PAPERS ON GEOMETRY: “BEYOND GEOMETRY” BOOK

June 17, 2008 at 11:10 pm | Posted in Books, History, Research, Science & Technology | Leave a comment

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Beyond Geometry:

Classic Papers from Riemann

to Einstein

Dover Books on Mathematics

by Peter Pesic (Editor)

Editorial Reviews

Product Description

Eight essays trace seminal ideas about the foundations of geometry that led to the development of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. This is the only English-language collection of these important papers, some of which are extremely hard to find. Contributors include Helmholtz, Klein, Clifford, Poincaré, and Cartan.

Product Details:

  • Paperback: 224 pages

  • Publisher: Dover Publications (December 15, 2006)

  • Language: English

  • ISBN-10: 0486453502

  • ISBN-13: 978-0486453507

There are many interesting articles in this collection.

To give some highlights:

Helmholtz, “The Origin and Meaning of

Geometrical Axioms”:

“We can … infer how the objects in a pseudospherical world, were it possible to enter one, would appear to an observer whose eye-measure and experiences of space had been gained like ours in Euclid’s space. Such an observer would continue to look upon rays of light or the lines of vision as straight lines, such as are met with in flat space and as they really are in the spherical representation of pseudospherical geometry [i.e., the three-dimensional version of the projective disc model]. The visual image of the objects in pseudospherical space would thus make the same impression upon him as if he were at the center of Beltrami’s sphere. He would think he saw the most remote objects round about him at a finite distance, let us suppose a hundred feet off. But as he approached these distant objects, they would dilate before him … while behind him they would contract. He would know that his eye judged wrongly. If he saw two straight lines that in his estimate ran parallel to his world’s end, he would find on following them that the farther he advanced the more they diverged” (p. 65). “There would be an illusion of the opposite description, if, with eyes practised to measure in Euclid’s space, we entered a spherical space of three dimensions. We should suppose the more distant objects to be more remote and larger than they are, and should find on approaching them that we reached them more quickly than we expected from their appearance. … The strangest sight, however, in the spherical world would be the back of our own head” (p. 66). For the two-dimensional case we should imagine mapping the sphere from its center onto a tangent plane (“gnomonic projection”), which of course sends great circles to lines. The inverse of this map is approximated by the image on a spherical mirror, so it is easy to imagine what a Euclidean world would look like to a spherical creature: he would think distant objects were pretty close (about a quarter of the circumference of the sphere) and very small. His illusion is thus the opposite of ours, as it would be in the hyperbolic case as well (a hyperbolic creature would impose the projective disc metric on our Euclidean plane, so things would seem distant and big).

Clifford, “The Postulates of the Science of Space”, interprets Euclidean axiomatics using modern concepts, e.g. “all right angles are equal” is a postulate to exclude singular points such as the vertex of a cone: “I can make two lines cross at the vertex of a cone so that the four adjacent angles shall be equal, and yet not one of them equal to a right angle” (p. 81).

Poincaré, “On the Foundations of Geometry”:

“Our sensations cannot give us the notion of space. That notion is built up by the mind from elements which pre-exist in it … What could a man see who possessed but a single immovable eye? … Suppose that two points A and B are very near to each other, and that the distance AC is very great. Would our hypothetical man be cognisant of the difference? We perceive it, who can move our eyes, because a very slight movement is sufficient to cause an image to pass from A to B. But for him the question whether the distance AB was very small as compared with the distance AC would not only be insoluble, but would be devoid of meaning” (pp. 117-118), just as our sense of taste does not enable us to say whether water is further from milk than wine is from beer. Geometry is thus a creation of the mind, and it is not “imposed by experience. It is simply guided by experience. … To ask whether the geometry of Euclid is true or that of Lobachevsky is false, is as absurd as to ask whether the metric system is true and that of the yard, foot, and inch, is false.” (p. 145).

Beyond Geometry: Classic Papers from Riemann to

Einstein

Dover Books on Mathematics

FED: INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

June 17, 2008 at 2:46 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Research | Leave a comment

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G.17 Industrial Production

Federal Reserve Board Notification

(frboard-webannouncements@federalreserve.gov)

Tue 6/17/08

20th Street and Constitution Avenue NW · Washington DC 20551 ·

Phone: 202-452-3000

G.17 Industrial Production

Released by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

Schedule of upcoming postings to the Board’s website

List of items posted to the Board’s website over the past two weeks

If you have any questions or problems e-mail support@govdelivery.com for assistance.

