BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS MARCH 31 2011: SHIFTING ECONOMIC RISKS

March 31, 2011 at 5:31 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research | Leave a comment

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Central bankers’ speeches for 31 March now available‏

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

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Thu 3/31/11

Central bankers’ speeches for 31 March 2011

now available on the BIS website

Lorenzo Bini Smaghi: Banking supervision and corporate governance in the European architecture

Thomas M Hoenig: Monetary policy and shifting economic risks

Simon M Potter: Improving survey measures of inflation expectations

All speeches from 1997 onwards are available from the BIS website at: http://www.bis.org/list/cbspeeches/index.htm.

Communications

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Central bankers’ speeches for 31 March now available‏

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Thu 3/31/11

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BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS MARCH 30 2011: GLOBAL AGENDA

March 30, 2011 at 4:47 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research | Leave a comment

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Central bankers’ speeches for 30 March now available‏

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Wed 3/30/11

Central bankers’ speeches for 30 March 2011

now available on the BIS website

Øystein Olsen: The economic outlook

Duvvuri Subbarao: Frontier issues on the global agenda – emerging economy perspective

Brian Wynter: The year ahead – the view from the bank

Daniel Mminele: The current state of payment system integration

Malcolm Edey: The Reserve Bank’s strategic review of payments innovation

Joanne Kellermann: The challenge of diversity in central banks

All speeches from 1997 onwards are available from the BIS website at:

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Wed 3/30/11
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BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS MARCH 29 2011: ADJUSTMENT IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

March 29, 2011 at 1:53 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research | Leave a comment

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Central bankers’ speeches for 29 March now available‏

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Tue 3/29/11

Central bankers’ speeches for 29 March 2011

now available on the BIS website

José De Gregorio: Adjustment in the global economy

Jean Boivin: The “Great” Recession in Canada – perception vs reality

Subir Gokarn: Financial inclusion – a consumer centric view

All speeches from 1997 onwards are available from the BIS website at:

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GLOBAL WHEAT PRODUCTION

March 28, 2011 at 5:00 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research | Leave a comment

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GLOBAL WHEAT PRODUCTION RISES, BUT STILL BELOW

2009 LEVELS – UN REPORT

UNNews UNNews@un.org

Wed, 23 Mar 2011

New York, Mar 23 2011

GLOBAL WHEAT PRODUCTION RISES, BUT STILL BELOW 2009 LEVELS – UN REPORT

Global wheat production rose by 3.4 per cent this year to 676 million tons, but the increase is still below the bumper harvests in 2008 and 2009, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in the March edition of its food situation report released today.

Wheat planting in many countries has increased or is expected to rise this year in response to strong prices, while yield recoveries are forecast in areas that were affected by drought in 2010, the Russian Federation in particular, according the FAO Crop Prospects and Food Situation “http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/53813/icode/ report.

The report pointed out that it is still too early to forecast total cereal production for this year because the bulk of the world’s coarse grains and paddy crops are yet to be planted.

Looking back to last year’s production, the FAO report notes that in the low-income food-deficit countries (LIFDCs) as a group, the 2010 cereal output rose by 5.6 per cent, a development that will result in reduced cereal imports in 2010-2011.

However, the increased production in the LIFDCs will not necessarily bring much relief for those countries as their overall cereal import bill is estimated to increase by 20 per cent because of higher international prices, according to FAO.

In North Africa, prospects for this year’s May-June harvests of winter wheat and coarse grains are generally favourable, except in Tunisia where dry conditions in January dampened hopes for a robust wheat production recovery.

The current unrest in North Africa has resulted in the displacement of large numbers of people and disruption to the flow of goods and services in this heavily cereal-import dependent region, the FAO noted.

In Southern Africa, the outlook for the main 2011 maize crop is favourable and relatively low prices have helped stabilize food security. A record crop of maize is forecast in Malawi and Zambia. However, in South Africa, the largest producer in the sub-region, a sharp drop in production is forecast from last year due to reduced planting in response to high level of stocks and low prices for maize at planting time.

