PAKISTAN BETWEEN MOSQUE AND MILITARY

October 3, 2006 at 5:52 pm | Posted in Books | Leave a comment

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Pakistan: Between Mosque And Military

by Husain Haqqani (Author)

It is an eye opener and troublesome to know what really goes on in the mosques and
their connection to terrorism.

This book is both troublesome and worrisome for the reader, but I can think of no
better qualified source to write from the perspective of inside of this regime and
government.

When I began this book, my knowledge of Pakistan was the sum total of various sound
bites, short conversations with Pakistani co-workers and articles I had read. This
resulted in a vague and conflicted perception. Such is no longer the case. The time spent
reading Haqqani’s book has acquainted me well with the personalities, issues, history and
indeed the phenomenon which is Pakistan.

This outstanding work provides the kind historical analysis only available from someone
who was there to live the history of which he speaks. As an advisor to three of Pakistan’s
prime ministers, an acquaintance or personal friend of several influential generals, and
as Pakistan’s ambassador to Sri Lanka, the author writes with authority from first hand
knowledge. He provides a close-in view of the personalities, relationships and complicated
intrigue behind many of the events which comprise the story which is the history of
Pakistan.

Concerning political intrigue: I think it’s fair to say that since its inception,
Pakistan has taken that phenomenon to a new level. The interplay and opposition between
the military (whose aim is always to control the government), the civilian government (who
at times dares pursue ends unsanctioned by the former entity) and the islamist extremists
(whom the former seeks to manipulate to help them control the latter) results in a
pervasive and ongoing tension. The media is correct to speak of Pakistani politics as
“shadow games”. Indeed, much goes on in the shadows, behind the scenes where
none are supposed to see. The military – and intelligence service (the ISI) exercise an
amazing ability to manipulate events, perceptions and ultimately the sentiments of the
masses in order to further their own agenda. While reading the book, I expected the level
of shenanigans to eventually subside into a fairly smooth running government… Although
on the surface, Pakistan has had such periods, the background intrigue never ceases.

The author is amazing in the level of detail he is able to provide. His long personal
involvement with the players and institutions of which he speaks, as well as his learning,
enable him to present a cogent and engaging account of a complicated subject which – in
other hands – could easily be cumbersome and a burden to read. Instead, I found my
interest never at a wane. The book reads like a good novel – except it’s true. Once again
my personal perspective is vindicated: why read fiction when so much of human history is
“stranger yet”….. ~!! For those who wish to understand the phenomenon which is
Pakistan, I heartily recommend this book.

Pakistan: Between Mosque And Military, September 22, 2006

Mr. Haqqani’s views about his mother country are very dubious. The only question I have
for the author as he served in some very corrupt governments as their partner…What has
he done for his home land? Nothing!!! This book in waste of time.

Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military, July 11, 2006

This is quite simply the best book on Pakistan that has ever been written, for it
finally pierces the veil of deception which the Pakistani military has succeeded in
drawing over the true nature of its long-term strategy. The book documents in great depth
and detail that behind its “deny, lie, smile” foreign policy, Pakistan’s
military has: 1) Fomented and conducted a vicious insurgency in Kashmir; 2) Supported
anti-American jihadist Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and the Taliban to first conquer and now
destabilize Afghanistan; 3) Nurtured and manipulated Islamist parties to help destabilize
and dismiss elected majorities in the Pakistan parliament; and 4)Used these same Islamist
factions as a recruiting base for terrorism directed against India and Afghanistan,
creating a threat to the West as well.

Author Haqqani doesn’t address the issue of how America let Pakistan get the bomb.
Let’s hope he is working on another book to deal with that US foreign policy fiasco!

Between Mosque and Military should be read by Secretary of State
Rice, and the book’s findings should lead to a change in our policy toward Pakistan.

This is a well researched book and offers a new perspective on Pakistan’s history and
politics. Haqqani’s main thesis is that the Islamists and the military in Pakistan have
always found it beneficial to cooperate with each other. The main reason for this
relationships dates back to the creation of Pakistan when the circumstances forced the
early leaders of Pakistan to adopt a tripod strategy. The pillars of that strategy were
Islam, hatred against India and reliance on American aid. Haqqani argues that this
strategy has not changed over time. In conclusion, he asks the American policy makers to
stop assisting the military in Pakistan and help
Pakistan
move from an ideological state run by the mullah-military alliance
to
a functional one run by the people of Pakistan.

The major weakness of the book lies in its conclusion. It appeals to the American
policy makers to do some thing to solve Pakistan’s problems. It is the same mistake that
Pakistan’s military dictators have always made and that the two exiled Pakistani leaders
(Mr Nawaz Sharif and Ms Benazir Bhutto) are making now. Rather than appealing to the
people of Pakistan to rise up to the occasion and to understand that if Pakistan becomes a
democratic, liberal and progressive state they are the ones to directly benefit, Haqqani
seeks the solution in the Capitol Hill and the White House.

The problem is that a majority of Pakistanis is still not fully convinced that a truly
democratic Pakistan will serve their interests better than the one run by mullah-military
alliance. However, it is for this very reason that scholars like Haqqani should come
forward and tell the people of Pakistan what is good and what is harmful for them. The
scholars should educate ordinary Pakistanis and show them what the propaganda machinery in
Pakistan is not letting them see. In the same vein, it will be a good idea to publish an
Urdu translation of this book and make it available at a low price in Pakistan so that
more Pakistanis can read and benefit from Haqqani’s research.

I think Indian intellectuals should read this book… There are some perspectives
explained in length that are essential to understanding the Pakistani
position…especially the times and events of the Paritition… of how Pakistan came into
being – a very insecure and resource-starved young nation. Indians so often fail to
appreciate this fact.

ANTHONY TROLLOPE: PALLISER NOVELS & ANTI-SEMITISM

October 3, 2006 at 12:11 pm | Posted in Books, History, Judaica, Literary, United Kingdom | Leave a comment

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Anti-Semitism in Anthony Trollope’s Palliser Novels

Anti-Semitism in Anthony Trollope’s Palliser Novels

Because Anthony Trollope belonged to the Liberal party, one would assume that he would be less concerned with the glorification of a specific social class to the neglect of any other. Yet, of the major novelists of the Victorian period, none was more infatuated with the code of the gentleman than Trollope. His political beliefs, which might seem to conflict with those of a Liberal, are best defined by his own description of himself as “an advanced, but still a conservative Liberal” (Autobiography 291). This left-centrist attitude serves as the basis for the moral standard of his novels and is embodied by the various “gentlemen” in his work. Trollope idealized the gentleman more than Fielding and as much as, if not more, than Thackeray. The characters in his novels judge each other by their interpretations of this standard, which may or may not coincide with Trollope’s definition. This discrepancy between Trollope and his characters is very interesting, but in some instances can be misleading.