Visit us on the web at www.federalreserve.gov.

20th Street and Constitution Avenue NW · Washington DC 20551 · Phone: 202-452-3000

G.17 Industrial Production

Federal Reserve Board Notification

(frboard-webannouncements@federalreserve.gov)

Tue 6/17/08

BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS BIS REVIEW NO. 77: EURO AREA

June 17, 2008 at 2:19 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research | Leave a comment

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BIS Review

Bank for International Settlements

BIS Review No 77 available

Press, Service (Press.Service@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Tue 6/17/08

Please find BIS Review No 77 attached as an Adobe Acrobat (PDF) file. Alternatively, you can access this BIS Review on the Bank for International Settlements’ website by clicking on http://www.bis.org/review/index.htm.

What’s included?

BIS Review No 77 (17 June 2008)

Glenn Stevens: Economic conditions

Caleb M Fundanga: Growing investor confidence in Zambia’s economy

Lucas Papademos: Economic outlook in the euro area

Irma Rosenberg: The monetary policy decision-making process

Lorenzo Bini Smaghi: Supervision and central banking – improving the exchange of information

Paul Tucker: A protracted “peacetime”

________________________________

please e-mail press.service@bis.org.

BIS Review

Bank for International Settlements

BIS Review No 77 available

Press, Service (Press.Service@bis.org)

Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Tue 6/17/08

BASEL COMMITTEE ON BANKING SUPERVISION: BIS

June 17, 2008 at 1:37 pm | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, Research | Leave a comment

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Press release


Press enquiries: +41 61 280 8188

press.service@bis.org

www.bis.org

Ref no: 16/2008E

17 June 20088

Basel Committee on Banking Supervision issues consultative document on Principles for Sound Liquidity Risk Management and Supervision


The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision today issued for public comment enhanced global Principles for Sound Liquidity Risk Management and Supervision.

The Basel Committee’s goal in developing these global standards is to significantly raise the bar for the management and supervision of liquidity risk at banks” stated Nout Wellink, Chairman of the Basel Committee and President of the Netherlands Bank. “The Committee fully expects banks and supervisors to implement the enhanced principles promptly and thoroughly. We will vigorously assess the degree to which the principles are implemented.” The principles support one of the key recommendations for strengthening prudential oversight set out in the Report of the Financial Stability Forum on Enhancing Market and Institutional Resilience, which was presented to G7 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors in April 2008.

The draft principles represent a substantial revision of the Committee’s liquidity guidance that was published in 2000 and reflect the lessons of the financial market turmoil. The work was drawn from recent and ongoing work on liquidity risk by the public and private sectors and is intended to strengthen banks’ liquidity risk management and improve global supervisory practices. “The principles are based on the fundamental premise that a bank’s liquidity risk framework should ensure it maintains sufficient liquidity to withstand a range of stress events, including those that affect secured and unsecured funding” noted Nigel Jenkinson, co-chairman of the Basel Committee’s Working Group on Liquidity and Executive Director of the Bank of England. Arthur Angulo, the other co-chairman of the Working Group and Senior Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, added that “supervisors, for their part, should assess the adequacy of both a bank’s liquidity risk management framework and its liquidity position. In order to protect depositors and to limit potential damage to the financial system, supervisors should take prompt action if a bank is deficient in either area.”

The principles underscore the importance of establishing a robust liquidity risk management framework that is well integrated into the bank-wide risk management process. The primary objective of this guidance is to raise banks’ resilience to liquidity stress. Among other things, the principles seek to raise standards in the following areas:

  • Governance and the articulation of a firm-wide liquidity risk tolerance;

  • Liquidity risk measurement, including the capture of off-balance sheet exposures, securitisation activities, and other contingent liquidity risks that were not well managed during the financial market turmoil;

  • Aligning the risk-taking incentives of individual business units with the liquidity risk exposures their activities create for the bank;

  • Stress tests that cover a variety of institution-specific and market-wide scenarios, with a link to the development of effective contingency funding plans;

  • Strong management of intraday liquidity risks and collateral positions;

  • Maintenance of a robust cushion of unencumbered, high quality liquid assets to be in a position to survive protracted periods of liquidity stress; and

  • Regular public disclosures, both quantitative and qualitative, of a bank’s liquidity risk profile and management.

The principles also strengthen expectations about the role of supervisors, including the need to intervene in a timely manner to address deficiencies and the importance of communication with other supervisors and public authorities, both within and across national borders.