In Eastern Africa, despite bumper harvests in 2010 and generally low prices, food insecurity has increased in the drought-stricken pastoral areas. In Western Africa, post-election violence in Côte d’Ivoire continued to damage general economic conditions in the sub-region, trade in particular, FAO report said.

In Asia, good 2011 wheat harvests are forecast in India and Pakistan. In China, the drought situation in the North Plain has been eased by recent precipitation but the outlook for the wheat crop still remains uncertain.

In the Asia Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) sub-region, where Kazakhstan is the major producer, the bulk of the crop is yet to be sown, but in view of current strong prices planting is expected to be in line with the relatively high level of the past two years.

In South America, however, where the season is well advanced, prospects for the 2011 maize crop are unfavourable in Argentina and Uruguay due to persistent dry weather linked to the La Niña weather pattern. In Brazil, by contrast, the outlook is positive after good rainfall since planting improved soil moisture conditions for developing crops.

The need for food assistance, nevertheless, persists in many areas, the bulletin reported, with 29 countries currently requiring external assistance for food. Of those, 21 countries are in Africa and seven in Asia, including the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The displacement of large numbers of people in North Africa because of recent political events in the region also has made emergency assistance necessary, according to FAO.
Mar 23 2011

UN News Centre at http://www.un.org/news

GLOBAL WHEAT PRODUCTION RISES, BUT STILL BELOW

2009 LEVELS – UN REPORT

UNNews UNNews@un.org

Wed, 23 Mar 2011
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BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS MARCH 28 2011: PARADIGM SHIFTS

March 28, 2011 at 12:12 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, History, Latin America, Research | Leave a comment

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Central bankers’ speeches for 28 March now available‏

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Mon 3/28/11

Central bankers’ speeches for 28 March 2011

now available on the BIS website

Mark Carney: The paradigm shifts – global imbalances, policy, and Latin America

Prasarn Trairatvorakul: Thai monetary policy in the environment of excess global liquidity

Alan Bollard: Where we are going with macro- and microprudential policies in New Zealand

Brian Wynter: What’s in your wallet?

Ryuzo Miyao: Economic activity and prices in Japan and monetary policy

Peter Pang: Policies adopted by authorities in different jurisdictions with respect to international reserves

Deepak Mohanty: Economic and financial developments in the north-eastern states

All speeches from 1997 onwards are available from the BIS website at http://www.bis.org/list/cbspeeches/index.htm.

Communications

Bank for International Settlements

E-mail: press@bis.org

Website: www.bis.org

Phone: +41 61 280 8188

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

Central bankers’ speeches for 28 March now available‏

http://www.bis.org/list/cbspeeches/index.htm

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Mon 3/28/11

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CAMBRIDGE FORECAST GROUP: RADIO OPEN SOURCE COMMENTS

March 27, 2011 at 3:06 pm | Posted in CFG, Economics, Financial, Philosophy, Research, World-system, Zionism | Leave a comment

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Feb 8, 2011 … Radio Open Source with Christopher Lydon … 3 Comments. richard melson says: February 10, 2011 at 4:02 am. Rana Dasgupta’s Ulrich is an …
http://www.radioopensource.org/rana-dasgupta-this-era-of-catastrophe-and-euphoria/Cached

Mar 8, 2011 … Radio Open Source with Christopher Lydon …. 5 Comments. richard melson says: March 9, 2011 at 11:52 pm … and reminds one a bit of the 2005 Richard Grant movie “Wah-Wah” about the later end of the British hold on its …
http://www.radioopensource.org/anthony-burgess-language-as-music-and-vice-versa/Cached

Feb 10, 2011 … richard melson says: February 12, 2011 at 11:59 pm … This comment marries the Radio Open Source interview with Professor Zamindar to Prof. … (I disagree here with R. Melson- partition did sort of happen though not …
http://www.radioopensource.org/india-pakistan-vazira-zamindar-on-the-raw-wound-of-partition/Cached