Nineteenth-century Europe, sparked by the Enlightenment’s notion of equality, underwent numerous revolutions, both political and social. In England this was represented by the passing of the Reform Bill of 1832 and the repeal of the Corn Laws. Both were huge victories for the Liberal, then Whig, cause, regardless of which party was in control of the government at the time. Trollope’s stance on such issues can be seen in his treatment of similar measures, some fictitious, others real, in the novels that comprise his Palliser series. In England during this time, the quest for equal treatment under the law for all residents was gaining popularity. Bills were passed which legalized Catholicism
and which made citizens of the
Jews living in England.
As
anti-semitism was a more thorough prejudice than that of Anglicans against other Protestants and Catholics, it is of interest to examine how one of the more, if not the most, realistic novelists of the time portrayed English Jews.

As Trollope mainly concerns himself with upper-class society, social movement is
necessarily a major issue in his novels, and added to his predisposition to prejudicial
class awareness, Trollope behaves very questionably with regard to his non-English
characters, particularly his
Jewish characters.
European
Jews have consistently been oppressed throughout their
history on the continent. The most widespread slurs used against
Jews, then and now, are founded in resentment of the fact that Jews, in Europe, have historically found employment in banking, pawnbroking, and usury. (It is interesting to note that European Christians forced this occupation on the Jews, as many Christians thought it sinful to profit by lending money, or otherwise working specifically with money.) With the onset of the Enlightenment, European anti-semitism began to become less fashionable but was still prevalent. The placement of Jews in fiscal-related employment appears in many novels of the Victorian period, but an examination of the way in which these characters are portrayed can help to clarify Society’s general attitude toward the Jews. At the height of the Victorian period, Benjamin Disraeli, of Jewish descent, was able to become Prime Minister of the most powerful country in the world, and did so as a Conservative. Yet, in the Palliser novels, Trollope appears to diverge from the popular, liberal trend of dismissing anti-semitism, which allowed Disraeli to come to power. The books seem to reek of anti-semitism.

In the Palliser novels there are three main Jewish characters, or rather three main
characters with Jewish descriptions: Madam Max Goesler, Joseph Emilius, and Ferdinand Lopez. Of the three, only Emilius is confirmed as actually being Jewish. Madam Max and Lopez are derogatorily called Jewish by other characters, but their origins are never revealed. Why does Trollope allow for such degrading and stereotypical characterization of these characters? Why are Emilius and Lopez two of the most wretched characters in the Trollopian catalogue? Is Trollope just another Victorian anti-semite, or is he trying to get his audience to see how unjust and illiberal the accepted anti-semitism of Victorian society was?

In reading such an entertaining and self-aware author as Anthony Trollope, I constantly search for proof against the charge of anti-semitism. However, I cannot say that I am convinced that my quest has been wholly satisfactory.

Madam Max Goesler is introduced in the second novel, Phineas Finn, and plays a
major part in the rest of the
Palliser series. Her physical description follows along the lines of what would be considered a stereotypical characterization of a Jewess. She has

thick black hair…. Her eyes were large, of a dark blue color, and very bright,–and
she used them in a manner which is as yet hardly common with Englishwomen. She seemed to
intend that you should know that she employed them to conquer you…. Her nose was not
classically beautiful … not perfectly straight in its line … perhaps her great beauty
was in the brilliant clearness of her dark complexion…. She was somewhat tall … and
was so thin as to be almost meager in her proportions. (Phineas Finn 30-31)

When compared to the physical descriptions of Emilius and Lopez, detailed below, many
of the same characteristics are repeated. Madam Max is only rarely referred to as a “

Jewess,” but from her physical description, it seems as if Trollope purposefully made her ethnicity ambiguous. She is the widow of a Jewish Swiss banker, but other than that her background is mysterious, which adds to the feeling of uncertainty about her. Like Madam Max, both Emilius and Lopez have mysterious backgrounds where little is known and what is known is but mere rumor. By leaving their histories vague and obscure, Trollope’s attitude toward their Jewishness is left ambiguous: Is he displaying disgust with hypocritical Jewish conscientiousness, or is he satirizing anti-semitic
fear?

Of the three, Madam Max is the only one who develops into a respectable and lovable
character. She uses her money with taste, she conducts herself with taste, and she
responds to the obligations of Society with taste. However, she is differentiated from
English Society in Phineas Redux by travelling across the continent in search of
evidence that will free Phineas in his trial. People talk about this behavior as if it is
a result of her mysterious past. Yet Madam Max is a lady and she, in contrast to Emilius
and Lopez, is rich. Emilius and Lopez are both poor and try to lift themselves in the eyes
of society by conducting themselves strictly by the accepted social code, whereas because
of her wealth, Madam Max has already been accepted and can bend her adherence to that
code. The issues of class and wealth complicate a discussion of anti-semitism in the
Palliser novels by compounding these two issues in his

Jewish, or seemingly Jewish, characters. All three of
these characters marry money. Madam Max marries and is widowed before she is introduced,
but Trollope does not offer any speculation as to her motives in her first marriage.
Emilius is chiefly after money in his pursuit of Lizzie Eustace and worries little about
concealing this fact. Lopez marries out of love, as the narrator stresses, but he is
conscious, or rather quickly becomes conscious, that Emily Wharton is wealthy and that her
money will become available to him when they are married. That each of these characters
marries “up” is suggestive of a typical anti-semitic feeling against alleged
Jewish pushiness and, as a result, leaves the reader
questioning Trollope’s motives.