The proposed guidance focuses on liquidity risk management at medium and large complex banks, but the sound principles have broad applicability to all types of banks. The document notes that implementation of the sound principles by both banks and supervisors should be tailored to the size, nature of business and complexity of a bank’s activities. Other factors that a bank and its supervisors should consider include the bank’s role and systemic importance in the financial sectors of the jurisdictions in which it operates.

Comments are invited by 29 July 2008. All comments will be published on the Bank for International Settlements’ website unless a commenter specifically requests anonymity.

Comments may be sent via e-mail to baselcommittee@bis.org.

Alternatively, comments may be addressed to:

Basel Committee on Banking Supervision
Bank for International Settlements
Centralbahnplatz 2
CH-4002 Basel
Switzerland

The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision today issued for public comment enhanced global Principles for Sound Liquidity Risk Management and Supervision.

See the attached press release for details.

Regards,

Press & Communications

Bank for International Settlements


Basel Committee issues consultative document on


Principles for Sound Liquidity Risk Management and Supervision‏


Press, Service (Press.Service@bis.org)


Publications, Service (Publications@bis.org)

Basel Committee on Banking Supervision
Bank for International Settlements
Centralbahnplatz 2
CH-4002 Basel
Switzerland


Tue 6/17/08


Centralbahnplatz 2 · CH-4002 Basel · Switzerland · Tel: +41 61 280 8080 · Fax: +41 61 280 9100 · email@bis.org


ARAB-BASHING IN ERICA JONG’S 1973 NOVEL “FEAR OF FLYING”

June 17, 2008 at 3:41 am | Posted in Arabs, Books, Globalization, History, Islam | Leave a comment

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ERICA JONG’S WORDS

‘ARABS AND OTHER ANIMALS’

AS A DISTANT PRELUDE TO IRAQ WAR

You think of 1973 and recall two big items namely the ’73 oil shock and then the Yom Kippur War.

In 1973 there also appeared the “porno-sophical” novel, “Fear of Flying” which begins chapter 14 with the words, “Arabs and other Animals” and “The Sheik of Araby” lyric as epigraphs.

This type of Arab-bashing in the twentieth century parallels the Jew-bashing of the nineteenth.

It’s a peculiar fact that Arab-bashing is a chapter in the hate industry that is lead by Jewish intellectuals like Erica Jong and culminates in the necon assault on Arabs and Muslims.

The Jews were “blamed” for nineteenth century globalization and its terrors while the Arabs/Muslims are now being “blamed” for the the current wave of globalization of which the oil shocks are a symptom.

ERICA JONG’S WORDS

‘ARABS AND OTHER ANIMALS’

AS A DISTANT PRELUDE TO TODAY’S

IRAQ WAR

AMBANI FAMILY WEALTH INDIA: 100 BILLION DOLLARS

June 17, 2008 at 1:26 am | Posted in Economics, Financial, Globalization, History, Research | 1 Comment

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The Polyester Prince: The Rise of Dhirubhai Ambani

by Hamish McDonald, Allen & Unwin Pty., Limited (Australia)

(September 1999)

ISBN-13: 978-1864484687

“Ambani took his company (Reliance) public in 1977, and by 2007 the combined fortune of the family (sons Anil & Mukesh) was 100 billion dollars, making the Ambanis one of the richest families in the world.

Dhirubhai Ambani

Dhirajlal Hirachand Ambani

Born

December 28, 1932(1932-12-28)
Chorwad, Gujarat, British India

Died

July 6, 2002 (aged 69)
Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Occupation

Industrialist

Spouse

Kokilaben Ambani

Children

Mukesh Ambani
Anil Ambani
Nina Kothari
Deepti Salgaonkar

Website
www.ril.com

Dhirajlal Hirachand Ambani (28 December 1932, – 6 July 2002), (also known as Dhirubhai )was an Indian rags-to-riches business tycoon who founded Reliance Industries in Mumbai with his cousin. Many people consider Ambani’s phenomenal rise to be an example of crony capitalism and the result of proximity to the ruling politicians because it was achieved through preferential treatment given to him in a highly repressive business environment (the License Raj stifled Indian business until the early 1990s and only those favored by the politicians were granted licenses leaving them with no competition). Ambani took his company (Reliance) public in 1977, and by 2007 the combined fortune of the family (sons Anil & Mukesh) was 100 billion dollars, making the Ambanis one of the richest families in the world.