Feb 15, 2011 … Radio Open Source with Christopher Lydon … richard melson says: February 17, 2011 at 10:17 pm. Prof. Colla mentioned the novel “Yacoubian …
http://www.radioopensource.org/elliott-colla-the-poetry-of-revolt-in-the-new-egypt/Cached

Feb 25, 2011 … Radio Open Source with Christopher Lydon … 4 Comments. richard melson says: February 26, 2011 at 1:28 am …
http://www.radioopensource.org/peter-hesslers-new-china-is-this-any-way-to-live/Cached

Feb 23, 2011 … 30 Comments. richard melson says: February 23, 2011 at 8:56 pm … My Comment Three to Radio Open Source Interview: …
http://www.radioopensource.org/philip-weiss-a-jewish-argument-around-the-arab-revolt/Cached

Feb 1, 2011 … Radio Open Source with Christopher Lydon … richard melson says: February 2, 2011 at 5:17 pm. America will either lead the world into a …
http://www.radioopensource.org/shiva-balaghi-egypt-in-the-spotlight-the-us-on-the-spot/Cached

Mar 3, 2011 … Radio Open Source with Christopher Lydon … richard melson says: March 3, 2011 at 11:08 pm … and “The Hidden Injuries of Class” (Richard Sennett) but manages to “tread the grapes of wrath into the wine of life.” …
http://www.radioopensource.org/andre-dubus-iii-how-the-fighter-became-the-writer/Cached

Mar 15, 2011 … Alan Lomax brought a roaring confidence to new fields opening up in the 30s. … 3 Comments. richard melson says: March 16, 2011 at 8:40 pm …
http://www.radioopensource.org/lomax/Cached

Mar 24, 2011 … Radio Open Source with Christopher Lydon …. richard melson says: March 26, 2011 at 12:58 am. Some thoughts triggered by “Black Swan of …
http://www.radioopensource.org/mark-blyth-the-black-swan-of-cairo/Cached

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SYMBOLIC WOUNDS: POLISH CINEMA

March 26, 2011 at 3:41 pm | Posted in Art, Books, Film, History, Philosophy, Research | Leave a comment

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Landscape After Battle (1970)

Krajobraz po bitwie (original title)

Director:

Andrzej Wajda

Writers:

Andrzej Brzozowski, Andrzej Wajda, and 1 more credit »

Stars:

Daniel Olbrychski, Stanislawa Celinska and Aleksander Bardini

Storyline

Film opens with the mad rush of haphazard freedom as the concentration camps are liberated. Men are trying to grab food, change clothes, bury their tormentors they find alive. Then they are herded into other camps as the Allies try to devise policy to control the situation. A young poet who cannot quite find himself in this new situation, meets a headstrong Jewish young girl who wants him to run off with her, to the West. He cannot cope with her growing demands for affection, while still harboring the hatred for the Germans and disdain for his fellow men who quickly revert to petty enmities.

In the DVD version of that classic of Polish cinema, Wajda’s “Landscape after Battle,” there’s a “Special Features” interview with one of the participants who mentions the Polish writer Melchior Wankowicz who supposedly says somewhere that the purpose of Polish art is to reopen old wounds so they might heal rightly for the first time.

Bruno Bettelheim, himself a Jewish camp survivor, speaks of “symbolic wounds.”

Melchior Wańkowicz

Melchior Wańkowicz (10 January 1892 – 10 September 1974)

Melchior Wańkowicz (10 January 1892 – 10 September 1974) was a Polish writer, journalist and publisher. He is most famous for his reporting for the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II and writing a book about the battle of Monte Cassino.

Biography

Melchior Wańkowicz was born on 10 January 1892 in Kalużyce near Minsk. He attended school in Warsaw, then the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, which he graduated from in 1922. An activist in the Polish independence movement, he was an officer in the Riflemen Union (Związek Strzelecki). During the First World War he fought in the Polish I Corps in Russia under General Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki.

After the war he worked as a journalist, for a time working as a chief of the press department in the Polish Ministry of Internal Affairs. In 1926 he founded a publishing agency, “Rój”. He also worked in the advertising business, coining a popular slogan for the advertisement of sugar – “cukier krzepi” (sugar strengthens). He wrote three books during the interwar period, all of them gaining him increasing fame and popularity. A few decades later he coined another famous slogan – “LOTem bliżej” (“closer with LOT”), advertising the Polish LOT airlines.