Of the three main

Jewish characters in the Palliser novels, Joseph Emilius is the most “Jewish” and the only one who is ever positively
identified as such. Trollope gives him terribly stereotypical characteristics, describing
him as a “dark, hookey-nosed, well made man, with an exuberance of greasy hair, who
would have been considered handsome” if not for a squint in one of his eyes (Eustace
Diamonds
311), and further as a “nasty, greasy, squinting
Jew preacher; an impostor, a creature to loathe because
he was greasy and a liar” (Eustace Diamonds 314). In addition to these
descriptions, he is found to be a bigot who merely lusts after money. Emilius is the least
developed of the main
Jewish characters and as a result fits into his extremely
stereotypical role. The irony of The Eustace Diamonds is that the diamonds are, for
all practical purposes, useless. It is interesting to note that the name Emilius also can
be seen as a similar play on pronunciation and can be read as “emulus,” which
sounds like a mutation of the word “emulate.” As many characters wear paste
jewels, which serve as decoration almost as well as real diamonds, so Trollope uses
Emilius as their social parallel, representative of how a “paste” gentleman,
although similar from a distance, is no replacement for a true one. Gentlemanly
characteristics may seem to be worthless, or rather intangible, but Trollope strives to
show how, although it is not always perceptible at first glance, the true gentleman’s
worth will always outshine any emulation. That Trollope equates a fake gentleman with a
Jew is a noticeable fact, and not a favorable one.
Emilius, as an Anglican clergyman, has the position of a gentleman, but it seems that
specifically because of his ethnicity Trollope has barred him from this hallowed status.
The gentleman, as Trollope understands him, is a modification of the chivalrous, medieval
knight and should be as pure, strong, and “true” as a diamond.

Possibly the most interesting of these characters is Ferdinand Lopez. As Trollope
devotes much of The Prime Minister to his life, he becomes a tragic antagonist.
This role needs not much consideration here, but that his life runs a tragic course
parallels the anti-semitic worries spawned in the reader by Trollope’s treatment of
Emilius. Like Joseph Hexam in Dickens’s Our Mutual Friend, Lopez is aware and
ashamed of his familial background. He is not a “purebred” Englishman, and his
Portuguese ancestry brings no notion of pride to him, but rather alienates him from the
opportunity to realize his goal of becoming a true English gentleman. When Lopez first
presses his suit for the hand of Emily Wharton, Mr. Wharton, a Tory, objects not only
because of his parentage but also because “he thought that he detected

Jewish signs” (Prime Minister 28). As Mr.
Wharton is a sympathetic character, the question of Trollope’s anti-semitism is again
raised.

Trollope was not the only Victorian novelist to take up the issue of anti-semitism.
George Eliot’s Daniel Deronda is a pro-Jewish novel in which Deronda discovers his

Jewish ethnicity, marries a Jewish woman, and moves to Palestine. Dickens gives a more
varied picture of
Jews in nineteenth-century England. In Oliver Twist
he creates a wretchedly stereotypical Jew in Fagin. However, in response to readers’
criticism of his portrayal of Fagin, Dickens constructed the humble, caring
Jew, Mr. Riah, for Our Mutual Friend. Mr. Riah
is in the business of lending money, but he is merely the cover for the English owner of
the business, Fascination Fledgeby. In creating Fledgeby Dickens simply took all of the
stereotypical
Jewish characteristics and placed them on an Englishman.
This does not make for an extremely interesting character, but it does make a strong
statement against anti-semitism. Mr. Riah is an interesting comparison to the
Jews in Trollope’s novels. Whereas Dickens confronts
anti-semitism head-on by switching the social roles of Riah and Fledgeby, Trollope’s
Jewish characters retain typical social positions, and in
doing so leave his motives open for interpretation.

The three characters, Madam Max, Emilius, and Lopez, are not the only

Jewish characters in the Palliser novels; there are a few
more, but the others are generally only mentioned in passing. Trollope’s treatment of
these other
Jews is very stereotyped; they all either work in
banking, in jewelry, or in the City;
in other words, they all work primarily with money. In The Eustace Diamonds, Trollope creates
his most stereotypical
Jew of the Palliser
series in Mr. Benjamin, of the lending firm Harter and Benjamin. Benjamin is the
mastermind behind both the attempted and successful robberies. He really possesses the
Jewish” debasement and avarice and is similar to the
projection constructed of Mr. Riah by Fledgeby in Our Mutual Friend. That Trollope
creates such a characte–in a book that already has a villainous Jew–is suspect.
Throughout the book there is often talk of going to “
the
Jews” and getting a loan at thirty percent (see,
for example, Lord George’s comment [Eustace Diamonds 209]).

With the two vile Jews in The Eustace Diamonds, a
defense against the charge of anti-semitism in benefit of Trollope seems hard-pressed for
validity. One could say that many of these derogatory comments are made by less than
admirable characters, which do not necessarily echo either the narrator’s opinion or
Trollope’s. Yet why does Trollope place

Jews in the exact same
roles which anti-semites usually ridicule them for possessing? Trollope prided himself on
being an astute realist, and in realism social virtues must come with their corresponding
social evils. Anti-semitism was prevalent in Victorian society; therefore Trollope had to
represent it, regardless of whether he was anti-semitic or not.

How prevalent was anti-semitism in Victorian society? If it were “so”
prevalent, as prevalent as racism is in the American South, would not Trollope (most
likely) be affected? Southern racism is not an either-or sentiment; those prejudices hold
people in varying degrees. However, many (most?) white Southerners are, at least, somewhat
affected–affected, in the sense that, although they might not consciously discriminate,
their worldviews are nourished in a still-segregated society and, as a result, are stained
with racism. Although the example of Southern racism carries a weightier stigma, Victorian
anti-semitism does parallel current Southern sentiments. Even John Stuart Mill was subject
to cultural prejudice, and he was as liberal a Victorian as one could wish. Trollope was
not a radical and was more apt to have less liberal opinions than modern liberals would
wish, but he should not be condemned as an anti-semite simply for this. Even the majority
of modern conservative Southerners should not be labeled “racist.” Racism in the
South is declining, if not as quickly as one would; anti-semitism in Victorian Britain was
going through a similar decline.