Early life

Dhirubhai Ambani (Dhirajlal Hirachand Ambani) was born on 28 December 1932, at Chorwad, Junagadh (now the state of Gujarat, India) to Hirachand Gordhanbhai Ambani and Jamnaben[1] in an Anavil Brahmin family of very moderate means. Although he was born in Gujarat, he is of Sindhi descent, which is a socio-ethnic group that belonged to Sindh, a former area of Northwest India that now belongs to Pakistan after the Partition. [2] He was the second son of a school teacher. Dhirubhai Ambani is said to have started his entrepreneurial career by selling “pakora” to pilgrims in Mount Girnar over the weekends.[3] When he was 16 years old, he moved to Aden, Yemen. He worked with A. Besse & Co. for a salary of Rs.300. Two years later, A. Besse & Co. became the distributors for Shell products, and Dhirubhai was promoted to manage the company’s filling station at the port of Aden.

He was married to Kokilaben and had two sons, Mukesh Ambani and Anil Ambani and two daughters, Nina Kothari and Deepti Salgaocar.

Reliance Commercial Corporation

In 1962, Dhirubhai returned to India and started the Reliance Commercial Corporation with a capital of Rs.15,000.00. The primary business of Reliance Commercial Corporation was to import polyester yarn and export spices.

The business was setup in partnership with Champaklal Damani, his second cousin, who used to be with him in Aden, Yemen. The first office of the Reliance Commercial Corporation was set up at the Narsinathan Street in Masjid Bunder. It was a 350 sq ft. room with a telephone, one table and three chairs. Initially, they had two assistants to help them with their business. In 1965, Champaklal Damani and Dhirubhai Ambani ended their partnership and Dhirubhai started on his own. It is believed that both had different temperaments and a different take on how to conduct business. While Mr. Damani was a cautious trader and did not believe in building yarn inventories, Dhirubhai was a known risk taker and he considered that building inventories, anticipating a price rise, and making profits thnd Estate in Bhuleshwar, Mumbai[4]. In 1968, he moved to an upmarket apartment at Altamount Road in South Mumbai. Ambani’s net worth was estimated at about Rs.1 million by late 1960s.

Reliance Textiles

Sensing a good opportunity in the textile business, Dhirubhai started his first textile mill at Naroda, in Ahmedabad in the year 1966. Textiles were manufactured using polyester fibre yarn.[5] Dhirubhai started the brand “Vimal”, which was named after his elder brother Ramaniklal Ambani’s son, Vimal Ambani. Extensive marketing of the brand “Vimal” in the interiors of India made it a household name. Franchise retail outlets were started and they used to sell “only Vimal” brand of textiles. In the year 1975, a Technical team from the World Bank visited the Reliance Textiles’ Manufacturing unit. This unit has the rare distinction of being certified as “excellent even by developed country standards” during that period. [6]

Initial public offering

Dhirubhai Ambani is credited with starting the equity cult in India. More than 58,000 investors from various parts of India subscribed to Reliance’s IPO in 1977. Dhirubhai was able to convince people of rural Gujarat that being shareholders of his company will only bring returns to their investment.

Reliance Industries holds the distinction that it is the only Private Sector Company whose several Annual General Meetings were held in stadiums. In 1986, The Annual General Meeting of Reliance Industries was held in Cross Maidan, Mumbai and was attended by more than 35,000 shareholders and the Reliance family.

Dhirubhai managed to convince a large number of first-time retail investors to participate in the unfolding Reliance story and put their hard-earned money in the Reliance Textile IPO, promising them, in exchange for their trust, substantial returns on their investments.

Ambani’s net worth was estimated at about Rs.1 billion by early 1980s.

Dhirubhai’s control over stock exchanges

In 1982, Reliance Industries came up against a rights issue regarding partly convertible debentures.[7] It was rumored that company was making all efforts to ensure that their stock prices did not slide an inch. Sensing an opportunity, a bear cartel which was a group of stock brokers from Calcutta started to short sell the shares of Reliance. To counter this, a group of stock brokers till recently referred to as “Friends of Reliance” started to buy the short sold shares of Reliance Industries on the Bombay Stock Exchange.

The Bear Cartel was acting on the belief that the Bulls would be short of cash to complete the transactions and would be ready for settlement under the Badla trading system prevalent in Bombay Stock Exchange during those days. The bulls kept on buying and a price of Rs. 152 per share was maintained till the day of settlement. On the day of settlement, the Bear Cartel was taken aback when the Bulls demanded a physical delivery of shares. To complete the transaction, the much needed cash was provided to the stock brokers who had bought shares of Reliance, by none other than Dhirubhai Ambani. In the case of non-settlement, the Bulls demanded an “Unbadla” (a penalty sum) of Rs. 35 per share. With this, the demand increased and the shares of Reliance shot above 180 rupees in minutes. The settlement caused an enormous uproar in the market and Dhirubhai Ambani was the unquestioned king of the stock markets. He proved to his detractors just how dangerous it was to play with Reliance.