After the German invasion of Poland he lived for a while in Romania, where he wrote about the events of the Polish September. Later, from 1943 to 1946 he undertook what would be perhaps his most famous endeavour – he become a war correspondent for the Polish Armed Forces in the West. Later he wrote an account of the battle of Monte Cassino, his most famous book. One of his daughters, Krystyna, died as a member of Polish resistance Armia Krajowa during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944.

From 1949 to 1958 he lived in the United States, afterwards returning to communist Poland. He opposed the communist regime, writing and lecturing about the Polish Forces in the West (whose participation was minimized by the government, which tried to emphasize the role of the Soviet-aligned Berling Army). His most known work is a three tome book about the battle of Monte Cassino, a tribute to the soldiers of the Anders Army – a book that was published in Poland only in a shortened, censored form (until the fall of communism in 1990).

After he cosigned the letter of 34 in 1964, protesting against the censorship, he was repressed by the government – the publication of his works was prohibited, and he was himself arrested, charged with slander of Poland[1] and “spreading anti-Polish propaganda abroad” (partially due to the publication of some of his works by Radio Free Europe,[2] but the chief evidence was a private letter to his daughter living in the USA[1]) and sentenced to three years of imprisonment. However the sentence was never executed, and he was rehabilitated in 1990, after the fall of communism in Poland.[2]

Wańkowicz died on 10 September 1974.

Works

  • Anoda-katoda
  • Bitwa o Monte Cassino (t. 1-3 1945-47)
  • C.O.P – ognisko siły (1938)
  • Czerwień i Amarant
  • De profundis
  • Drogą do Urzędowa (1955)
  • Dwie prawdy (połączone w jednym wydaniu dwie rzeczy: “Hubalczycy” i “Westerplatte”)
  • Dzieje rodziny Korzeniewskich
  • Hubalczycy (1959)
  • Karafka La Fontaine’a (t. 1 1972, t. 2 pośm. 1980)
  • Kaźń Mikołaja II
  • Klub trzeciego miejsca (1949)
  • Kundlizm (1947)
  • Monte Cassino (skróc. wyd. krajowe Bitwy o Monte Cassino, 1957)
  • Na tropach Smętka (1936)
  • Od Stołpców po Kair (1969)
  • Opierzona rewolucja (1934)
  • Polacy i Ameryka
  • Prosto od krowy (1965)
  • Przez cztery klimaty 1912-1972 (1972)
  • Reportaże zagraniczne
  • Strzępy epopei
  • Szczenięce lata (1934)
  • Szkice spod Monte Cassino (1969)
  • Szpital w Cichiniczach (1925)
  • Sztafeta (1939)
  • Tędy i owędy (1961)
  • Tworzywo (Nowy Jork 1954, wyd. kraj. 1960)
  • W kościołach Meksyku (1927)
  • W ślady Kolumba (cz. 1 Atlantyk-Pacyfik 1967, cz. 2 Królik i oceany 1968, cz. 3 W pępku Ameryki 1969)
  • Walczący Gryf (1964)
  • Westerplatte (1959)
  • Wojna i pióro (1974)
  • Wrzesień żagwiący (1947)
  • Ziele na kraterze (1951, wyd. krajowe 1957)
  • Zupa na gwoździu (1967, wyd. 3 pt. Zupa na gwoździu – doprawiona 1972)

Aleksandra Ziolkowska-Boehm has written introductions, footnotes, etc., to:

  • Melchior Wankowicz, Reportaze zagraniczne (Reportage from Abroad), Krakow, 1981, ISBN 83-08-00488-1
  • Series: Dziela emigracyjne i przedwojenne Melchiora Wankowicza (8 titles), Warsaw, 1989–1995
  • Korespondencja Krystyny i Melchiora Wankowiczow (Correspondence between Krystyna and Melchior Wankowicz), Warsaw, 1992, ISBN 83-85443-21-5
  • Jerzy Giedroyc and Melchior Wankowicz, Listy 1945-1963 (Series: Archiwum Kultury; correspondence between Jerzy Giedroyc and Melchior Wankowicz), Warsaw, 2000, ISBN 83-07-02779-9
  • King i Krolik. Korespondencja Zofii i Melchiora Wankowiczow (correspondence between Zofia and Melchior Wankowicz), Warsaw, 2004, ISBN 83-7163-496-X

Legacy

A private journalism school on ulica Nowy Świat in Warsaw, the Higher School of Journalism, founded in 1995, is named after Wańkowicz.[1]

Notes

  1. 1. a b “A Symptom”, TIME, Friday, Nov. 20, 1964
  2. 2. a b Melchior Wańkowicz, biography in “Tworzywo”, an online monthly of Wyższa Szkoła Dziennikarska im. Melchiora Wańkowicza (Polish)

References

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BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS MARCH 25 2011: BASEL III

March 25, 2011 at 3:05 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, History, Research | Leave a comment

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Central bankers’ speeches for 25 March now available‏

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Fri 3/25/11

Central bankers’ speeches for 25 March 2011

now available on the BIS website

Caleb M Fundanga: Small-scale cross-border trade and payment services in southern Africa

Elizabeth A Duke: Changed circumstances – the impact of the financial crisis on the economic condition of workers near retirement and of business owners

Jean-Pierre Danthine: Swiss monetary policy in the public eye

Spencer Dale: MPC in the dock

Andrew G Haldane: Capital discipline

Malcolm Edey: Basel III and beyond

All speeches from 1997 onwards are available from the BIS website at:

http://www.bis.org/list/cbspeeches/index.htm.

Communications

Bank for International Settlements

E-mail: press@bis.org

Website: www.bis.org

Phone: +41 61 280 8188

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Central bankers’ speeches for 25 March now available‏

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Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Fri 3/25/11

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JAPANESE NARCO-UTOPIAN SCHEMES IN MANCHUKUO BEFORE WW II: THE JAPANESE MOVIE “THE SETTING SUN”

March 25, 2011 at 12:47 pm | Posted in Asia, China, Film, Financial, History, Japan | Leave a comment

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Manchukuo and Pan-Asian Narco-Utopian Dreams

The Setting Sun (Rakuyou) is a Japanese film released in 1992, based on a novel of the same name by the director Rou Tomono. The U.S. release was in 1999.

The Japanese movie “Setting Sun” which features Donald Sutherland and Diane Lane depicts the Japanese takeover of Manchuria from 1928-1945 and the narco-utopian pan-Asian daydreams of certain Japanese military leaders such as Ishiwara Kanji.

It stars Masaya Kato, Diane Lane, Yuen Biao and Donald Sutherland.

Directed by Rou Tomono

Produced by Lee Faulkner

Written by Duane Dell’Amico

Rou Tomono (novel)

Rou Tomono (screenplay)

Starring Masaya Kato, Diane Lane, Biao Yuen, Donald Sutherland

Music by Maurice Jarre

Cinematography Yoshihiro Yamazaki

Editing by Osamu Inoue

Release date(s) 1992

Running time 150 min.

Country Japan

Language Japanese

Kanji Ishiwara (Ishiwara Kanj, 18 January 1889 – 15 August 1949) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II. He and Itagaki Seishirō were the men primarily responsible for the Mukden Incident that took place in Manchuria in 1931.

Biography

Early life

Ishiwara was born in Tsuruoka city, Yamagata prefecture into a samurai class family. His father was a police officer, but as his clan had supported the Tokugawa bakufu and then the Northern Alliance during the Boshin War of the Meiji Restoration, its members were shut out of higher government positions.

At age thirteen, Ishiwara was enrolled in a military prep school. He was subsequently accepted at the 21st class of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy and graduated in 1909. He served in the IJA 65th Infantry Regiment in Korea after its annexation by Japan in 1910, and in 1915 he passed the exams for admittance to the 30th class of the Army Staff College. He graduated second in his class in 1918. [2]

Ishiwara spent several years in various staff assignments and then was selected to study in Germany as a military attaché.