In The Prime Minister Lopez degenerates and turns evilly fierce, as the novel
progresses. He is given a typical

Jewish description, as
he is clever, tall, dark, thin and has black hair and bold, unflinching, combative eyes.
After he marries he becomes more and more dependent on his father-in-law’s complaisance,
while still “keeping up appearances,” which he could not otherwise sustain. He
belongs to a gentleman’s club, makes Emily dress in the best fashion, and keeps a
brougham, none of which he can afford. By emulating gentlemanly behavior, he parallels
Trollope’s characterization of Emilius. However, it is quite important to note that only
the Tories of the novel ever refer to him as possibly being
Jewish. Benjamin Disraeli, a Tory Prime Minister during
Trollope’s lifetime, was of Portuguese
Jewish heritage whose
family had converted to Anglicanism two generations before his birth. Lopez is partially a
Disraeli-inspired character. Seen in this light, the Wharton-Fletcher resistance to him is
less a Trollopian attack on Jews than Trollope’s attack on
Tory hypocrisy. As Trollope the Liberal was quite antagonistic towards Disraeli, “old school” Tories’ disapproval of
Lopez satirizes the
anti-semitism that was mixed with conservative nationalism. Like
many of the leading Liberals and Radicals, such as Mill, Trollope was definitely biased
toward British culture but was not damnably prejudiced against other cultures, as shown by
his relative freedom from anti-Irish prejudice.

Still one must wonder why Trollope makes Emilius

Jewish and why Lopez never assures Mr. Wharton of his
ancestry or proves that he is “at worst” only half Jewish. Could Emilius not
have been just as wretched a character if he were a French Catholic? Would Lopez not have
been as despicable a husband if it were confirmed that he was not at all
Jewish? By making his “villains” Jewish perhaps Trollope seems to fall into a Wagnerian or
Nietzschian anti-semitism? This is a radical statement and goes too far. However, as there
is still active debate on Nietzsche’s anti-semitism, a comparison with Nietzsche might aid
in understanding Trollope’s attitude toward
Jews.

In the first essay of On the Genealogy of Morals, Nietzsche unleashes an
appalling attack on

Jews. He understands them as the personification of “slave morality,” which he says has destroyed “master morality,” represented by ancient mythology, especially Teutonic mythology. Masters take what they want, honor only those stronger/better than they, and disregard any constructed restriction on their behavior. In contrast slave morality, fuelled by “ressentiment,” operates on the basis “winning” by submission. Nietzsche, in the first essay of the book, scorns slave morality as contaminating master morality, as if he understands it in the bigoted sense of blood-poisoning by mixing races. At first glance the modern reader is taken aback by this and other similar comments, but on finishing the other two essays of the book, one sees how Nietzsche’s attitude toward this “mixing” is not as simple as he first presents it. Nietzsche shows how the simple dichotomy of a pure master morality versus a pure slave morality is but a semi-serious introduction for his main argument. Nietzsche explicitly complicates the original master-slave relationship when he claims that “only here [the victory of slave morality over master morality] did the human soul in a higher sense acquire depth and become eviland these are the two basic respects in which man has hitherto been superior to other beasts!” (33; Nietzsche’s emphasis). In the Genealogy, Nietzsche’s primary goal is to attack the ascetic ideal established through slave morality (Western religion) and to replace it with an improved version of the vanquished noble or heroic ideal. I do not mean to attempt wholly to defend Nietzsche against the charge of anti-semitism. Although his examples are not as simple and straightforward as they seem to be, one must not forget the multiple levels on which he is writing, and note that an anti-semitic sentiment is allowed purposefully, if only on the most superficial level of his argument.
Trollope does something similar in the Palliser novels. His characters hold anti-semitic feelings, and his text is doused with stereotypically
racist comments. Like Nietzsche, Trollope’s anti-semitic remarks are purposefully harsh
and appalling, but he draws the reader’s attention to these descriptions in order to show
how disgusting Victorian anti-semitism is.

Trollope, at the most, is as anti-semitic as any progressive conservative southern
liberal is racist, which is not a total dismissal of the possibility that he is, but
rather an affirmation that he is not utterly despicable. He is hardly avid in the

anti-semitism he writes, but is he anti-semitic at all? From his treatment of Emilius, the reader could justifiably assert that he is. Trollope’s description of him is quite harsh. Is there any reason why Emilius has to be Jewish? Would he not be as effective a character if he were a Christian? Possibly, but probably not. Trollope satirically plays on Victorian
anti-semitism and Anglican religious prejudice in The Eustace Diamonds and
elsewhere throughout his novels. Neither Plantagenet Palliser, nor Lady Glencora, nor
Phineas Finn ever make racist comments, and Madam Max’s marriage to Phineas establishes her as a worthy character regardless of her mysterious history. These are the most beloved characters in the series; in The Prime Minister Trollope even enunciates his own political creed through Palliser. If there were any anti-semitism in Trollope the person, the reader would hear it from one of their mouths.

It does not seem that Trollope can justifiably be considered anti-semitic, at least not
from an examination of the Palliser novels. However, throughout his work

Jews are repeatedly described as dirty or little, and from these seemingly random inserts it does not seem that he could be considered
completely free from all Victorian
anti-semitism. If he
allows such prejudices to surface in smaller instances and stand as prejudices, the above
apology should be intensely scrutinized, for problems do exist. However, I do not feel as
if he should be blackballed or crucified because of this, any more than Shakespeare should be for The Merchant of Venice. The defense that Trollope, like all people, is a product of his society and cannot reasonably be expected to defy all social prejudices extant during his lifetime is applicable here, but is not the only defense possible on his behalf. This essay can but be considered only a preliminary sketch of the question of anti-semitism within Trollope’s work, since it only considers the Palliser novels, but I hope that the points I have presented on Trollope’s behalf will stand up against a more thorough examination.

Bibliography

James, Henry. “Anthony Trollope.” The Art of Fiction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1948.

Kincaid, James R. The Novels of Anthony Trollope. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. On the Genealogy of Morals. Trans. Walter Kaufmann. New York: Vintage Books, 1989.

Trollope, Anthony. An Autobiography. Oxford University Press, 1950.

—. Can You Forgive Her? New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

—. The Duke’s Children. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

—. The Eustace Diamonds. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

—. Phineas Finn. New York: Oxford University Press, 1951.

—. Phineas Redux. New York: Oxford University Press, 1952.

—. The Prime Minister. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

AVNER GREIF: MAGHRIBI TRADERS & GOITEIN

October 3, 2006 at 11:29 am | Posted in Middle East | Leave a comment

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Avner Greif

http://www-econ.stanford.edu/faculty/workp/index.html

Avner Greif is an economics professor at Stanford University, Stanford, California. He holds a
chaired professorship as Bowman Family Professor in the Humanities and Sciences.

Greif received his B.A. in Economics and History of the Jewish People and M.A. in
History of the Jewish People from Tel Aviv University, Israel. He received his Ph. D in
Economics at Northwestern University, 1989 and started his career at Stanford University in 1989 until he
received the tenure in 1994.