The situation was getting completely out of control. To find a solution to this situation, the Bombay Stock Exchange was closed for three business days. Authorities from the Bombay Stock Exchange intervened in the matter and brought down the “Unbadla” rate to Rs. 2 with a stipulation that the Bear Cartel had to deliver the shares within the next few days. The Bear Cartel bought shares of Reliance from the market at higher price levels and it was also learnt that Dhirubhai Ambani himself supplied those shares to the Bear Cartel and earned a healthy profit out of The Bear Cartel’s adventure. [8]

After this incident, many questions were raised by his detractors and the press. Not many people were able to understand as to how a yarn trader till a few years ago was able to get in such a huge amount of cash flow during a crisis period. The answer to this was provided by the then finance minister, Pranab Mukherjee in the parliament. He informed the house that a Non-Resident Indian had invested up to Rs. 220 Million in Reliance during 1982-83. These investments were routed through many companies like Crocodile, Lota and Fiasco. These companies were primarily registered in Isle of Man. The interesting factor was that all the promoters or owners of these companies had a common surname Shah. An investigation by the Reserve Bank of India in the incident did not find any unethical or illegal acts or transactions committed by Reliance or its promoters.[9]

Diversification

Over time, Dhirubhai diversified his business with the core specialisation being in petrochemicals and additional interests in telecommunications, information technology, energy, power, retail, textiles, infrastructure services, capital markets, and logistics. The company as a whole was described by the BBC[10] as “a business empire with an estimated annual turnover of $12bn, and an 85,000-strong workforce”.

Criticism

Despite his almost Midas Touch, Ambani has been known to have flexible values and an unethical streak running through him. His biographer himself has cited some instances of his unethical behavior when he was just an ordinary employee at a petrol pump in Dubai. He has been accused of having manipulated government policies to suit his own needs, and has been known to be a king-maker in government elections [11]. Although most media sources tend to speak out about business-politics nexus, the Ambani house has always enjoyed more protection and shelter from the media storms that sweep across the country.

Tussle with Nusli Wadia

Nusli Wadia of Bombay Dyeing was, at one point in time, the biggest competitor of Dhirubhai and Reliance Industries. Both Nusli Wadia and Dhirubhai were known for their influence in the political circles and their ability to get the most difficult licenses approved during the times of pre-liberalized economy.

During the Janata Party rule between 1977 – 1979, Nusli Wadia obtained the permission to build a 60,000 tonnes per annum Di-methyl terephthalate (DMT) plant. Before the letter of intent was converted into a licence, many hurdles came in the way. Finally, in 1981, Nusli Wadia was granted the license for the plant. This incident acted as a catalyst between the two parties and the competition took an ugly turn.

The Indian Express Articles

At one point in time, Ramnath Goenka was a friend of Dhirubhai Ambani. Ramnath Goenka was also considered to be close to Nusli Wadia. On many occasions, Ramnath Goenka tried to intervene between the two warring factions and bring an end to the enmity. Goenka and Ambani became rivals mainly because Ambani’s corrupt business practices and his illegal actions that led to Goenka not getting a fair share in the company. Later on, Ramnath Goenka chose to support Nusli Wadia. At one point of time, Ramnath Goenka is believed to have said “Nusli is an Englishman. He cannot handle Ambani. I am a bania. I know how to finish him”….

As days passed by, The Indian Express, a broadsheet daily published by him, carried a series of articles against Reliance Industries and Dhirubhai in which they claimed that Dhirubhai was using unfair trade practices to maximise the profits. Ramnath Goenka did not use his staff at the Indian Express to investigate the case but assigned his close confidante, advisor and chartered accountant S. Gurumurthy for this task. Apart from S. Gurumurthy, another journalist Maneck Davar who was not on the rolls of Indian Express started contributing stories. Jamnadas Moorjani, a businessman opposed to the Ambanis was also a part of this campaign.

Both Ambani and Goenka were equally criticized and admired by sections of the society. People criticized Goenka that he was using a national newspaper for the cause of a personal enmity. Critics believed that there were many other businessman in the country who were using more unfair and unethical practices but Goenka chose to target only Ambani and not the others. Critics also admired Goenka for his ability to run these articles without any help from his regular staff. Dhirubhai Ambani was also getting more recognition and admiration, in the meantime. A section of the public started to appreciate Dhirubhai’s business sense and his ability to tame the system according to his wishes.

