where
there is information and awareness. Breakdown seriously and uniquely wraps the evidence
and facts in context, connects the dots and finds the truth.

If you’d like more information or if you would like to view new film clips, please
visit www.breakdownfilm.tv or
click on You Tube links below, your feedback is welcome:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x9kUNbSThAU
[trailer 8: Iraq]

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E8jqC-4oE8k
[trailer 3: Accountability]

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=073uhefRaKM
[trailer 4: Iran]

More clips will be posted this weekend! Email: info@breakdownfilm.tv
for more information about how to obtain a copy of the new film.

We hope you will visit (http://www.alhewar.com)
frequently

(and tell your friends about us too!).

Best regards,

Al-Hewar

Now you can pay for your subscription to Al-Hewar Center or Al-Hewar Magazine
with a credit card (using PayPal):

http://www.alhewar.com/support.html

Questions and comments may be sent to alhewar@alhewar.com

If you wish to be removed from our mailing list,

please reply to this e-mail and type "Remove" in the subject box

FW: US freefall in the MidEast

Attachment: breakdownPromo.JPG (0.31 MB)

Alhewar alhewar@alhewar.com

Saturday, November 4, 2006 1:01 PM

MADAME ROLAND & “DODSWORTH”

November 5, 2006 at 5:46 am | Posted in Books, France, History, Literary | Leave a comment

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Madame Roland

March 17, 1754November 8, 1793

O Liberté, que de crimes on commet en ton nom!

(Oh Liberty, what crimes are committed in thy name!)

Viscountess Jeanne Marie Roland de la Platiere, born Manon Jeanne Philipon (March 17, 1754November 8, 1793), became the wife of Jean Marie Roland de la Platiere and is better known simply as Madame Roland. Both she and her husband were famous figures of the French Revolution.

She was the daughter of Gratien Philipon (alternatively spelt Philippon), a Paris engraver, who was ambitious, speculative and nearly always poor. From her early years she showed great aptitude for study, an ardent and
enthusiastic spirit, and unquestionable talent. She was largely self-taught; and her love of reading acquainted her with Plutarch — an author she continued to cherish throughout her life — thereafter with Bossuet, Massillon,
and authors of a like stamp, and finally with Montesquieu, Voltaire and Rousseau.
As her studies developed under the influence of these authors, she abandoned the idea of entering a convent, and added to the enthusiasm for a republic which she had imbibed from her earlier studies, she was inspired by her reading with cynicism and daring. She marriedJean Marie Roland in 1781, every bit his equal in intellect and
character. Through him and with him she exercised a singularly powerful influence over the destinies of France, from the outbreak of the French Revolution till her death by guillotine.

In the early days of their marriage, Madame Roland wrote political articles for the Courrier de Lyon. When the couple moved to Paris, she began to take an even more active role.
Her salon on the rue Guénégaud in Paris became the
rendezvous of Brissot, Pétion, Robespierre and other leaders of the popular movement. An especially esteemed guest was Buzot, whom she loved with platonic enthusiasm. In person, Madame Roland is said to
have been attractive but not beautiful; her ideas were clear and far-reaching, her manner calm, and her power of observation extremely acute. It was almost inevitable that she should find herself in the centre of political aspirations and presiding over a company of the most talented men of progress. The rupture between the Girondist party and that section still more extreme, that of The Mountain, had not yet occurred. For a time the whole left united in forcing the resignation of the ministers.

However, after Monsieur Roland had made a stand against the worst excesses of the Revolution, the couple became very unpopular. Once Madame Roland appeared personally in the Assembly to refute the falsehoods of an accuser, and her ease and dignity evoked enthusiasm and compelled acquittal.

However, the accusations continued. On the morning of June 1 1793 she was arrested and thrown into the prison of the Abbaye.
Her husband escaped to Rouen. Released for an hour from the Abbaye, she was again arrested and placed in Sainte-Pelagie. Finally, she was transferred to the Conciergerie. In prison she wasrespected by the guards, and was allowed the privilege of writing materials and occasional visits from devoted friends. There she wrote her Appel à l’impartiale postérité, those memoirs which display a strange alternation between self-laudation and patriotism, between the trivial and the sublime. She was tried on trumped up charges of harbouring royalist sympathies; the plain fact was that she was to be expunged as part of the purge by Robespierre of the Girondist opposition, and was duly convicted.

On November 8, 1793, she was conveyed to the guillotine. Before placing her head on the block, she bowed before the clay statue of Liberty in the Place de la Révolution, uttering the famous remark for which she is remembered:

O Liberté, que de crimes on commet en ton nom!

(Oh Liberty, what crimes are committed in thy name!)

Two days after her execution, her husband, Jean Marie Roland, committed suicide in his hovel outside Lyon.

References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica EleventhEdition, a publication now in the public domain.
The 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, in turn, gives the following references:

  • Madame Roland’s Memoires, first printed in 1820, have been edited among others by P. Faugere (Paris, 1864), by C. A. Dauban (Paris, 1864), by J. Claretie (Paris, 1884), and by C. Perroud (Paris, 1905). Some of her Lettres inedites have been published by C. A. Dauban (Paris, 1867), and a critical edition of her Lettres by C. Perroud (Paris, 1900-2).
  • C.A. Dauban, Etude sur Madame Roland et son temps (Paris, 1864)
  • V. Lamy, Deux femmes célèbres, Madame Roland et Charlotte Corday (Paris, 1884)
  • C. Bader, Madame Roland, d’après des lettres et des manuscrits inédits (Paris, 1892)
  • A.J. Lambert, Le ménage de Madame Roland, trois années de correspondance amoureuse
    (Paris, 1896)
  • Austin Dobson, Four Frenchwomen (London, 1890) articles by C. Perroud in the review La Revolution française (1896-99).

See also: “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madame_Roland

Comment: Madame Roland is mentioned in the movie, “Dodsworth.”


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