He stayed in Berlin and in Munich from 1922-1925, focusing on military history and military strategy. He hired several former officers from the German General Staff to tutor him, and by the time he returned to Japan, he had formed a considerable background on military theory and doctrine.

Prior to leaving for Germany, Ishiwara converted to Nichiren Buddhism. Nichiren had taught that a period of massive conflict would precede a golden era of human culture in which the truth of Buddhism would prevail. Japan would be the center and main promulgator of this faith, which would encompass the entire world. Ishiwara felt that the period of world conflict was fast approaching, and Japan relying upon its vision of the kokutai and its sacred mission to “liberate” China, would lead a unified East Asia to defeat the West. [3]

Ishiwara and Manchuria

Mukden Incident

Ishiwara was assigned as an instructor to the Army Staff College, followed by a staff position within the Kwantung Army in Manchuria. He arrived there at the end of 1928, some months after the assassination of Zhang Zuolin by Daisaku Komoto. Ishiwara quickly realized that the confused political situation in northern China, along with Japan’s already significant economic investments in the area provided the Kwantung Army with a unique opportunity, and began a plan to take advantage of the situation.

On 18 September 1931, a bomb was secretly planted on the tracks of the Japanese-controlled Southern Manchuria Railway. Charging that Chinese soldiers had attacked the rail line, Japanese troops under Ishiwara’s orders quickly seized the Chinese military barracks in the nearby city of Liutiaokou. Without bothering to inform the new Kwantung Army commander General Shigeru Honjō or the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff in Tokyo, Ishiwara ordered Kwantung Army units to seize control of all other Manchurian cities.

The sudden invasion of Manchuria alarmed political leaders in Japan, and brought international condemnation down on Japan from the world community. Ishiwara thought it most likely that he would be executed or at least dishonorably discharged for his insubordination. However, the success of the operation brought just the opposite. Ishiwara was adulated by right-wing younger officers, ultranationalist societies for his daring and initiative. He was returned to Japan, and given command of the IJA 4th Infantry Regiment in Sendai.

Army revolutionaries

Ishiwara was appointed to the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff in 1935 as Chief of Operations, which gave him primary responsibility for articulating his vision for Japan’s future. Ishiwara was a strong proponent of pan-Asianism and the hokushinron philosophy. He proposed that Japan should join with Manchukuo and China to form an “East Asian League”, which would then prepare for and then fight a war with the Soviet Union. After the Soviet Union was defeated, Japan could move to the south to free Southeast Asia from European colonial rule. Japan would then be ready to tackle the United States. [4]

However, in order to implement these plans, Japan would need to build up its economy and military. Ishiwara envisioned a one-party “national defense state” with a command economy in which political parties were abolished, and venal politicians and greedy businessmen removed from power.

However, Ishiwara stopped short of calling for a Shōwa Restoration and violent overthrow of the government. When the February 26 Incident erupted in 1936, rebels assassinated a number of major politicians and government leaders and demanded a change in government in line with Ishiwara’s philosophies. However, Ishiwara confounded their expectations by speaking out strongly against the rebellion and demanding proclamation of martial law. After Vice Chief of Staff Hajime Sugiyama pulled in from garrisons around Tokyo, Ishiwara was named Operations Officer of the Martial Law Headquarters.

Return to Manchukuo, and disgrace

In March 1937 Ishiwara was promoted to major general and transferred back to Manchukuo as Vice Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army. He discovered to his dismay that his Army colleagues had no intention of creation a new pan-Asian paradise, and were quite content to play the role of colonial occupiers. Ishiwara denounced the Kwantung Army leadership, and proposed that all officers take a pay cut. He confronted Kwantung Army commander in chief General Hideki Tojo over his allocation of funds to an officers’ wives club. After becoming an embarrassment to his seniors, he was relieved of command and reassigned to a local army base at Maizuru on the seacoast near Kyoto.