In 1998 he received a ‘genius grant’ from the MacArthur Foundation. His works deal with the
economic history and institutions of the trade in Medieval
Europe
.

He specializes in the study of the social institutions that support economic
development, and their history, incorporating game theory
into his approach to this large subject. Dr. Greif is on the board of trustees of the
International Society of New Institutional Economics.

One of his latest works is Institutions and the Path to the
Modern Economy
: Lessons from Medieval Trade
(ISBN 0-521-67134-5)
. The introduction to this book is available online here. This book is novel in
the use of Game Theory approach to the study of Institutional economics.

External link

2006 Papers Stanford Faculty:

06-001 Paul David — REAL INCOME AND ECONOMIC WELFARE
GROWTH IN THE EARLY REPUBLIC Or, Another Try at Getting the American Story Straight

2005 Papers

05-007 Ronald McKinnon — Exchange Rate or Wage Changes in
International Adjustment? Japan and China versus the United States

05-006 Avner Greif —
Institutions and the Path to the Modern Economy: Lessons from Medieval Trade

05-005 Peter J. Hammond — Utility Invariance in
Non-Cooperative Games

05-004 Mordecai Kurz — Measuring the Ex-Ante Social Cost
of Aggregate Volatility

05-003 Peter Reinhard Hansen — A Test for Superior
Predictive Ability

05-002 Mordecai Kurz — Diverse Beliefs, Forecast Errors
and Central Bank Policy

05-001 Peter J. Hammond and Jaume Sempere — Migration with
Local Public Goods and the Gains from Changing Places

2004 Papers

04-012 Ronald McKinnon — Optimum Currency Areas and Key
Currencies: Mundell 1 versus Mundell II

04-011 Ronald McKinnon and Gunther Schnabl — The Return to
Soft Dollar Pegging in East Asia Mitigating Conflicted Virtue

04-010 Avner Greif
and David D. Laitin — A Theory of Endogenous Institutional Change

04-009 Avner Greif —
Institutions and Impersonal Exchange: The European Experience

04-008 Paul A. David and Gavin Wright — General Purpose
Technologies and Surges in Productivity: Historical Reflections on the Future of the ICT
Revolution (Revised 2003)

04-007 Paul A. David — THE TALE OF TWO TRAVERSES
Innovation and Accumulation in the First Two Centuries of U.S. Economic Growth (Revised
Dec 2005
)

04-006 Paul A. David — From Keeping ‘Nature’s Secrets’ to
the Institutionalization of ‘Open Science’

04-005 Donald J. Harris — Joan Robinson on “History
versus Equilibrium”

04-004 Gavin Wright and Jesse Czelusta — Mineral Resources
and Economic Development

04-003 John Hatfield and Paul Milgrom — Auctions, Matching
and the Law of Aggregate Demand

04-002 Paul A. David — Zvi Griliches on Diffusion, Lags
and Productivity Growth …Connecting the Dots

04-001 Mordecai Kurz, Hehui Jin and Maurizio Motelese —
Determinants of Stock Market Volatility and Risk Premia

2003 Papers

03-011 Paul A. David — Can ‘Open Science’ be
Protected from the Evolving Regime of IPR Protections?

03-010 Mordecai Kurz, Hehui Jin and Maurizio Motelese —
The Role of Expectations in Economic Fluctuations and the Efficacy of Monetary Policy (Revised
November 12, 2003
)

03-009 Peter Bank and Frank Riedel — Optimal Dynamic
Choice of Durable and Perishable Goods

03-008 Karen Clay and Gavin Wright — Order Without Law?
Property Rights During the California Gold Rush

03-007 Ronald McKinnon and Gunther Schnabl — China: A
Stabilizing or Deflationary Influence in East Asia? The Problem of Conflicted Virtue

03-006 Gavin Wright — Slavery and American Agricultural
History

03-005 Gavin Wright — The Economics of Civil Rights

03-004 Frank Riedel — Dynamic Coherent Risk Measures

03-003 This paper has been reissued as 04-003

03-002 Patrick Bajari and Ali Hortacsu — Are Structural
Estimates of Auction Models Reasonable? Evidence from Experimental Data

03-001 Ronald McKinnon and Gunther Schnabl — The East
Asian Dollar Standard, Fear of Floating, and Original Sin

2002 Papers

02-011 Patrick Bajari and Matthew E. Kahn — Estimating
Housing Demand with an Application to Explaining Racial Segregation in Cities

02-010 Ronald McKinnon and Gunther Schnabl — Synchronized
Business Cycles in East Asia: Fluctuations in the Yen/Dollar Exchange Rate and
China’s Stabilizing Role

02-009 David McKenzie — Distangling Age, Cohort and Time
Effects in the Additive Model

02-008 Gavin Wright and Jesse Czelusta — Exorcizing the
Resource Curse: Minerals as a Knowledge Industry, Past and Present

02-007 Patrick Bajari, Robert McMillan and Steven Tadelis
— Auctions versus Negotiations in Procurement: An Empirical Analysis

02-006 Rishi Goyal and Ronald McKinnon — Japan’s Negative
Risk Premium in Interest Rates: The Liquidity Trap and Fall in Bank Lending

02-005 Patrick Bajari and Ali Hortacsu — Cyberspace
Auctions and Pricing Issues: A Review of Empirical Findings

02-004 Lawrence M. Ausubel and Paul Milgrom — Ascending
Auctions with Package Bidding

02-003 Paul A. David and Dominique Foray — Economic
Fundamentals of the Knowledge Society

02-002 Mordecai Kurz — Heterogenous Forecasting and
Federal Reserve Information

02-001 Mordecai Kurz, Hehui Jin and Maurizio Motolese —
Endogenous Fluctuations and the Role of Monetary Policy

2001 Papers

01-017 David J. McKenzie — The Household Response to the
Mexican Peso Crisis

01-016 Patrick Bajari and Lanier Benkard — Discrete Choice
Models as Structural Models of Demand: Some Economic Implications of Common Approaches

01-015 Peter Hammond and Yeneng Sun — Monte Carlo Simulation
of Macroeconomic Risk with a Continuum of Agents: The Symmetric Case

01-014 Patrick Bajari and Garrett Summers — Detecting
Collusion in Procurement Auctions: A Selective Survey of Recent Research (Revised April
2002
)