The end to this tussle came only after Dhirubhai Ambani suffered a stroke. While Dhirubhai Ambani was recovering in San Diego, his sons Mukesh Ambani and Anil Ambani managed the affairs. The Indian Express had turned the guns against Reliance and was directly blaming the government for not doing enough to penalize Reliance Industries. The battle between Wadia – Goenka and the Ambanis took a new direction and became a national crisis. Gurumurthy and another journalist, Mulgaokar consorted with President Giani Zail Singh and ghost-wrote a hostile letter to the Prime Minister on his behalf. The Indian Express published a draft of the President’s letter as a scoop, not realizing that Zail Singh had made changes to the letter before sending it to Rajiv Gandhi. Ambani had won the battle at this point. Now, while the tussle was directly between the Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Ramnath Goenka, Ambani made a quiet exit. The government then raided the Express guest house in Delhi’s Sunder Nagar and found the original draft with corrections in Mulgaokar’s handwriting. By 1988-89, Rajiv’s government retaliated with a series of prosecutions against the Indian Express. Even then, Goenka retained his iconic stature because, to many people, he seemed to be replaying his heroic defiance during the Emergency regime.

Dhirubhai and V.P.Singh

It was widely known that Dhirubhai didn’t enjoy a cordial relation with Vishwanath Pratap Singh, who succeeded Rajiv Gandhi as the Prime Minister of India. In May 1985, he suddenly removed the import of Purified Terephthalic Acid from the Open General License category. As a raw material this was very important to manufacture polyester filament yarn. This made it very difficult for Reliance to carry on operations. Reliance was able to secure, from various financial institutions, letters of credit that would allow it to import almost one full year’s requirement of PTA on the eve of the issuance of the government notification, changing the category under which PTA could be imported. In 1990, the government-owned financial institutions like the Life Insurance Corporation of India and the General Insurance Corporation stonewalled attempts by the Reliance group to acquire managerial control over Larsen & Toubro. Sensing defeat, the Ambanis resigned from the board of the company. Dhirubhai, who had become L&T’s chairman in April 1989, had to quit his post to make way for D. N. Ghosh, former chairman of the State Bank of India.

Notes:

  1. Imprints of a demi-god, Dhirubhai Ambani, By Bina Udeshi Free Press Journal, July 24, 2002

  2. The Polyester Prince: The Rise of Dhirubhai Ambani by Hamish McDonald, Allen & Unwin Pty., Limited (Australia) (September 1999) ISBN-13: 978-1864484687

  3. http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-heroes/dhirubhai-ambani.html Dhirubhai Ambani Biography

  4. The two faces of Dhirubhai Ambani by Paranjoy Guha Thakurta[1]

  5. Indian Legends, Dhirubhai Ambani. Accessed Oct, 28. 2006.[2]

  6. A Short Biography of Dhirubhai Ambani on Reliance Communications Ltd. (PDF File) [3]

  7. The two faces of Dhirubhai Ambani by Paranjoy Guha Thakurta [4]

  8. The Great Indian Scam, Story of Missing Rs. 4000 Crore by S.K. Barua and J.S. Verma (ISBN 81-70941288) P 16 & 17

  9. For this fighter, life was a big battle Manas Chakravarthy on Rediff.com[5] It was later said “Practices such as these are the reason Dhirubhai sold india into proverty, keeping the poor in their state to keep his pockets full was his theory”.

  10. BBC NEWS | World | South Asia | Top Indian businessman dies

  11. Remembering the Prince of Polyester [6]

  12. BBC News UK [7]

  13. Politicians, celebrities pay homage to Ambani – Rediff News [8]

  14. Mukesh Ambani admits to differences with Anil – [9]

  15. Key Players in Reliance Drama: K.V.Kamath [10]

  16. Ambanis resolve ownership battle – Rediff News [11]

  17. Dhirubhai Ambani becomes first Indian to get Wharton School Dean’s Medal [www.rediff.com Rediff on the net] [12]- Accessed: Jan 21, 2007

  18. Ambani: A tycoon for all seasons[13]

The Polyester Prince:The Rise of Dhirubhai Ambani by Hamish McDonald, Allen & Unwin Pty., Limited (Australia) (September 1999) ISBN-13: 978-1864484687

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