Back in Japan, he began to analyze Soviet tactics at Nomonhan, where Japanese forces were defeated, proposing counterstrategies to be adopted by the Army. He continued to write and give public addresses, continuing to advocate an East Asia League partnership with China and Manchukuo and continuing to oppose the invasion of China. He became a lieutenant general in 1939 and was assigned command of the IJA 16th Division.

His political nemesis, Hideki Tōjō, now risen to the highest ranks, felt that the outspoken Ishiwara should be retired from the Army, but feared the reactions of young officers and right-wing activists. Finally, after Ishiwara publicly denounced Tōjō as an enemy of Japan, who should “be arrested and executed,” he was put on the retired list. Ishiwara went back to Yamagata, where he continued to write and study agriculture until the end of the war.

After the end of World War II, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers called upon Ishiwara as a witness for the defense in the International Military Tribunal for the Far East. No charges were ever brought against Ishiwara himself, possibly due to his public opposition to Tōjō, the war against China and the attack on Pearl Harbor. He displayed his old fire in front of the American prosecutor, observing that U.S. President Harry S. Truman should be indicted for the mass bombing of Japanese civilians.[5]

References

Books

  • Maga, Timothy P. (2001). Judgment at Tokyo: The Japanese War Crimes Trials. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2177-9.
  • Peattie, Mark R. (1975). Ishiwara Kanji and Japan’s confrontation with the West. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691030995.
  • Samuels, Richard J. (2007). Securing Japan: Tokyo’s Grand Strategy and the Future of East Asia. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801446120.

Notes

  1. 1. Japanese
  2. 2. Ammenthorp, The Generals of World War II
  3. 3. Peatty, Ishiwara Kanji and Japan’s confrontation with the West
  4. 4. Peatty, Ishiwara Kanji and Japan’s Confrontation with the West
  5. 5. Maga, Judgement at Tokyo

Opium poppies

The opium poppy was grown to obtain opium. In November 1932 the Mitsui Zaibatsu conglomerate held a state monopoly for poppy farming with the “declared intention” of reducing its heavy local use. Fixed cultivation areas were set up in Jehol and northwest Kirin. For 1934-35, cultivation area was evaluated as 480 square kilometres (190 sq mi) with a yield of 1.1 tonnes/km². There was much illegal growing, and its high profitability retarded the effective suppression of this dangerous drug.

“Nikisansuke”, a secret Japanese merchant group, participated in the opium industry.

This group was formed by:

The monopoly generated profits of twenty to thirty million yen per year.

The military prohibited the use of opium and other narcotics by its troops (punishment was loss of Japanese citizenship) but allowed it to be used as a “demoralization weapon” against “inferior races”, a term that included all non-Japanese peoples.

One of the participants, Naoki Hoshino negotiated a large loan from Japanese banks using a lien on the profits of Manchukuo’s Opium Monopoly Bureau as collateral. Another authority states that annual narcotics revenue in China, including Manchukuo, was estimated by the Japanese military at 300 million yen a year.

Similar policies operated across Japanese-occupied Asia.

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BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS MARCH 24 2011: BERNANKE ON COMMUNITY BANKING

March 24, 2011 at 8:34 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research, USA | Leave a comment

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Central bankers’ speeches for 24 March now available‏

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Thu 3/24/11

Central bankers’ speeches for 24 March 2011

now available on the BIS website

Ben S Bernanke: Community banking in a period of recovery and change

Axel A Weber: Enhancing stability – current issues in financial regulation

Jean-Claude Trichet: Taking stock on financial reform

Prasarn Trairatvorakul: Growth, sustainability and inclusiveness – Thailand’s key success factors

All speeches from 1997 onwards are available from the BIS website at http://www.bis.org/list/cbspeeches/index.htm.

Communications

Bank for International Settlements

E-mail: press@bis.org

Website: www.bis.org

Phone: +41 61 280 8188

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

Central bankers’ speeches for 24 March now available‏

http://www.bis.org/list/cbspeeches/index.htm

Press, Service (press@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Thu 3/24/11

banknotes.jpg

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