01-013 Ronald McKinnon — The International Dollar Standard
and Sustainability of the U.S. Current Account Deficit

01-012 Paul A. David — The Beginnings and Prospective
Ending of ‘End-to-End’

01-011 Patrick Bajari and Ali Hortacsu — Auction Models
When Bidders Make Small Mistakes: Consequences for Theory and Estimation

01-010 Patrick Bajari and C. Lanier Benkard — Demand
Estimation With Heterogeneous Consumers and Unobserved Product Characteristics: A Hedonic
Approach

01-009 Christopher L. Foote, Warren C. Whatley and Gavin
Wright — Arbitraging a Discriminatory Labor Market: Black Workers at the Ford Motor
Company, 1918-1947

01-008 Patrick Bajari and Lixin Ye — Deciding Between
Competition and Collusion

01-007 Paul A. David — Reforming the Taxation of Human
Capital: A Modest Proposal (Final Revision October 2002)

01-006 Paul A. David — From Keeping ‘Nature’s Secrets’ to the
Institutionalization of ‘Open Science’ (revised Dec. 2003)

01-005 Paul A. David — Will Building ‘Good Fences’
Really Make ‘Good Neighbors’ in Science?

01-004 Jonathan Levin — Information and the Market for Lemons

01-003 Jonathan Levin and Susan Athey — The Value of
Information in Monotone Decision Problems

01-002 Jonathan Levin — Relational Incentive Contracts

01-001 Patrick Bajari and and Lixin Ye — Competition Versus
Collusion in Procurement Auctions: Identification and Testing


2000 Papers

00-025 Paul A. David — Patronage, Reputation, and Common
Agency Contracting in the Scientific Revolution: From Keeping ‘Nature’s
Secrets’ to the Institutionalization of ‘Open Science’

00-024 Gavin Wright — The Role of Nationhood in the
Economic Development of the USA

00-023 Michael Kumhof — Inflation Targeting and Exchange Rate
Flexibility

00-022 Michael Kumhof — A Critical View of Inflation
Targeting: Crises, Limited Sustainability, and Aggregate Shocks

00-021 Michael Kumhof — International Capital Mobility in
Emerging Markets: New Evidence from Daily Data

00-020 Michael Kumhof, Shujing Li, Isabel Yan — Balance of
Payments Crises Under Inflation Targeting

00-019 Michael Kumhof — Balance of Payments Crisis: The Role
of Short-Term Debt

00-018 Michael Kumhof — Sterilization of Short-Term Capital
Inflows – Through Lower Interest Rates ?

00-017 Michael Kumhof — A Quantative Exploration of the Role
of Short-Term Domestic Debit in Balance of Payments Crises

00-016 Paul A. David — The Digital Technology Boomerang: New
Intellectual Property Rights Threaten Global “Open Science”

00-015 Masahiko Aoki — What are Institutions? How Should We
Approach Them

00-014 Giovanni Facchini, Peter J. Hammond and Hiroyuki Nakata
— Spurious Deadweight Gains

00-013 Ronald McKinnon –After the Crisis, the East Asian
Dollar Standard Resurrected: An Interpretation of High-Frequency Exchange-Rate Pegging

00-012 B. Douglas Bernheim and Sergei Severinov –Bequests as
Signals: An Explanation of the Equal Divison Puzzle

00-011 Paul A. David — Path Dependence, its critics, and the
quest for ‘historical economics’

00-010 Ronald McKinnon and Kenichi Ohno — The Foreign
Exchange Orgins of Japan’s Economic Slump and Low Interest Liquidity Trap

00-009 Ronald McKinnon — Mundell, the Euro, and Optimum
Currency Areas

00-008 Peter J. Hammond and Yeneng Sun — Joint Measurability
and the One-way Fubini Property for a Continuum of Independent Random Variables

00-007 Patrick Bajari and Matthew E. Kahn — Why Do Blacks
Live in The Cities and Whites Live in the Suburbs? (Revised 3/01)

00-006 Peter Hammond — Reassessing the Diamond/Mirrlees
Efficiency Theorem

00-005 Gary Saxonhouse and Gavin Wright — Technological
Evoluton in Cotton Spinning, 1878-1933

00-004 Patrick Bajari and Ali Hortaçsu — Winner’s Curse,
Reserve Prices and Endogenous Entry: Empirical Insights from eBay auctions

00-003 Patrick Bajari — Comparing Competition and Collusion
in Procurement Auctions: A Numerical Approach (Revised 01/10/01)

00-002 Patrick Bajari — Auction Models Are Not Robust When
Bidders Make Small Mistakes

00-001 Antonio Rangel — Forward and Backward
Intergenerational Goods: A Theory of Intergenerational Exchange

1999 Papers

99-029 Patrick Bajari and Steven Tadelis — Incentives
versus Transaction Costs: A Theory of Procurement Contracts

99-028 Masahiko Aoki — Information and Governance in the
Silicon Valley Model

99-027 Robin Cowan, Paul A. David, and Dominique Foray — The
Explicit Economics of Knowledge Codification and Tacitness

99-026 Revised Version 04-008 Paul
A. David and Gavin Wright — General Purpose Technologies and Surges in Productivity:
Historical Reflections on the Future of the ICT Revolution

99-025 Paul A. David — At last, a remedy for chronic
QWERTY-skepticism!

99-024 Paul A. David and Bronwyn H. Hall — Heart of Darkness:
Public-Private Interactions Inside the R&D Black Box

99-023 Paul A. David, Bronwyn H. Hall, and Andrew A. Toole —
Is Public R&D a Complement or Substitute for Private R&D? A Review of the
Econometric Evidence

99-022 Paul A. David — The Political Economy of Public
Science

99-021 Peter J. Hammond — Roberts’ Weak Welfarism Theorem: A
Minor Correction

99-020 Ronald I. McKinnon — Euroland and East Asia in a
Dollar-Based International Monetary System: Mundell Revisited

99-019 Peter J. Hammond — Equal Rights to Trade and Mediate

99-018 Ronald I. McKinnon and Huw Pill — Exchange Rate
Regimes for Emerging Markets: Moral Hazard and International Overborrowing

99-017 Ronald I. McKinnon — The East Asian Dollar Standard,
Life after Death?

99-016 Paul Milgrom — The Envelope Theorems (Revised
12/19/99
)

99-015 Charles I. Jones and John C. Williams — Too Much of a
Good Thing? The Economics of Investment in R&D

99-014 Chong-En Bai, David D. Li, Yingyi Qian, and Yijiang
Wang — Anonymous Banking and Financial Repression: How Does China’s Reform Limit
Government Predation without Reducing Its Revenue?

99-013 Hehui Jin, Yingyi Qian, and Barry Weingast — Regional
Decentralization and Fiscal Incentives: Federalism, Chinese Style

99-012 Yingyi Qian — The Process of China’s Market Transition
(1978-98): The Evolutionary, Historical, and Comparative Perspectives

99-011 Yingyi Qian — The Institutional Foundations of China’s
Market Transition

99-010 Lawrence J. Lau, Yingyi Qian, and Gerard Roland —
Reform without Losers: An Interpretation of China’s Dual-Track Approach to Transition (Revised
)

99-009 Eric Maskin, Yingyi Qian, and Chenggang Xu —
Incentives, Information, and Organizational Form (Revised 2/6/99)

99-008 Charles I. Jones — Was an Industrial Revolution
Inevitable? Economic Growth Over the Very Long Run (Revised 9/28/99)

99-007 B. Douglas Bernheim — Taxation and Saving

99-006 Patrick Bajari and Steven Tadelis — Procurement
Contracts: Fixed Price vs. Cost Plus

99-005 Mordecai Kurz and Maurizio Motolese — Endogenous
Uncertainty and Market Volatility (Revised 1/22/00)

99-004 Masahiko Aoki — An Information Theoretic Approach to
Comparative Corporate Governance

99-003 Antonio Rangel and Richard Zeckhauser — Can Market and
Voting Institutions Generate Optimal Intergenerational Risk Sharing?

99-002 Elhanan Helpman and Antonio Rangel — Adjusting to a
New Technology: Experience and Training

99-001 Charles I. Jones — Growth: With or Without Scale
Effects?

1998 Papers

98-014 Charles I. Jones — Population and Ideas: A Theory
of Endogenous Growth (Revised)

98-013 Mordecai Kurz — Endogenous Uncertainty: A Unified View
of Market Volatility (Revised)

98-012 Peter J. Hammond and Jaime Sempere — Gains from Trade
versus Gains from Migration: What Makes Them So Different?

98-011 Masahiko Aoki — The Subjective Game Form and
Institutional Evolution as Punctuated Equilibrium

98-010 Ronald I. McKinnon — Exchange Rate Coordination for
Surmounting the East Asian Currency Crises

98-009 Charles I. Jones — Sources of U.S. Economic Growth in
a World of Ideas (Revised 9/24/99)

98-008 Anne Beeson Royalty — A Discrete Choice Approach to
Estimating Workers’ Marginal Valuation of Fringe Benefits(Revised May 2000)

98-007 Robert E. Hall and Charles I. Jones — Why Do Some
Countries Produce So Much More Output per Worker than Others?

98-006 David A. Starrett — Valuing Ecosystem Services

98-005 Jose M. Cordoba and Peter J. Hammond — Asymptotically
Strategy-Proof Walrasian Exchange

98-004 Ronald I. McKinnon and Huw Pill — International
Overborrowing: A Decomposition of Credit and Currency Risks

98-003 John Pencavel — Market Work and Wages of Women:
1975-94

98-002 Paul Milgrom — Putting Auction Theory to Work: The
Simultaneous Ascending Auction (Revised 4/21/99)

98-001 Gavin Wright — Can a Nation Learn? American Technology
as a Network Phenomenon

1997 Papers

97-050 Jiahua Che and Yingyi Qian — Insecure Property
Rights and Government Ownership of Firms (Revised, March 1998)

97-049 Yuanzheng Cao, Yingyi Qian, and Barry R. Weingast —
From Federalism, Chinese Style, to Privatization, Chinese Style

97-048 Lawrence J. Lau, Yingyi Qian, and Gerard Roland —
Reform without Losers: An Interpretation of China’s Dual-Track Approach to Transition

97-047 Hehui Jin and Yingyi Qian — Public vs. Private
Ownership of Firms: Evidence from Rural China (Revised, March 1998)

97-046 John Pencavel — Changes in Male Work Behavior and
Wages

97-045 Yingyi Qian and Gerard Roland — Federalism and the
Soft Budget Constraint (Revised, March 1998)

97-044 John Litwack and Yingyi Qian — Balanced or Unbalanced
Development: Special Economic Zones as Catalysts for Transition (Revised, March 1998)

97-043 Jiahua Che and Yingyi Qian — Institutional
Environment, Community Government, and Corporate Governance: Understanding China’s
Township-Village Enterprises (Revised, March 1998)

97-042 Yingyi Qian and Barry R. Weingast — Federalism as a
Commitment to Preserving Market Incentives

97-041 Roger G. Noll — The International Dimension of
Regulatory Reform with Applications to Egypt

97-040 Roger G. Noll and Monroe E. Price — Communications
Policy in the Era of Choice and Convergence with Reflections on the Markle Foundation

97-039 Roger G. Noll and William P. Rogerson — The Economics
of University Indirect Cost Reimbursement in Federal Research Grants

97-038 Peter J. Hammond — Non-Archimedean Subjective
Probabilities in Decision Theory and Games (Revised — December 1997)

97-037 Avner Greif — Self-enforcing
Political System and Economic Growth: Late Medieval Genoa

97-036 Peter J. Hammond and Antonio Villar — Efficiency with
Non-Convexities: Extending the “Scandinavian Consensus” Approaches

97-035 B. Douglas Bernheim, Jonathan Skinner, and Steven
Weinberg — What Accounts for the Variation in Retirement Wealth Among U.S. Households?

97-034 Eric Maskin, Yingyi Qian, and Chenggang Xu —
Incentives, Information, and Organizational Form (Revised December 1997)

97-033 Steve Tadelis — What’s in a Name? Reputation as a
Tradeable Asset

97-032 Masahiko Aoki — The Evolution of Organizational
Conventions and Gains from Diversity

97-031 Timothy F. Bresnahan — Computerization and Wage
Dispersion: An Analytical Reinterpretation

97-030 Timothy F. Bresnahan and Franco Malerba — Industrial
Dynamics and the Evolution of Firms’ and Nations’ Competitive Capabilities in the World
Computer Industry

97-029 Timothy F. Bresnahan and Alfonso Gambardella — The
Division of Inventive Labor and The Extent of The Market

97-028 Timothy F. Bresnahan and Shane Greenstein —
Technological Competition and the Structure of the Computer Industry

97-027 Mordecai Kurz — Endogenous Uncertainty: A Unified View
of Market Volatility

97-026 Mordecai Kurz — Social States of Belief and the
Determinants of the Equity Risk Premium in a Rational Belief Equilibrium

97-025 John Pencavel — Regulating Collective Bargaining in
Developing Countries: Lessons from Three Developed Countries

97-024 Peter J. Hammond — Subjectively Expected
State-Independent Utility on State-Dependent Consequence Domains

97-023 Georges Bordes, Peter J. Hammond, and Michel Le Breton
— Social Welfare Functionals on Restricted Domains and in Economic Environments

97-022 Peter J. Hammond — Multilaterally Strategy-Proof
Mechanisms in Random Aumann-Hildenbrand Macroeconomies (Revised May 1998)

97-021 Robert E. Hall and Charles I. Jones — Fundamental
Determinants of Output per Worker across Countries

97-020 Marcel Fafchamps Jan Willem Gunning, and Remco
Oostendorp — Inventories, Liquidity, and Contractual Risk in African Manufacturing

97-019 Marcel Fafchamps and Agnes R. Quisumbing — Human
Capital, Productivity, and Labor Allocation in Rural Pakistan

97-018 Charles I. Jones — Population and Ideas: A Theory of
Endogenous Growth (Revised — December 1998)

97-017 Avner Greif — Economic History
and Game Theory: A Survey

97-016 Avner Greif — On the Social Foundations and Historical
Development of Institutions that Facilitate Impersonal Exchange: From the Community
Responsibility System to Individual Legal Responsibility in Pre-modern Europe

97-015 Charles I. Jones — The Upcoming Slowdown in U.S.
Economic Growth ( Revised — September 1997)

97-014 Marcel Fafchamps and Susan Lund — Risk Sharing
Networks in Rural Philippines

97-013 Marcel Fafchamps, Chris Udry, and Katherine Czukas —
Drought and Saving in West Africa: Are Livestock a Buffer Stock?

97-012 B. Douglas Bernheim, Daniel M. Garrett, and Dean M.
Maki — Education and Saving: The Long-Term Effects of High School Financial Curriculum
Mandates

97-011 Masahiko Aoki and Serdar Dinc — Relational Financing
as an Institution and its Viability under Competition

97-010 Takashi Kurosaki and Marcel Fafchamps — Insurance
Market Efficiency and Crop Choices in Pakistan

97-009 Charles I. Jones — On the Evolution of the World
Income Distribution

97-008 John Pencavel — The Legal Framework for Collective
Bargaining in Developing Economies

97-007 Lawrence J. Lau, Yingyi Qian, and Gerard Roland —
Pareto-Improving Economic Reforms through Dual-Track Liberalization

97-006 David A. Starrett — Mobility and Capitalization in
Local Public Finance: A Reassessment

97-005 Kenneth J. Arrow — Intergenerational Equity and the
Rate of Discount in Long-Term Social Investment

97-004 Kenneth J. Arrow — Discounting, Morality, and Gaming

97-003 Laurence Baker and Anne Beeson Royalty — Medicaid
Policy, Physician Behavior, and Health Care for the Low-Income Population (Revised —
June 1998
)

97-002 Charles I. Jones and John C. Williams — Measuring the
Social Return to R&D

97-001 Robert E. Hall and Charles I. Jones — Levels of
Economic Activity Across Countries

1996 Papers

Some of these older papers are either in PostScript format or are “Zipped”
PostScript files (compressed). To “unzip” a zipped file, use either the Unix
“unzip” utility or “pkunzip” for DOS or Windows. “pkunzip”
is available from PKWare.

96-016 Marcel Fafchamps — Market Emergence, Trust and
Reputation

96-015 Marcel Fafchamps — Sovereign Debt, Structural
Adjustment and Conditionality

96-014 Marcel Fafchamps — Precautionary Savings, Credit
Constraints, and Irreversible Investment: Evidence from Semi-Arid India

96-013 Marcel Fafchamps — Ethnicity and Markets: Supplier
Manufacturing in African Manufacturing

96-012 Robert E. Hall and Charles I. Jones — The Productivity
of Nations

96-011 Patrick J. Bayer, B. Douglas Bernheim, and John Karl
Scholz — The Effects of Financial Education in the Workplace: Evidence from a Survey of
Employers

96-010 B. Douglas Bernheim and Lee Redding — Optimal Money
Burning

96-009 B. Douglas Bernheim — Rethinking Saving Incentives

96-008 B. Douglas Bernheim and Michael D. Whinston —
Exclusive Dealing

96-007 B. Douglas Bernheim and Daniel M. Garrett — The
Determinants and Consequences of Financial Education in the Workplace: Evidence from a
Survey of Households

96-006 Charles I. Jones — Convergence Revisited

96-005 Charles I. Jones and John C. Williams — Too Much of a
Good Thing? The Economics of Investment in R&D

96-004 Mordecai Kurz and Andrea Beltratti — The Equity
Premium is No Puzzle

96-003 Mordecai Kurz — Asset Prices with Rational Beliefs

96-002 Mordecai Kurz and Ho-Mou Wu– Endogenous Uncertainty in
a General Equilibrium Model with Price Contingent Contracts

96-001 Avner Greif —
Micro Theory and Recent Developments in the Study of Economic Institutions Through
Economic History


1995 Papers

95-007 Paul Milgrom and John Roberts — The LeChatelier
Principle

95-006 Charles I. Jones and John C. Williams — Too Much of a
Good Thing? The Economics of Investment in R&D

95-005 Roger Noll — * Not Yet in Place *

95-004 Peter J. Hammond — On f-Core Equivalence with General
Widespread Externalities

95-003 Avner Greif and Andres
Rodriguez-Clare — A Transactions-Cost Theory of Agglomeration Economies

95-002 Paul Milgrom and John Roberts — Strongly
Coalition-Proof Equilibria in Games with Strategic Complementarities

95-001 Timothy F. Bresnahan, Scott Stern, and Manuel
Trajtenberg — Market Segmentation and the Sources of Rents from Innovation: Personal
Computers in the Late 1980


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